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thus satisfactorily, I think, showing that, however local production may have interfered with and lessened, it may be attributable more to less favourable advantages of soil or climate than to any reduction of consumption through the action of the “Régie,” whilst this monopoly contributes ly to the revenues of the State, sevied upon an article which must be regarded more as a luxury than a necessity.”

From Consul Pierides' Report for 1876:—

“The cultivation in the island is being abandoned on account of the fiscal difficulties attending it. The consumption of foreign tobacco is fully maintained under the “Régie,” and the revenue derived is on the increase.”

From Consul Watkins' Report for 1877:

“The monopoly is farmed out, and there are eight depôts in the island, of which four are in Nicosia, two in Larnaca, and two in Limasol, opened in 1874. Selling prices vary from 30 to 10 pias. The quality sold here is principally the lowest, and about 6,000 okes at 15 pias, the oke. The quantity disposed of in a year is about 100,000 okes, from which the Government, nets 1,300,000 pias. The payment to the Government was formerly made in Medjidis, at 20 pias, but now calmé is taken at par. . Of the above quantity of 100,000 okes, one-tenth is exported to Syria and Caramania in sealed


p The tobacco used here is brought from Volo and Salonica, where it pays an “octroi" duty of three pias, per oke. Cyprus formerly produced about 20,000 okes of tobacco, but now, on account of the vexations to which the grower is subjected, the quantity grown does not exceed 5,000 okes.”

This Chapter has been confined to a description of those agricultural productions of Cyprus, which at present form articles of trade and export. In Chapter VII, which treats of the Natural History of the island, a full account has been given of all the other i. table products, viz.: the forest trees, the fruit trees, the vegetables, shrubs, plants, herbs, and flowers.



THE physical features of Cyprus, consisting of two distinct mountain systems, the larger, the Olympus range, which occupies the south and south-west portion of the island, separated by a large plain, called the Messaria, from the other, called the Cerinea and Karpas range, which borders the north coast, have been topojiao described; it now remains to consider their geological aspect. "staking in general terms, the fundamental masses of both the

mountain ranges are composed of igneous or plutonic rocks, but there is this difference, namely, that in the southern range these rocks form the main mass of the mountains, and extend in a continuous line from west to east; whilst in the northern range they occur only in subordinate and isolated patches of small extent. This plutonic, or perhaps in part metamorphic, formation, consists chiefly of greenstone, with its varieties, such as diorite, gabbro, aphamite, &c., and is associated with a quartz-bearing trachyte, a rock of undoubted volcanic origin.

These rocks are overlain by sedimentary deposits, amongst which we find various limestones, sandstones, argillaceous marls, beds of gypsum, and conglomerates.

The chronological order of the several formations has been determined by Gaudry as follows, commencing with the oldest—

1. The compact Limestones. These are supposed by Gaudry to be cretaceous, whilst Unger and Kotschy classify them as jurassic.

2. Sandstones or “macignos.” Gaudry considers this formation to be lower tertiary (eocene), but it is identified by Unger and Kotschy as Vienna sandstone (upper cretaceous !)

3. The white marl, white chalky limestone, and gypsum. These beds are middle tertiaries (miocene). 4. The igneous and plutonic (metamorphic () rocks. 5. The coarse limestone, sand, and marl. These beds are upper tertiaries (pliocene). 6. The sands and conglomerates. These are a quaternary for

mation. The above order is only open to question with regard to the relative chronological position of the plutonic rocks; in this matter the authorities before us are not of accord, and until a more thorough geological examination of the island has been made, it is difficult to speak on the subject with certainty. It appears, how

ever, to be not improbable that the main mass of these so-called plutonic rocks, may in reality prove ultimately to be metamorphosed and highly plicated strata of secondary and primary (cretaceous and older) formations. Such rocks have been known in South America, in Jamaica, in the British Isles, and other places to assume the appearance of some of the common igneous rocks, and it may possibly be the case in this instance. Subsequently these rocks, with the unaltered sedimentary rocks which overlie them, may have been traversed and altered by the trachytes and their associated igneous rocks. This view of the relations of feldspathic and hornblendic masses is comparatively modern, and may not have been considered at the time when the valuable works of Gaudry, Unger, and Kotschy were written. 1. This limestone forms the axis of the northern chain of mountains, and extends, in a narrow and unbroken ridge of rugged and uneven rock, from near Cape Kormakiti to Komi in the Karpas district, a distance of about 60 miles. Gaudry recognises this limestone as identical in appearance with the masses of hippurite limestone which abound in the south of Europe, and which reappear in Asia and Africa, but Drs. Unger and Kotschy consider it to be a jurassic formation. This rock is generally fine-grained and of even texture, but in the vicinity of the plutonic rocks it is very variable both in texture and colour, it often loses its compactness and becomes schistose, with all the variations between the two; the fracture is sometimes even, sometimes conchoidal, the colours are black, grey, blue, and white. No definite stratification can be detected; the beds are much tilted up, in many cases even approaching the vertical, and it is not impossible that on closer examination they may prove to be closely folded beds, denuded at the surface. The highest points in the chain rise to about 3,000 feet, and consist, as a rule, of yellowish red limestone containing small fragments of dolomite; this is the case at Pentadactylon and at Buffavento. Here and there amongst the plutonic rocks on the southern slope of Mount Olympus, and on the Acamas o are found limestones similar to those above described, and they are probably of the same formation. At Cape Greco, the south-east extremity of the island is a limestone rock rising 500 or 600 feet above the sea. It is compact, of a light colour, has steep sides and contains corals such as the Favia, the Stylina, and perhaps the Heterocomia. Professor Reuss is of opinion that this rock belongs either to the chalk or to the upper jurassic formations. 2. Gaudry, following the example of the Italian geologists, gives this formation the name of “Macignos,” using the term to denote a certain physical contexture, rather than a definite chemical composition; he considers the rock to belong to the eocene period. Drs. Unger and Kotschy identify the formation with the Vienna sandstone. These sandstones present numerous mineralogical differences; they are in different places, calcareous, argillaceous, and micaceous, Their colour is usually dark grey, but is often tinged with yellow, brown, or green. The rock is generally fine-grained, but the several beds vary considerably in hardness. (774) Ii

