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carried by the priests to contain their provisions, called Bat-keoent-hanan. 4. Bumzang, or a water-jar, supposed to have belonged to Buddha before he entered Nivana. 5. T alapat Nang, the fan used by the priests instead of an umbrella, to shade them from the sun, and drive away insects. 6. Passato, or a palace in the form of a square, which should be seven stories in height. 7. Taubai Lakshai, or the royal standard. 8. Trumpets by which kings ‘of old were wont to be announced. 9. Pethakang, or the golden bed. 10. The stone couch or seat of Buddha, supposed to be now the altar sacred to Buddha. ll. D'ha Chang, a flag. l2. Pato, the paper ensign. 13. The royal palanquin, or covered litter. 14. T ’hat T’hang, a sort of salver. l5. Wuchani, a large fan, which kings only are privileged to have near them. 16. Sincru or llleru, the mountain of that name. 17, is the Satt’ha JlIaha K ‘bang/ta, or the seven great rivers. 18. Cha Kama Waclmra, the first six mansions, including the habitations of mortals. Of these six, the first is the heaven of spirits, who remain in it 500 years, and visit their consorts 9,000,000 times. The second is the heaven of Indra, where the devata live 1,000 years, being blessed, as above stated, 346,000,000 of times: this heaven is 680,000 yqjanas,‘ and the wall of his city 10,000, with 1,000 gates: every thing in it is upon a scale of corresponding magnitude and splendour: he had thirty-five consorts and 250,000,000 of mistresses. Thirdly, the heaven of ‘Yama: here they live 2,000 years; but connubial bliss is dealt out to them with a more sparing hand, as they simply embrace their wives, and then not oftener than 144,000,000 of times. In the fourth heaven the inhabitants live 4,000 years: these only take their wives by the hand 576,000,000 of times: thus making up in quantity what they lose in quality. In the fifth heaven, the gentlemen only discourse with the ladies; but then it is 2,304,000,000 of times, and moreover for 8,000 years. In the sixth heaven, they look at each other for 16,000 years; but in that time exchange enough glances to supply for ages to come all the belles and beaux of the crowded coteries of this great metropolis, being no less than 920,000,000 of times. But it must not be supposed that these unions of hands and interchanges of glances are cold as the snow-clad peaks of the Himalaya: on the contrary, every thing is perfectly etherial, and it follows, by certain natural rules, as is often experienced in this lower world of our’s, that these pressures of the hands and extatic glances are productive of highly beneficial and substantial results, in populating the heavenly worlds in question. Of the other heavens, and their inhabitants, we are left in- the dark: but enough has, no doubt, been elicited in this very desirable account, to enable us to form a sufficient judgment. 19, contains the four great Dwipas or divisions of the world, heretofore mentioned. 20, is Maha Samut H0, or the great sea. 21, is the 2,000 smaller Dwipas surrounding the great Dwipas. 22, are the huge golden fishes which swim in the ocean between Meru and the Dwipas. 23, is the Raja Nqja, or famous King of the Snakes. 24, is Chakravaling, or the horizon represented by a wall of circumvallation surrounding Meru. 25, is Surya. 26. Chand-héma or Chandra. 27. Nakhata, a star; supposed the polar star. 28, an umbrella of seven tiers, used by royal personages only. 29, the mountain Himawa, or Himalaya. 30, Satta maya sum, or the seven great lakes of the Himalaya. Near this spot the Elephant King with his 8,000 followers and wives reside. 31, are the five rivers issuing from the seven lakes. 32, are the seven great rivers, or seven great waters. 33, is the Siamese whale or great fish. 34, is the horse of Himala or Himalaya, termed the horse of the sky, the supposed white * horse of the Kalki avatar. 35, the horse that carried Phra Phutt’ha, or the Siamese Smomokhodum, to the banks of the Jumna. 36, is the whip used by the god on that occasion. 37, are four lions of various descriptions. 38, is the royal tiger. 39. The green elephant, and 40 is the white elephant which bore Buddha in one of his avatars on his back. 41, is the red elephant of the Himalaya. 42, is the elephant of Indra, desscribed by Captain Low in a corresponding manner with a previous description of the elephant of the Nats. 43, is the King of the White Cattle of Himalaya. 44, is the Me Kho, the supposed cow of plenty of the Hindus. 45, is its calf. 46, is Nawa, the ship supposed to refer to the ark of Noah. 47, is a Ckourie, or tail of the ox or yak of Thibet. 48, is the blue lotus, or water-lily, which, when Buddha walked abroad, sprung up in all its expanded beauty and brilliancy of colouring to prevent his feet from touching the ground. 49, is the red lotus. 50, is the boa, or flower of the lotus class. 51, is the tail feathers of the peacock. Under this number Captain Low has made some very benevolent and judicious observations, which I regret not being able to insert; they will be found in page 109 of the first part of the third voloume of the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society. 52, is the Chank, or shell, or buccinum, with the involutions turned from left to right. It is prized according to its number of convolutions. 53, is Chattu Muk’ha, or the four-faced Brahma. 54, represents the Scar-abacus. or beetle of the golden mountains. 55, is the golden tortoise. 56, is the
* The extent of the yqjana appears to be not clearly defined; some making it thirteen miles, others only nine.
