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In what business, was he educated?
At what age, was his mind seriously impressed? By what means?
From what, did sickness conduce to preserve him?
By whose ministry, were his good impressions confirmed?
falls to the share of children of husbandmen.
At the age of 12, his mind was seriously impressed in reading the scriptures; and an illness of long continuance conduced to preserve him from the follies of youth. His good impressions were confirmed by attending upon the ministry of Mr. Clifton. As he increased in years, he was enabled to vindicate his opinions against opposition. Being stigmatized as a Separatist, he cheerfully bore the frowns of his relatives and the scoffs of his neighbors. Fearless of persecution, he joined Mr. Clifton's church. Believing, that many of the practices of the church of England were contrary to the bible, he preferred the purity of worship to any temporal advantage, that might arise from bending his conscience to the opin
ions of others.
When about 18 years old, he was among those who attempted to escape to Holland; but was taken and imprisoned at Boston. On account of his youth, however, he was soon liberated.
The next year, 1608, he was one of those, who fled from Grimsby common, when part of the company went to sea, and part were taken by the officers called pursui
After some time, he went over to Zealand, through various difficulties. He was no sooner landed, than a malicious fellow passenger accused him before the Dutch magistrates, as a fugitive from Eng
Whose frowns and scoffs did he cheerfully bear?
Whose church did he join? How was he punished for attempting to escape to Holland?
What kindness did he receive from the Dutch magistrates, at Zealand?
Why was he not chosen governor immediately after the death of Carver?
land. But when they understood the cause of his emigration, they gave him protection, and permission to join his brethren at Amsterdam.
After a residence in Holland of about 10 years, he engaged with zeal in the plan of removing to America. He accordingly embarked, and proceeded with the other Pilgrims in that most arduous and dangerous enterprise. While the Mayflower lay in Cape Cod harbor, he was one of the foremost in the several hazardous attempts to find a proper place for the seat of the colony. When returned from the last of these, in which his little company had had the happiness to discover Plymouth, he received the heart-rending intelligence, that during his absence, his beloved wife had fallen from the ship, and was drowned.
When Gov. Carver died, April 5, Mr. Bradford was sick, and considered at the point of death. In great mercy, however, the Lord was pleased to raise him up, to be an unspeakable blessing to the infant plantation. As soon as he was sufficiently recovered to enter upon the duties of the office, he was elected governor. Though only about 33 years old, he was most conspicuous for wisdom, fortitude, piety and benevolence. The duties of this high office he discharged with the greatest faithfulness and dignity for 30 years, being the whole remainder of his life except five. Five times by his earnest request,
For what, was he peculiarly conspicuous?
How long was he governor? What was the length of his administration compared with others? It was the longest, that has occurred in New-England. What prevented his being governor five years more?
In what, did he strongly recommend rotation?
the honor of election was conferred upon another. During these years, however, he was first assistant and deputy governor. He strongly recommended a rotation in the election of governor. "If this appointment," said he, "is any honor or benefit, others should partake of it; if it is a burden, others should help bear it."
One of the first acts of Bradford's administration, was to send an embassy to Massasoit. The objects of this were to explore the country; to confirm the league; to learn the situation and strength of their new friend; to carry him some presents; to apologize for some supposed injuries; to regulate their mutual intercourse; and to procure seedcorn for the next year. This most important business was executed in July, by Edward Winslow and Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto for their guide.
It was well for the colony, that the friendship of Massasoit was thus secured. His influence was extensive. In consequence of his regard for the new settlers, nine sachems went to Plymouth in September, and acknowledged themselves loyal subjects to king James.
Meaning of rotation?
First memorable act of Bradford's administration?
For what objects?.
Who were the ambassa. dors ?
Who was their guide?
How many sachems professed subjection to king James in Sept. 1621 ?
What important bay did a party
posed to be Copp's Hill, now in Boston, near Charlestown bridge. There they were kindly received by Obbatínua, sachem of Shawmut, one of the nine who a few days before, had subscribed the submission at Plymouth. Obbatinua now renewed his submission; and in return, the Plymotheans promised to assist him against his enemies the Tarrateens and the Squaw Sachem of Massachusetts.
In Nov. the ship Fortune arrived at Plymouth with 36 planters. Having been four months at sea, the provisions in the Fortune were almost wholly consumed.
was most unfortunate for the Plymotheans, who were obliged to furnish provisions for the seamen on their return home. The consequence was a grievous scarcity at Plymouth. All the colonists were immediately put upon half allowance. Before spring, the famine was distressing.
In the height of this distress, a threatening message was received from Canonicus, the great sachem of the Narragansets. It was in the style of the ancient Scythians, consisting of a bundle of arrows tied up with a snake skin. Squanto interpreted this to be a threatening and a challenge. The undaunted Bradford returned a bold reply, That if they loved war rather than peace, they might begin when they would; that the people of Plym outh had done them no wrong; neither dia they fear them; nor the Narragansets find
Having heard much of the Bay of Massachusetts, both from Indians and from English fishermen, Gov. Bradford appointed ten men with Squanto and two other Indians, to visit the place, and trade with the natives. On Sept. 18, they sailed in their shallop, and the next day landed under a cliff, sup-should
them unprepared. By another messenger the snake skin was sent back, charged with powder and bullets. The Indians, however, refused to receive it. They were afraid to let it continue in their houses; and it was brought back to Plymouth. Here the correspondence ended. It was judged prudent, however, to fortify the town. This work was performed by the people, while they were pinched and pining with famine.
In this exigency, Gov. Bradford found the advantage of his friendly intercourse with the Indians. He made several excursions among them, and procured corn and beans, faithfully paying for what he received.
