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Purashu or Purushu, the principal male, the first manifestation of the Supreme Being, the term like that of Viraj is variously applied, in honour of their especial deity, by the different sects.

Pushan, a name of Surya.

Pushpaka, the car of Kuvera; also, according to legends, the name of a favourite parrot of Indra, who, on the appearance of Yama, flew away, alleging that he could not face the destroyer of mankind. The gods entreated Y ama to spare it, who referred them to Kal (time) ; Kal again referred them to death, who, on the approach of the bird, cut short the argument and the parrot’s life at the same time. On being reproached by the gods, Yama said that fate had decided the parrot’s life, and that no care on their parts could have saved it.

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forms of lions, tigers, horses, and other animals, as well as the human shape, with numerous heads and arms. They are

represented as Cannibals, who devour their enemies.

Rama Chandra, p. 22.

Ramalayas, religious mendicants of the followers of Rama.

Ram-dasu, one of the ten leaders of the Shikhs. (See Shikhs.)

Ramoosees, p. 262.

Rath, a car used for the conveyance of an idol.

Rath- Y atra, the celebrated festival of Juggan-na’th.

Ravana, or Ravan, a powerful Asura, the sovereign of Lanka, destroyed by Rama Chandra. He is described with numerous heads and arms, and is said to have become so potent, in consequence of an ill-judged promise (according to some of Siva, and according to others of Brahma) obtained in the usual manner by marvellous religious austerities and devotion, as to have brought all the gods under his subjection. As the promise of the deity could not be revoked, Vishnu found the means of evading the performance of it by becoming incarnate as Rama Chandra to effect the destruction

of the tyrant. (See Rama Chandra, p. 22, and fig. 2, pl. 9.)

Ravi, one of the Adityas, a name of the sun.

Rawels (Bhauts).
Rawets, hill gods of the Bheels.

Rembha, a name of Lakshmi, the sea-born
Venus of the Hindus, and the Venus
Aphrodites of the Greeks; one of the gems

produced at the churning of the ocean. (See Lakshmi, p. 60.)

Reti,atfection; the consort of Kamadeva, the god of love.

Revutee, the wife of Bala Ram, who was 3,888,000 years old at the time of her marriage. (See p. 48.)

Rig, or Rish Veda, one of the four Vedas. (See Vedas).

Rishis (The), p. 9.

Rivers. Numerous rivers are held sacred by the Hindus, viz. the Gunga or Ganges; (see Gunga) ; the Yamuna or Jumna; the Suraswati ; the Godaveri ; the Sindhu; the Krishna; the Brahmaputra, &c. &c. &c. The three first mentioned are called the Triveni, and form a junction at Allahabad, where multitudes of pilgrims annually resort in consequence to bathe. (See Trivem'.)

Rohillas (The), p. 306.

Rohz'm', one of the daughters of Daksha,

,. and the favourite wife of Some, or Chan

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sacrificial Utensils, p. 219.

Sactas, the worshippers of the Sactis. (See Sactis.) This sect, though numerous, is, from the profiigacy of a large portion of its members, held in general disesteem.

Sactis (The), p. 120.
Salsa, or Sakya, a name of Buddha.

Salagrama Stones, p. 176.

Sama, or Saman Veda, one of the Vedas. (See Vedas.)

Sambhu, a name of Siva.

(See Siva.) Sami Tree, used in Puja, or worship.

Samput, a vulture, by which Rama Chandra was directed to seek for Sita in Ceylon. This bird, with his brother Jutaee, in early life made an attempt to gain the realms of celestial light; Jutaee relinquished the undertaking, but Samput persevered, and had his wings and plumage scorched for his pains, and fell to the ground. So keen was his sight, even in old age, that although Sita must have been at least one thousandmiles distant, he beheld her, anddirected Rama accordingly.

Sanchana'ga, an enormous giant, in the form of a serpent, killed by Krishna. He is described by Colonel Wilford as having two countenances, one that of a man, and the other of a snake ; and to have fixed his abode in a shell. His breath was believed to have been a fiery, poisonous wind, which burnt and destroyed all the animals and vegetables near it. This the Hindus, who imagine that his descendants still exist, consider as the hot winds of the African Deserts. The sage Agastya, who for his piety and learning was translated to the heavens, reduced this monster, and carried him about in an earthen pot.

Sam', or Shunee, the planet Saturn.

Sankara, a form of Siva, assumed by him to overthrow the Buddhas.

Sanyasis, religious mendicants of the sect of Siva.

Sasin, a roe, a fawn, or antelope; the vahan of Chandra.

Satkara, a deity worshipped by the ‘Sands. (See Sauds, p. 241.)

Satyavama, one of the wives of Vishnu ; also in his avatar of Krishna.

Sutyavrata, one of the seven Menus; and the holy king to whom Vishnu appeared in the first or Matsya Avatar, p. 14.

Sands (The), p. 241.

