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powers, and its beautifully brilliant co- Mahan-his, holy sages or saints.

lours, afford an infinite variety of meta- Maliedam, one of the minor avatars of phors to the Hindu poets. Thus the Vishnu, assumed to inculcate the doctrines lotus is with them as the lovely vary- of the Vedas,

ing rose among the Persians. The lotus
floating on the water is the emblem of the
world. It is alsothe type of the moun-
tain Meru, the residence of the gods (see
Meru, p, 253), and the emblem of female Mahmunee, the Buddha of Bengal-

beauty. No wonder therefore it is the Mahrattas, or Maharattas (The), p. 285, poetic flower of the Hindus.

Mahesa, a name of Siva.

Mahisha, Muhisha, a giant destroyed by
Durga, p. 86.

Mala, a rosary, or necklace.

Malsara, a name of Parvati in the avatar

M. of Siva, as Kandeh Rao. (See Kandeh Macassers (The), p. 343. R a 0.)

Malta Bali, an irreligious monarch, whose power was destroyed by Vishnu in the fifth Avatar. (See fifth avatar, p. 18.)

Mahadeva, or Mahadeo, a name of Siva.

Mahadevi, Parvati.

Mana, devotion that proceeds from the heart in profound silence.

Manasa, the goddess of snakes. She is worshipped as a preservative against the bite of these reptiles, and is represented

Maha Pralaya, or grand consummation of sitting on a water-lily enviroued with all things, represents Siva as Kal,orTime, snakes. If a Hindu has been bitten by

trodden under foot by Maha Kali, or

v Eternity. (See Kali, p. 91, and pl. 19.)

Palcriti Pralaya is another name for the same event, namely,the complete destruc

one, incantations are pronounced to propitiate the favour of Manasa.

Mandham, or Mandha, a mountain used

by the gods in churning the ocean. (Sec

tion of the universe. When this awful second avatar of Vishnu, p_ 15 ) event shall take place, rain will fall on the earth for one hundred (the Buddas say 100,000) years. Men and animals will be furnished. The sun will dry up the seas, and all the waters and the universe will be Maruts, the genii of the winds, of whom burnt up like a ball of cow-dung. Various Pavana was the chief, and is thus called other destructive operations will then take Marut.

place till the universe is again finally absorbed in the supreme essence. This description corresponds in substance with the opinions, of the Burmans respecting the future destruction of the world, which the Maya, or illusion. Brahma says, in this life ‘reader will find under the article Buddha, man, as in a dream, finds delight in eatin 198. ' _ ing, drinking, and other enjoyments, but

Manovate, a name for the heaven of Brahma.

Mantras, prayers. (See Vedas, p. 139.)

Maruty, a name of Hanuman, as the son of Pavana, or Marut.

Mata, one of the martial names of Durga.


as soon as he awakes they yield no longer Migranku, a name of Chandra. Pleasure; for the joys and Pleasmes of Mitra, a name of Surya (the sun), one of the

this life are as unreal as dreams. By devout abstraction (that is, by meditating on God) man awakes to a knowledge of divine truths, and finds his former enjoyments nothing but illusion. Thus, a supreme eternal Spirit, the creator of all, pervades all, preserves all, and will finally destroy all ; in fine, all things are Maya which do not proceed from the light of divine knowledge. By the Vishnaivas Laksmi is called Maya, or Ada Maya.

Med/2m, the same as Yoni, p. 174.

Meghnaud, a son of Ravan, who was celebrated in the war of Lanka. He was overthrown by the bear Jumont, and afterwards killed by Lakshman.

Mehrawun, a brother of Ravan, who, in the war of Lanka, took, by a surprise, Rama and Lakshman prisoners, and carried them to Patala (or hell), from whence they were released (as they were about to be sacrificed) by Hanuman.

Mendicants (religious). These people are very numerous, and consist of the Voiragees, or Vishnaivas; Sanyasis, or Saivas; Ramanayas, or worshippers of Rama; Nanock Punthees, followers of Nanock ; and various others, viz. Kuveer Punt’hées ; Sukhee Bhuvus; Khelanta Yogees; Kanu-palaYogees; Shurevurees; Ughoru Punt’hées; Brumhacharees, &c. &c. They have their various forms of austerities, which it would afford no satisfaction to the reader to recapitulate ; a few of them are noticed in pp. 67 and 165, and pl. 28.