Thus serving his generation most faithfully and effectually, and being ardently beloved and highly respected by all the good, he lived to a good old age, notwithstanding all his amazing hardships, toils and afflictions. Having nearly reached the point of three score years and ten, he had a sweet release from every pang and every care. The night before he died, his mind was so enraptured in view of religious truth and future blessedness, that he said to his friends in the morning, "The good Spirit of God has given me a pledge of my happi
threatening message soon after? In what manner
Who interpreted this message? What verbal reply did Bradford make?
What did he send back in the snake skin?
How did the Narragansets treat the powder and balls?
What defensive measures did the Plymotheans adopt?
What provisions did Bradford procure from the Indians?
To what age, did Gov. Bradford live? 69.
By whom, was his death deeply lamented?
ness in another world, and the first fruits of eternal glory." His death was deeply lamented, not only by the Plymotheans, but by all the colonists in New England.
Perhaps no magistrate has ever more happily blended decision, energy and faithfulness, with condescension, suavity and kindness. Bradford would suffer no one to trample on the laws, or disturb the peace of the colony. During his administration, there were frequent accessions of new inhabitants. Some of them were refractory. But his wisdom and authority obliged them to respect the laws and customs of the country. The following instance may serve as a specimen. A company of young men, newly arrived, were very unwilling to comply with the governor's order for working on the public account. On a Christmas day, they excused themselves, under pretence, that it was against their conscience to work. The governor gave them no other answer, than, that he would let them alone, till they should be better informed. In the course of the day, he found them at play in the streets. Commanding the instruments of their game to be taken from them, he told them, that it would be against his conscience, to suffer them to play, while
Inds massacre in .Va. 1622. Thelony had increased so fast, that in the year 1622, settlements were scattered, not only along the banks of James and York rivers, but began to extend to the Rappahannock, and even to the Potomac. In this year, the cup of prosperity, of which the colonists began to taste, was dashed from their lips.
In the year 1618, died Powhatan, who had remained faithful to the English, ever since the_marriage of Pocahontas to Mr. Rolfe. Powhatan was succeeded, not only in his own dominions, but in his influence over all the neighboring tribes, by Opecancanough, a bold and cunning chief, as remarkable for his jealousy and hate of the
Who succeeded Powhatan?
Whom did he exceedingly hate? What stipulations did he renew! How long did he continue at peace with the colonists ?
new settlers, as for his qualifications to execute the vengeance, his resentments dictated. He renewed, however, the stipulations of Powhatan, and for about four years, the peace remained undisturbed. Rejoicing in prosperity, the colonists neglected every precaution for safety. Unsuspicious of danger, they paid no attention to the machinations of the Indians. Like the peaceful inhabitants of a society, completely established, they were no longer soldiers, but citizens; and were so intent on what was subservient to the comfort or embellishment of civil life, that every martial exercise began to be laid aside. The Indians, whom they commonly employed as hunters, were furnished with fire arms, and taught to use them with dexterity. They were admitted at all times, freely into the habitations of the English, as harmless visitants; were fed at their tables, and lodged. in their chambers. During this state of free and friendly intercourse, the savages formed a conspiracy to cut off all the colonists, without distinction of age, sex or character. All the tribes in the neighborhood of the English, except those east of the Chesapeak, were successively gained over, and united in the plot; and the means of perpetrating it were concerted with amazing secrecy. To each tribe a station was assigned, and a particular work of destruction prescribed. So deep and dark was their dissimulation, that they were accustomed to borrow boats of the English, to cross the river, in order to concert and mature their execrable designs. The 22d of March was designated as the day of de
struction to all the whites. The better to disguise their intentions, they brought on the preceding evening, deer, turkeys and fish as presents. Even on the morning of the massacre, they came freely among the whites, behaving in their usual friendly manner, until the very instant of commencing the carnage. At mid-day, finding the whites perfosecure, the savages rushed at One upon them in their different settlements, and indiscriminately murdered men, women and children. So sudden was the execution, that few perceived the weapons or the blows, that proved their death. Thus in one hour, and almost at the same moment, fell 347 persons, nearly a fourth part of the whole colony. But for two circumstances, the slaughter might have been almost universal. An Indian, named Chanco, had been domesticated ya Mr. Pace. He is representer as having been converted to Christianity. The nigh preceding the massacre, this Indian was induced, probably by a sense of duty, to give information of the horrid plot, to Mr. Pace, who had been to him as a father. Mr. Pace instantly flew to Jamestown; and the alarm was given in season, to save that and
How many persons were slaughtered in a single hour?
What part of the whole colony! Who had warned the people of Jamestown of their danger?
Who had informed Mr. Pace?
What was the consequence to Jamestown and some of the adja cent settlements?
With what, were the survivors overwhelmed?
Where did they assemble for safety? What ensued?
What was the fate of some of the nearest tribes ?
From what dread, were the colony delivered ?
several of the adjacent settlements In other districts, the colonists ran to their arms, and with desperate valor, repulsed the assailants.
Though the blow was thus prevented from descending with its full effect, it proved very grievous to an infant colony. In some settlements, not a single white man escaped. Many men of prime note, and among these several members of the council, were slain. The survivors, overwhelmed with grief, astonishment and terror, abandoned all their remote settlements, and assembled for safety, in Jamestown and its vicinity. Confined within narrow limits, they were less intent on schemes of industry, than on thoughts of revenge. Every man took arms. bloody war against the Indians ensued; and neither old nor young were spared. They hunted the InIdians like wild beasts. Some of the nearest tribes were totally exterminated.
These deeds of death, which were considered as necessary acts of retaliation, were followed by some happy effects. The colony were delivered so entirely from dread of the Indians, that the set tlements began again to extend and their industry to revive.