Savitri, a name of Surya; also of Suraswati, the Sacti of Brahma. Some singular stories are related of the curse of Savitri on the gods, in consequence of Brahma being united to Gayitri, which caused the worship of Brahma but once in a year; the distresses and wanderings of Indra; the avatars of Vishnu; the loss of Siva’s vi

rility ; the destructive power of Agni or

fire, which devours every thing, clean or unclean, that it touches; the inconstancy of Lakshmi or fortune; and, above all, the dreaded Hindu curse of barrenness upon all the goddesses. Gayitri, however, although she could not avert, rendered innocuous the curses of Savitri by countervailing boons ; thus, those who did worship Brahma obtained the blessings of this world, and beatitude hereafter. Indra, although often oppressed and driven from his heaven, was restored to enjoy it in peace and security. Vishnu gave, by his avatars, tranquillity, happiness, and vir

tue to mankind; the Linga became of extensive worship; and Lakshmi, although inconstant, was always received, wherever she appeared, with smiles and welcome.

Sectarial Marks, p. 162, pl. 2.

sects. These I have noticed and referred to under their respective heads in my account of Brahm (p. 1). In addition, however, to the six sects there described, it is to be observed, that the Vishnaivas are divided into two branches, the Goculast'has, and the Ramanuz: the first the worshippers of Krishna, the latter of Rama Chandra.

These again are subdivided, one part of

the Goculast'has worshipping Krishna alone; a second worshipping him in conjunction with his mistress Radha; and a third (called Radhaballabhi) who adore Radha only, considering her as the active power of Vishnu in the eighth avatar. The followers of the last-mentioned sects have adopted the singular practice of presenting to their own wives the oblations intended for the goddess; and those among them who follow the left-handed path (there being in most sects a right-handed or decent path, and a left-handed or indecent mode of worship), require their wives to ‘be naked when attending them at their devotions. Among the Ramanuz some worship Rama only; others Rama and Sita,

The Saivas worship Siva and Bhavani conjointly, and adore the Linga or compound type of their god and goddess. (See Linga and Yoml) The exclusive worshippers of Siva are the Lingis or Gymnosophists. Those of Bhavani, or any other of the female energies, are the Sactas, whose emblem is the Yoni.

Seeloochuna, the affectionate wife of Megh

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that her god called her and she must


Swadha, the goddess of funeral obsequies, termed by Mr. Colebrooke the food of the manes. The word appears to possess a mystical meaning.

Swaha, the sacti of Agni (the Vesta of the Romans). Her name is repeated at bumt

ofl'erings and other ceremonies of the Hindus. (See Agni, p. 115.) Swanareta, one of the Adityas, a name of

the sun. (See Adityas.)

Swardevi, a benevolent name of Bhavani or Parvati.

Swarochesha, one of the seven Menus.

Swayambhuva, the first Menu, considered

by Sir W.J ones to have been synonymous with Adam.

Swerga, or Sargon, the heaven of Indra on Mount Meru.

Sydeva, one of the five Pandu brethren. (See Pandus.)

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difi'erent festivals, and on the sixth day after the birth of a child.

Surabhi, the boon-granting cow: one of the articles produced at the churning of the ocean. (See Kamdenu.)

Suradevi, the goddess of wine, one of the good things produced at the churning of the ocean. After having taken so much trouble to bring her from the fathomless deep, it might have been expected that more respect would have been paid to her. She is, however, at present wholly neglected, whatever value may have been assigned to her heretofore. It has been concluded that, although the Hindu religion has restrained the use of spirituous liquors, the earlier inhabitants of India had no objection to it.

Sums, children of Aditi. (See Diti.)

Suraswati, see p. 9; also one of the sacred rivers of the Hindus, which rises in the north, and is supposed, after losing itself under ground, to join the Gunga or Ganges near Allahabad.

Surpanukha, the sister of Ravan, whose
nose and ears were cut off by Lakshman.

(See p. 24.)
Suti. (See Parvati, p. 79.)

Suttee, p. 166. The sketch from which the
small representation in fig. 2, pl. 28, is
taken, is by an eye witness of a suttee,
which took place on the banks of the
Hooghley, at Choikdho, near Suk Saugor,
. a few miles from Calcutta, in December
1829. In this instance, as in that related
in p. 169, every exertion was made to save
the female from self-immolation; but to
every remonstrance that could be urged
she answered calmly, but determinedly,

Tag Bahadur, one of the ten leaders of the
Shikhs, p. 227.

Tamasa, one of the seven Menus.

Tapyasa, or Tapass,p. 165 and 251, 8,
pl. 26, and 3, pl. 28.
Tara, a form of Durga or Parvati, a variety

of Kali painted black. (See Kali and
pl. 19.)

Tarika, a demon destroyed by Kartikeya, p. 75.

Tee, the umbrella which crowns the top of a Burman praw or pagoda, without which it is not considered to be sanctified. In restoring that of the Shoe Dagon at Ran

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