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which he contrived to deluge the whole company, causing shovelfuls of the powder to be thrown over them at the same time, so that, from the effects of the red powder and yellow water, the shouts, female screams, and noise of drums, trumpets, fiddles, and cymbals, the whole in a few minutes became a scene little better than a pandemonium.

This festival is observed by all classes throughout Hindustan, and evil (or at least red powder) will commonly await the European, as well as native, who on these occasions has the misfortune to fall in with a wandering band of these joyintoxicated furies. (See farther—Krishna, p. 44.)

Horus. (See Orus, p. 255.)

Hota, a priest who, at sacrifices, slays the victim.

Howen Wana Mata, a deity worshipped by the Bheels, to protect their cattle against

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Daksha. The latter brought forth a hundred weapons, missile and manual, for the use of Rama in the war of Lanka.

Jena, a Japanese deity, p. 341. Jharejas a tribe of Rajpoots, p. 275.

J hari, a vessel to hold lustral water.

Ila, the child of Manu, the son of Surya Vi

vaswari. This personage was born as a female, and was transformed into a male under the name of Sudyumna. He was again turned into a female on entering the charmed forest of Gawri (see Uma.) The planet Budh became enamoured of Sudyumna under this form. Siva afterwards restored Sudyumna to his sex, on condition that he should become, alternately,

a male one month, and a female another.

The images worshipped by the Hindus are made of various materials; gold and‘ silver ; metals of inferior value; chrystal, stone,wood, clay, and compositions of different kinds. Some are of small size, and appropriated as household gods; others are progressively larger, and used for temple worship ; and others again are of colossal size, seventy, eighty, and more feet in height. A Linga at Benares reThe clay and composition images made in the vicinity of Calcutta for the annual festivals (some of which have a very splendid appearance, and are of large dimensions), are, after the ceremonies are over, cast into the river. The modern manufacturers of the deities are artisans in gold, silver, and other metals; stone-cutters and potters. Some of the modern casts are handsome ; but the modern sculptures are commonly contemptible. Some of the ancient Hindu sculptures are magnificent; and, in minute

quires six men to encircle it.

J umont, a celebrated bear ; one of the generals of Sugrivu, and chief counsellor of Rama, in the war of Lanka. He overcame Megnaud, and threw him headlong into Lanka.

Junuka, the father of Sita ; the wife of Rama Chandra, p. 24.

Jutaee, a celebrated vulture, the brother of Samput. (See Samput.)

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ornamental and floral decoraiions, almost unrivalled. In Siam, Japan, &c. images are made of the ornaments and precious metals, &c. collected from the ashes of the funeral pile of a deceased person ; and others again from the pulverized fragments of the bones kneaded with water into a paste, baked, and afterwards gilded.

Indra, p. 122.

Indram', the consort or Sacti of Indra. (See

Indra Doomnu, a pious king, who collected
the bones of Krishna; and caused an
image of Jaggarnat’h to be formed by
Viswakarma, in which they were placed.

Indu, a name of Chandra.
Infanticz'de, 177.

Jogeesuree, the consort of Bhyru, or Bhai-
rava, worshipped in the Mahratta States.

Jogun, or Yogun, about four coss, or eight miles, some make it more.

Jo/za'ra, p. 174.

Isa, or Isani, names of Siva.
Isis, p. 255.

Iswara, or Eswara, Lord of the Universe ;
supreme Lord. A name appropriated to
each of the three great deities by their re-
spective followers ; whose endeavours have
been to raise their own object of worship
above those of the other two sects; thus
with the Vishnaivas, Vishnu is the Is-
wara; with the Saivas, Siva; as was with
the worshippers of Brahma, that deity.

Itahara, a portion of the Vedas. (See


Jugarnatha, p. 49.
Jugudhatri, a form of Parvati or Durga,
p. 98, and fig. 1, pl. 21.

Kakya, one of the wives of Dasara, king of
Ayodhya, who persuaded that monarch
to banish his son Rama from his domi-

(See Rama Chandra.)
Kailasa, the heaven of Siva.

Kali, p. 91.

Kalki, or tenth avatar of Vishnu. (See p. 12 and 45, pl. 13.