Menus, p. 8.
Meru (The Mountain), p. 253.
Mhairs (The), p. 299.


Moinee, an order of Hindu devotees, who

vow perpetual silence. They go almost naked, and smear their bodies with cow


Mooktee Kestree, 'a form of Parvati, or

Durga. She is of a blue complexion, like Kali, and appears to be merely a variety of that terrible goddess.

Mn'gu, the antelope. (See Chandra and


Mughs, or Mugs, a people inhabiting the

border countries of Chittagong and Arracan; thus called, according to Colonel Symes, from a corruption of the word Mog, a term of religious import and high sanctity, formerly applied only to the priesthood and the king. (See Kookies, p. 321.)

Mughut, a head-dress. llluhis/m Murdinee, a form of Durga or

Parvati: she is represented sitting on a lion, having six, eight, or ten arms, and holding in her hands a shell, a club,.a shield, a water-lily, a discus, &c. &c.

Mundaris, a Mahomedan sect, founded by

Mudan, a Soofi. “ They admit the divine mission of Mahomed, but disclaim his title to particular veneration. The Mudans go nearly naked, braiding the hair and smearing the body with ashes, and wearing iron chains round their waists and necks.

Mund Mala, the necklace of human heads,

which is suspended from the necks of Siva and some of his avatars, and Parvati, as

Kal and Kali.

Mungala, p. 132.

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fortunate traveller is immediately dispatched. They choose lonely spots, and often follow their victims for weeks before an opportunity offers to efl'ect their savage and demoniacal object. All castes are found in this gang.

Pinda, round balls made of rice ; seen in the hands of Devi, and some of the other deities. '

Pindaries, (The) p. 293.

Pitris, or Patriarchs, descendants of the
Pitamaha, a name of Brahma.

Poz'ta, or Zennaar, p. 154. Pollyar, a name of Ganesha. P'olyandry, p. 305.

Pooja, or Puja, Hindu worship, or the festival of the Hindus, as Durga Puja, or the worship of the goddess Durga. It assumes various forms, and is attended by a variety of ceremonies according to the deities worshipped, and the circumstances under which the worship is performed. (See Durga Puja, p. 84, and pl. 18.)

Powlamya, a name of Indrani.

Pradha, or Brightness, the consort of Surya; ‘ also called Chaya, from having changed herself into shade to avoid the intensity of his beams. The glory roundlthe heads of the gods is also called Pradha or Prad

haval. Pradham, or Palcriti.

Pralhaud, a virtuous prince, the son of the demon Hiranyacasipa, who was destroyed for his wickedness by Vishnu. Pralhaud remonstrated with his father on his infidelity to the gods, and on his death succeeded to his throne.

Priests (Hindu). Every Brahman who professes a knowledge of the formula of his religion may become a priest. They are distinguished by the appellation of the Purushita, the Acharya, the Sudushya, the Brahma, and the Hota. The first appears to be the principal ceremonial, the last the sacrificial priest. According to Mr. Ward the first mentioned is the most advantageous order, as the rich who are unwilling to fast, bathe in cold water and perform further ablutions and sacrifices, bestow fees upon the Purushita to perform their ceremonies for them. Some of the lower castes have priests of their own, and not Brahmans. Priests have no oflicial

garments, but always appear in their usual dress. (See Brahmans, p. 142.)

Prithivi, p. 102.

Prityungira, a vindictive form of Parvati, worshipped with sanguinary sacrifices, and propitiated to obtain the destruction of, or injury to another. She is consequently invoked in a similar manner to Kali.

Pudmawuttee, a Jaina Devi.

Pulaha, one of the seven Brahmadicas.

Pulastya, one of the seven Brahmadicas.

Pum'akirti, a form of Garuda, assumed to propagate the delusive doctrines of Vishnu,

as Budda, at Kashi, to deceive the virtuous king Divodasa.

Puram-hungru. Hindu religious mendicants, who go naked, observe perpetual silence, and appear regardless of all visible objects.

Puranas. Sacred writings of two kinds: one treats of the creation of the universe, the progress and renovation of worlds, &c. ; and the other of chronology and the geneology and achievements of the gods, demigods, and heros of the Hindus.

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