1. The compact limestone.

2. The annd.


This formation is found almost exclusively in the northern range, where it rests upon the compact limestone, but it also exists in isolated patches in the south-western extremity of the island, near Cape Acamas, and at Drimou, Chrysoroghiatissa, Hagios Georgios, and Acoutzo. The absence of organic remains in this sandstone renders its geological age difficult to determine. In most cases the formation occasions a hilly and unproductive district, and it is only in the localities where the slopes are gentle, and where shales prevail, as above Myrtu and Asomato, that cultivation is attempted. Good building stone can be obtained from this formation. 3. The white 3. This formation is of the middle tertiary age, it covers a very Hoa large portion of the island, and is one of its special geological feagypsum." tures. The white marls of the Messaria plain and of the Karpas range; the chalk-marls along the southern side of Mount Olympus, and on the Acamas peninsula; the beds of gypsum in the Karpas mountains, and to the northward of Larnaca, all belong to this formation. In the great plaims surrounding Nicosia and Morpho the white marl forms a productive soil, which at first sight might be supposed to consist of detritus washed down by streams from the friable shales of the northern range, but, on closely examining the order of superposition of the strata, this is found not to be the case, for the nearly perpendicular strata of sandstone (eocene) fall towards the south, and gradually disappear under the marl, which in its turn is in places, and particularly along the south side of the Messaria, surmounted by the sands and conglomerates of the pliocene and quaternary formations, but where these have been removed by erosion, the white marl forms the upper stratum. Certain fossils are found in this formation, but they are somewhat rare. Gaudry mentions the Astraea, Chenopus, Toxobrissus, Cidaris, and various foraminifera. That the marly strata belong to the tertiary formation is evident from their connection with the white chalky limestone which forms so large a part of the mountains throughout the island, and in which are found the large beds of gypsum described a few pages further on. The rock is well exemplified in the chain of hills which stretch along the north of Larnaka to Monte St. Croce; no organic remains have been discovered in it. Gaudry says “that the inclination of sedimentary beds on the south slopes of the hills to the west of Larnaca, is such as to lead to the belief that artesian wells sunk at Larnaca and the Marina, sufficiently deep to reach the white marl, would afford an abundant supply of water.” He illustrates this by a section showing the disposition of the strata from Sinaitico, through Hagia Anna and Kalo Khorio, to Larnaca. 4. The plu- 4. These rocks cover about a quarter of the island and are well : worthy of attention, on account both of their curious metamorphic effects, and of the minerals which they contain. They form the summit and the whole of the northern slopes of the Olympus range from the western shore at Khrysokho Bay to Monte S. Croce, and on the south side of the mountains they extend as far as Scarpho, Omodos, Phinicarga, and Moni. In the northern chain they do not constitute the main mass of the mountain, but only appear here and there above the compact limestone in isolated domes; their chief points of development in this part of the island are between Hagios Panteleimona and Vasilia, near Clepini and Hagios Chry.." and between Ghilanemo and Platanisso in the Karpas istrict. The most important of these rocks are greenstone, hornblende, diorite, augite, diabase, and gabbro, only these prevail to any great extent, and they constitute the main portion of the formation whilst quartzite, porphyry, wacké, clay-slate, ochre, &c., are only found isolated, and are entirely subordinate to the first-named rocks. Allied to the clay-slate is a yellow and red argillaceous iron-stone found with aphanite at Herakli; it is not worked. Diorite, diabase, gabbro, and such like rocks are the chief components of the mountains in the south-west of the island; they rise to a height of from 2,000 to 6,000 feet above the sea, and form a continuous chain from Monte St. Croce to the Troodos, and thence to the sea. This range averages about 25 miles in breadth and is seamed in all directions with deeply sunken valleys. This broken character is indeed the main feature of the mountains of Cyprus, and looking westward from Prodomo, it may be observed to the best possible advantage. The several ores and minerals found in this formation aro described later. The aphanite and quartz-porphyry which appear in places on either side of the rugged limestone rocks of the northern range, give evidence of the rocks which, though hidden by more recent formations, underlie the whole island. The quartz-bearing trachyte found in the north-west environs of the Hagios Chrysostomos is certainly an igneous and eruptive rock, and is of more recent date than any already mentioned. It differs outwardly so little from the older limestone which surrounds it, that on a superficial glance it might easily be overlooked, especially as its colour is much the same. It is a finegrained, somewhat earthy decomposed mass of greyish-white colour, containing numerous brownish-grey and smoke-grey, crystals of quartz. Feldspar crystals are not found in it, neither is there any trace of hornblende. The rock answers completely to the normal Hungarian rhyolite of von Richthofen. The several rocks which are in close proximity to the plutonic formation present various strange metamorphic phenomena. In the northern range, the compact limestones, naturally of a dark colour, become white in the neighbourhood of the wackés; close to the line of contact, they are impregnated with silex and are schistose; they shine and the "white colour is tinted with grey, green, and brick-red. - Where the sedimentary formations are in immediate contact with the wackés, ochres are found with shiny greenish surfaces, and they are often cracked and broken into small cubes which it is almost impossible to distinguish from the wackés. Where the Vienna sandstone and the chalky limestones are in contact with the

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