Kalpz‘, an astronomical calculation of 4,320,000,000 of years.

K ala Rayu, a form of Siva, mounted on a tiger, having in one hand a bow, in another an arrow.


Kamadeva, or Camdeo, p. 46.

K amala or Kernel, the lotus ; also a name of

Kamdarhu, a name of Mahadeo, worship

ped in the southern and western parts of India.

Kamdenu, the boon-granting cow produced at the churning of the ocean. (See the Tortoise orKurmavatara of Vishnu.) This animal is invoked to obtain favours from the deities, who are supplicated to assume her form to bestow them. On this occasion, the supplicant presents a cow to the deity whose favour he solicits, and holding it by the tail, thus addresses Lakshmi, sectarial marks that denote their castes; the images of their gods are also purified with it, mixed up with the urine of the animal, milk, ghee, &c. &c. Those of basalt in my possession were completely plastered with this holy unction, so baked apparently by the sun of ages, that it took a man two days to pick it out, and purify one of the most beautiful in the English style with soap and warm water. But soul-purifying as is the ordure of the animal, the urine of her is so potently holy, that, says Major Moore—“ the catholic devil himself cannot," as the proverb runs, “ hate holy water more than the Hindu spirits of impurity abhor this sin-expelling sanctifying liquor. Images are sprinkled with it; no man of any pretensions to piety and cleanliness would pass a cow in the act of staling, without receiving the holy stream in his palm, sipping a few drops, and, with his bedewed fingers, marking and crossing his forehead, shoulders and breast.” This gentleman, after seriously assuring us that he never tried this delightful exorcism, relates a droll story in point, which will reward a reader for turning to p. 143 of his excellent work.

(who is usually invoked), or any other deity whom he then names, instead of Lakshmi.

“ May the goddess, who is the Lakshmi of all beings, and resides among the gods, assume the form of a milch cow to procure me comfort.

“ May she, who is Lakshmi, reposing on the bosom of Vishnu—-she who is the Lakshmi of the regent of riches—she who is the Lakshmi of kings—be a boon-granting cow unto me.”

Mr. Colebrooke, in the 7th vol. As. Res., mentions other forms of invocation, but these will be sufiicient for the present purpose. That gentleman also states, that it is common for a householder to feed “a cow before he breaks his own fast ;” and that the worship of this animal consists in presenting flowers to her, washing her feet, &c. &c. The hospitable rites of marriage ceremonies are concluded by letting loose a cow, a guest exclaiming-—“ Release the cow, may she subdue my foe; may she subdue the enemies of him (the host) and me; dismiss the cow that she may eat grass and drink water.” When the animal has been released, the guest addresses her. “ I have earnestly addressed this prudent person, saying, Kill not the innocent cow, who is the mother of Rudra.”

The cow is an object of extensive adoration. Besides the annual festivals in honour of her, particularly pious individuals worship her daily, at which times they feed and scatter flowers around her. The ordure of the cow is considered as a great purifier; unclean places are purified with it; the floors and door-ways of houses and cooking-places are periodically rubbed with it. Ashes from it are used to rub the bodies of the Hindus, and form the

Mr. Ward says, that Bramah created the Brahmans and the cow at the same time, and that the latter is called “ the mother of the gods,” and is declared by

Brahma to be a proper object of worship.

Kamula Kamim', a form of Parvati or

Durga, p. 99.

K andeh Rao, an avatar 0f Siva, who became

incarnate in that character, to destroy the giant Mani-Mal. A magnificent temple is dedicated to his worship in this avatar at Jejury, about thirty miles from Poonah.

Siva, as Kandeh Rao is represented on

horseback, with four arms, holding in three of his hands a trident, a banner, and a bead-roll. (See fig. 3, pl. 16, from a compartment in the Temple of Rama.)

Kansa or Cam-a, kingr of Mathura, who

ordered the children of his sister to be put to death immediately they were born, in consequence of a prediction that he would be dethroned and slain by one of them. Krishna escaped and afterwards

slew him. (See Krishna, p. 35.)

Kapila, an incarnation of Vishnu.

