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same illustrious family, especially when they have so much in common, but there can be no doubt that Charles Wordsworth, the subject of this monograph, is the better preacher, both with regard to matter and manner.

It would be, perhaps, hard to say who was the more profound scholar or the deeper theologian, but it is apprehended that the Bishop of St. Andrew's is the most original-minded, in other words, the greater genius.

The influence he has exercised over men ever since his connection with Winchester has been almost without parallel, whereas the elder brother's rule at Harrow was not characterised by success. The mind of the latter seems to have been more theoretical, and, to borrow an illustration from the Church of Rome, he would be more fitted for the "regular" as distinguished from the “secular” life. The Bishop of St. Andrew's, however, has the qualifications of a parish priest as well as of the ruler of an important diocese, and when that eccentric handful of schismatics (somewhat infelicitiously dubbed the "Church of England in Scotland ”) invaded the territory of the Scottish Episcopal Church—"on Protestant grounds

-We believe that Bishop Beckles trembled in his shoes at the contemplation of one treasure-house of learningCharles Wordsworth, the greatest bishop in Scotia. As a final word we would state that Bishop Wordsworth has been Member of the New Testament Revision Company, which has now completed its labours, and also that the right reverend prelate was elected a Fellow of Winchester College (though not a Wykehamist) in 1871, out of regard to his former eminent services to the College, and to the cause of general literature.


WILLIAM CAVENDISH, K.G., LL.D., F.R.S., the seventh Duke of Devonshire and Marquess of Hartington, Earl of Devonshire, Baron Cavendish, Earl of Burlington and Baron Cavendish, is the eldest son of the late William Cavendish, Esq., and the Hon. Louisa O'Callaghan, eldest daughter of the first Lord Lismore. His grace was born on the 27th April, 1808, succeeding his grandfather as Earl of Burlington on May 9th, 1834, and his cousin as Duke of Devonshire, &c., on January 18th 1858. The Duke entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he had a distinguished career, graduating M... as Second Wrangler and Smith's Prizeman in 1829, in which year he was returned as junior Member for Cambridge University. He was again elected for the University at the dissolution in the following year. Twelve months afterwards there was a fresh election when the noble subject of this memoir was not so successful, being defeated at the poll by some hundred and fifty votes. He was returned the same year, however, for Malton, which he represented until his return for North Derbyshire in 1832. Prior to this, and a few months after his election for Malton, he was elected for Derbyshire. On the death of his grandfather, in 1834, the Duke was called to the Upper House as Earl of Burlington, and, as we have stated, he became Duke of Devonshire in 1858. The Duke, whilst Lord Burlington, was Chancellor of the University of London (from 1836 to 1856). His Grace was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Derbyshire on his succession to the title, and in 1862 he succeeded the late Prince Consort in the Chancellorship of the University of Cambridge.

The name of Cavendish has shone in the annals of History for very many generations. The brother of the founder of this illustrious ducal house, George Cavendish, the firm friend and biographer of the grand cardinal, Thomas Wolsey, and which work is universally considered the best authority extant of the sayings, doings, and princely state of the proud Churchman, was but of the first generation of that long line of distinguished peers, of whom the Seventh Duke of Devonshire is the present representative. As heads of the great Whig houses, the Dukes of Devonshire have ever been very prominent, carving their names in different ages as much through personal puissance as ducal rank, one having taken a leading part in the Revolution. As a cultured and typical member of this historic family, the present Duke has perhaps had no equal, and his twenty years Chancellorship of London University was a most brilliant period in the history of that alma mater, both with regard to the Earl of Burlington's personal rule, and the names of the students entered on the books during the time of his administration. As a matter of fact, only a scholar in the plenary sense should fill the office of Chancellor of a University. In addition to this indispensable qualification, the noble subject of this memoir possessed an inborn love of literature and art, and the regimé of Lord Burlington will not easily be forgotten. Founded in 1836, Lord Burlington was the first Chancellor.

Succeeding the late Prince Albert in the Chancellorship of the University of Cambridge, the Duke of Devonshire, in 1862, once more assumed his old duties, with the difference that Cambridge, of course, is the more historical 'and prominent house of learning. The Duke of Devonshire is still a Senator of the London University.

As is well known, the Sixth Duke (the predecessor and cousin of the present holder of the title) was a great collector of rare and unique art treasures, and in these days would have been termed a bibliomaniac. His assistance to artists and litterateurs (over and above the more strictly legitimate aid which he gave to those kindred professions in the sense of purchasing their works) was considered at the time almost unprecedented, and the paintings and rare editions of old works he gathered together at Devonshire House, Chatsworth, and Hardwick Hall (famous for its tradition of Bess of Hardwick) are the pride of our civilised community.