Hanasa of Brahma. This is the Hanza or Henza of Ava. 57, is the Mang-
karo (or mukara of the Hindus), an aquatic monster resembling a crocodile. 58, is the melodious bird of paradise. 59, is the Kinaro, a figure half-bird, half-human, the same as is (I presume) shewn in fig. 10, plate 39. 60, is Mayuro, a bird so called. 61, is another bird, inhabiting the Himalaya mountains. This bird is said to eat iron filings, and, in consequence, the finest tempered swords are made from its ordure. 62, 63, and 64, are other birds. 64, is supposed to be the Garuda of Vishnu, 65, is Hari or Siva. 66, is an alligator. 67, is the wooden fence which surrounded the house of Sonomokhodum. 68 and 69 are various. 70, are the representations of the toes of the foot of the Phrabat. I have used this explanation generally. By Captain Low they are called flowers representing the toes of his Phrabat. 71. Parechatta, a flower which grows only in heaven. 72. Precious stones. 73. The buffalo. 74. Certain hills. 75. Rama Sara. 76. Maha Rishi. 77. Dha Chang, or the bow of Rama. 78. Pato. 79. Khelasa Bhapp hato, the supposed mountain Kailasa. 80. Utsat’hi, a star. 81. Kangsatala. 82. Salawanang, or the diamond garden. 83. The golden goblet. 84. Pak’hanang. 85. Paduka, the slippers. 86. The goddess of the clouds.‘ 87. The golden deer. 88. A Siamese fowl. 89. The supposed constellation Rohini. 90. An ornamental part of a dress. 91. Saticha, or
spear. 92. A diamond ornament. 93. Another diamond garden. 94. A
part of a princely wardrobe. 95, is a part of a head-dress, which falls down and covers a part of the nape of the neck. 96, is “ the inestimable jewel, the type of mental illumination of the Hindus, which shone reful. gent to illumine the earth from the sacred breast of N arayana.”
The representations of the foot of Buddha, although, in substance, generally agreeing, vary, as I have before observed, in the positions of the symbols, &c., very materially. The representation given in fig. 4, plate 30, of this work is taken, by the permission of the trustees of the British Museum, from the carving in the hall of that establishment: but, as it will be obvious, from what I have before stated, that any description of one, as respects all the symbols and most of their positions in it, may not apply to another, the reader must exercise his best judgment in the application.
THE religion of Nepal is considered to be that of Buddha, but in external worship it approaches nearer to the Brahminical. The Nepalese acknowledge, unlike the Buddhas of Ava and Ceylon, a Creator, and like the Jainas, worship the deities of the Hindu Pantheon; but consider them as very inferior to their own Buddhas, as the Jainas do to their Tirthankaras.
Adi Buddha is considered by the Nepalese as the supreme Being or the Creator of the world. He created by Dhyan (inward or spiritual contemplation) five divine Buddhas-Vairochanar Akshobhya, Ratna, Sambhava, Amitabha, and Amogha Siddha: each of whom produced from himself, in the same manner, his Bodhi-sitwa or son ; Samant Badra; Vajra Pani; Ratna Pani ; Padma Pani; and Viswa Pani.
Four of these Bodhi-sitwas were ingrossed in worship, and nothing more is known of them (says Mr. Hodgson, from whose sketch of Buddhism in Nepal I have taken this abstract), than their names; but Padma Pani, by the command of Adi Buddha, created Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, to perform the operations which have been assigned to them in Hindu mythology. Brahma, in his turn, created for the devas (gods) heaven: for the daityas (demons) patala or hell: and the four other kinds of beings (aeriel spirits and mortals it may be presumed) he placed between these two regions and
the earth. Vishnu and Siva appear to have been introduced into the system rather to
exalt the power of Adi Buddha than for any practical purpose whatever. The mystic syllable O’M (or A,U,M) is equally reverenced by the Buddhas