Kapuli, a form assumed by Siva, as a reli~

gious mendicant: A human skull was his alms-dish; his necklace and ornaments were of the bones, and his dwelling-place was amongst the ashes of the dead. From skulls a Kapulika eats and drinks, and his sacrificial fires are fed with the brains and lungs of men, mixed up with their flesh; and human victims covered with the fresh blood gushing from the horrible wounds in the throats, are the offerings by which they appease this terrible god. Dr. J. Taylor.

Karmala, the servant of Dhermarajah, the

benevolent form of Yama, who conveys the righteous to him for judgment. Chitra Guptu, according to Mr. Ward, is the attendant of Yama in his terrific character.

Kartikeya, p. 74.

K ashi, the sacred city (the modern Benares).

No city in the world, say the Hindus, is equal to Kashi.

Benares is said to contain, at the present time, a million of inhabitants; 400,000 of whom are Mahomedans, the rest Hindus: two-thirds of this population are

females. Benares is five miles long, and

four broad; and it has been calculated that 25,000 pilgrims, merchants, travellers, &c., enter and depart daily from it. It has 1,000 temples, half of which are dedicated to Mahadeo and the gods of his family. The number of Brahmans, Fakirs, Sanyasis, and other beggars in this town is immense. One of its greatest annoyances arises from the Bramany or sacred bulls (which are also numerous) throwing themselves across, and, at times, rendering almost impassable its narrow streets and lanes ; from which strong coercive measures must not be used to remove them.

The principal temple in Benares is that of Beseshur,built A.D. 1681. “ It is very handsome, but is too much confined by surrounding houses. The only entrance to it is by a narrow lane not five feet wide, and blocked up with dirt, Brahmany bulls, &c. ; the temple stands on the north. On entering, it is at first impossible to distinguish any thing, the eye being blinded by the sudden change from glare to darkness : a few lamps glimmer here and there; but the ear is saluted by the buz of prayers, and the harsh tinkling of a large copper bell, which is suspended from the roof of the centrical apartment, and is sounded by each worshipper on his departure. On each side area few small rooms, each feebly lighted by a single lamp placed in a niche over the object of adoration (the linga). Many people of both sexes were on their knees, scattering on the linga rice, water, and leaves, which were soon devoured by the Brahmany bulls, who were roaming about the temple, quite at their ease; the crowd was incessantly entering and departing. The Brahmans were very annoying in their

beggings for money; but this seems to be a priestly custom, sanctioned every where by long usage, and equally as applicable to the Friars of the west as to the Brahmans of the east."-—Asiat. Jour.

Kattees, p. 275.

Katyayini, a form of Durga, armed by all the gods to attack the Asuras.

Kavya, a name of Sukra.

Ketu, the planet of the descending node, p. 77 and 135, and pl. 26.

Keg/ans, p. 326.

Khandarpa, a name of Kamadeva.
Khaticka, a Devi of the Jains.

Khettries, the warrior tribe of India,

formed from the arms of Brahma.

Khorz'al Mater, a deity worshipped by the Bheels for protection of their cattle against sickness and plundering.

Kirmurus, celestial choristers having horses’ heads.

Kookies, p. 321.
Koombees, p. 289.

Koonti, the mother of the Pandus.
Pandas, p. 248.)

Krishna, p. 34.


Krishna Krora, a form of Parvati, p. 99.

Kshupakara, a name of Chandra.

Kustubha, an inestimable jewel, one of the gems produced at the churning of the


Kutar, a. singularly shaped dagger, the mark of which is used by the Kattees to ratify a deed or agreement, p. 282.

Kuvera, or Cuvera, the god of wealth, and the regent of the North. This deity is

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Lotus, the water-lily. This plant is held sacred throughout the East, and the deities of the various sects in that quarter of the world are almost invariably represented as either decorated with its flowers, seated or standing on a. lotus throne or pedestal, or holding a sceptre formed from its flower, sometimes expanded, and at others closed. These flowers are said to be found in some parts of India blue, and in the southern parts white or red. It is fabled that they obtained the last-mentioned colour by being dyed with the blood of Siva, when Kamadeva wounded him with the love-shaft arrow, as related under the articles Siva and Kamadeva. Lakshmi is called the Lotus-bom, from having ascended from the ocean on its flower in the

Kurmavatara. Its expanding'and closing

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