Another of the present Duke's predecessors was the patron and friend of Hobbs, the author of "Leviathan,” and, indeed, who found a residence for him at the “ Palace of the Peak,” where he lived almost the life of a recluse, his habits being regular but remarkable, especially with regard to the innumerable pipes which he daily smoked. In

the annals of this family, also, never must be forgotten the genial and beautiful Georgina, Duchess of Devonshire, whose exquisite portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds are looked upon as some of the finest and most valued specimens of that great artist's genius in portraiture, and her kissing the butcher when canvassing in the interests of Charles James Fox, was a proof of her thoroughly hearty temperament.

The present Duke, although only the cousin of his predecessor, has inherited his idiosyncracies in this respect, and from the time he left Cambridge, indeed whilst he was at his preliminary studies prior to entering at the University, it is reported that he evinced a passionate penchant for æsthetics. His additions in the past to what may have seemed to some could scarcely be added to, are noteworthy, and the Seventh Duke continues adding year by year to his art-objects—and this in every department.

The Parliamentary career-in other words the House of Commons life of the Duke of Devonshire, was not protracted enough to enable him to exhibit in that trying arena many of those distinguished qualities for which the duke's eldest son—the Marquess of Hartington—has since become so famous. The noble subject of this sketch was but twenty-six years of age when the death of his grandfather called him to the Upper House, and it is an admitted fact that a peer cannot make himself a politician unless the inception of his political life is passed in the Lower House. The short time that the Duke of Devonshire represented (1) Cambridge University, (2) Malton, and (3) North Derbyshire, as Mr. Cavendish, he testified to his political capacities; but after his assumption of the coronet his duties seemed to become judicial rather than legislative, and this partly on account of the positions and offices in which he found himself, not because of his inaptitude for political labour, strictly so called. A firm and consistent supporter of Whig principles (with an equal aversion to revolutionary measures on the one hand and a repugnance to Tory traditions on the other), the Duke of Devonshire has ever been faithful to that fast vanishing school of politicians whose greatest modern exponents were Lords Palmerston and Russell. We are not at all sure that this powerful nobleman views with unmixed feelings of approbation the present position of his gifted son, Lord Hartington. Had his lordship himself formed a Cabinet in 1880 the condition of affairs would have had a different aspect.

The Duke of Devonshire married on August 6th, 1829, Lady Blanche, daughter of the Sixth Earl of Carlisle, by whom his grace had issue three sons and one daughter. Lady Burlington died in 1840.


THE DEAN OF ST. PAUL'S, Richard William Church, was born in the year 1815, on April 25th, his father being an English merchant at Lisbon, who afterwards resided at Florence. The first thirteen years of young Church's life were spent in Italy—mostly in Florence, but his father dying in 1828 the family came to England. He was first educated at a private school, near Bristol, kept by Dr. Swete, the father of a distinguished Cambridge scholar and divine of our own time. He afterwards entered at Wadham College, Oxford, graduating B.A. (First Class Literis Humanioribus) in 1836, and M.A. in 1839. He ultimately became Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon, and Junior Proctor (1844-1845). Amongst Mr. Church's first class contemporaries of 1836, at Oxford, may be mentioned the late Mr. W. Adams, the author of the “Shadow of the Cross," and the Late Vice-Chancellor Wickens. In the same class-list were Faber (late the Head of the Brompton Oratory), Mr. J. R. Cornish, (now the Right Hon. Sir John Mowbray, Bart., D.C.L., and M.P. for Oxford University), Mr. Gathorne Hardy (now Lord Cranbrook), and Mr. Charles Badham, one of our first Greek scholars (now Head of the University of Sydney).

At Oriel he was thrown with a number of distinguished men, Fellows or Members of the College, amongst his seniors or contemporaries being Mr. Newman, Mr. Keble, Mr. E. B. Pusey, Mr. Marriott, Mr. (afterwards Sir F.) Rogers, Mr. T. Mozley, and Mr. J. B. Mozley, late Regius Professor of Divinity, and others, all of whom took part in the Church movement of that time. He was also associated during the earlier times of his residence with men of different schools who have since made a name, including Bishop Fraser, Dean Burgon, Mr.A. H. Clough, Mr. Matthew Arnold, Mr. J. A. Froude (now Father), H. J. Coleridge, S.J., and with all of whom he was on terms of friendship. During this period (1844-45) Mr. Church's colleague as Junior-Proctor was Mr. Guillemard, of Trinity; and with this gentleman he used the Proctor's constitutional right of veto to stop the partizan censure on Mr. (now Cardinal) Newman, and the Tract, No. XC., which had been proposed to the University by the Board of Heads of Houses. From that time to the present a close friendship

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