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In what country,

he Whose frowns and scoffs did he norn?

cheerfully bear? In what business, was he edu Whose church did he join? cated ?

How was he punished for atAt what age, was his mind seri- tempting to escape to Holland ? ously impressed ?

What kindness did he receive By what means ?

from the Dutch magistrates, at From what, did sickness con Zealand ? duce to preserve him?

Why was he not chosen governBy whose ministry, were his or immediately after the death of good impressions confirmed ? Carver ? falls to the share of children of land. But when they understood husbandmen.

the cause of his emigration, they At the age of 12, his mind was gave him protection, and permisseriously impressed in reading the sion to join his brethren at Amsterscriptures; and an illness of long dam. continuance conduced to preserve After a residence in Holland of him from the follies of youih. His about 10 years, he engaged with good impressions were confirmed zeal in the plan of removing 10 by attending upon the ministry of America. He accordingly, emMr. Clifton. As he increased in barked, and proceeded with the years, he was enabled to vindicate other Pilgrims in that most arduous his opinions against opposition. and dangerous enterprise. While Being stigmatized as a Separatist, the Mayflower lay in Cape Cod he cheerfully bore the frowns of his harbor, he was one of the foremost relatives and the scoffs of his neigh in the several hazardous attempts bors. Fearless of persecution, he to find a proper place for the seat joined Mr. Clifton's church. Be of the colony. When returned lieving, that many of the practices from the last of these, in which his of the church of England were con little company had had the happitrary to the bible, he preferred the ness to discover Plymouth, he repurity of worship to any temporal ceived the heart-rending intelliadvantage, that might ‘arise from gence, that during his absence, his bending his conscience to the opin- beloved wife had fallen from the ions of others.

ship, and was drowned. When about 18 years old, he was When Gov. Carver died, April among those who attempted to es F, Mr. Bradford was sick, and concape to Holland; but was taken

sidered at the point of death. In and imprisoned at Boston. On great mercy, however, the Lord account of his youth, however, he was pleased to raise him up, to be was soon liberated.

an unspeakable blessing to the inThe next year, 1608, he was fant plantation. As soon as he was one of those, who fled from Grims-sufficiently recovered to enter upon by common, when part of the com the duties of the office, he was electpany went to sea, and part were ed governor. Though only about taken by the officers called pursui- 33 years old, he was most conspicvants.

uous for wisdom, fortitude, piety After some time, he went over and benevolence. The duties of to Zealand, through various diffi this high office he discharged with culties. He was no sooner liended, the greatest faithfulness and dignity than a malicious fellow passenger for 30 years, being the whole reaccused him before the Dutch mag mainder of his life except five. istrates, as a fugitive from Eng- | Five times by his earnest request,

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the honor of election was conferred posed to be Copp's Hill, now in upon another. During these years, Boston, near Charlestown bridge. however, he was first assistant and There they were kindly received deputy governor. He strongly recoby Obbatínua, sachem of Shawcommended a rotation in the elec mut, one of the nine who a few tion of governor.

“ If this ap

days before, had subscribed the pointment,” said he,“ is any

honor submission at Plymouth. Obbaor benefit, others should partake of tinua now renewed his submission; it; if it is a burden, others should and in return, the Plymotheans help bear it.”

promised to assist him against his One of the first acts of Bradford's enemies the Tarrateens and the administration, was to send an em Squaw Sachem of Massachusetts. bassy to Massasoit. The objects In Nov. the ship Fortune arrived of this were to explore the country; at Plymouth with 36 planters. to confirm the league ; to learn the Having been four months at sea, situation and strength of their new the provisions in the Fortune were friend; to carry him some presents; almost wholly consumed. This to apologize for some supposed in was most unfortunate for the Plymjuries; to regulate their mutual in otheans, who were obliged to furtercourse; and to procure seed nish provisions for the seamen on corn for the next year. This most their® return home. The conseimportant business was executed quence was a grievous scarcity at in July, by Edward Winslow and Plymouth. All the colonists were Stephen Hopkins, with Squanto immediately put upon half allowfor their guide.

ance. Before spring, the famine It was well for the colony, that was distressing: the fiendship of Massasoit' was In the height of this distress, a thus secured. His influence was threatening message was received extensive. In consequence of his from Canonicus, the great sachem regard for the new settlers, nine of the Narragansets. It was in the sachems went to Plymouth in Sep- style of the ancient Scythians, contember, and acknowledged them- sisting of a bundle of arrows tied up selves loyal subjects to king James. with a snake skin. Squanto inter

Having heard much of the Bay preted this to be a threatening and of Massachusetts, both from In a challenge. The undaunted Braddians and from English fishermen, ford returned a bold reply, That Gov. Bradford appointed ten men if they loved war rather than with Squanto and two other In peace, they might begin when they dians, to visit the place, and trade would ; that the people of Plym. with the natives.' On Sept. 18, outh had done them no wrong: they sailed in their shallop, and the neither dia they fear them; mor next day landed under a cliff, sup should the Narragansets find

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of Plymnotheans visit the same threatening message soon after ? month?

In what manner ? How were these received by Who interpreted this message ? Obbatinua ?

What verbal reply did Bradford or what place was he sachem ? make ? Present name ? Boston.

What did he send back in the Against what enemies, did they snake skin? promise to assist him ?

How did the Narragansets treat What ship arrived at Plymouth the powder and balls ? in November, 1621 ?

What defensive measures did the How many planters came in the Plymotheans adopt ? Fortune ?

What provisions did Bradford Why were they almost destitute procure from the Indians ? of provision ?

To what age, did Gov. Bradford Consequence to the Plymothe- live? 69. ans ?

By whom, was his death deeply What Indian chief sent them a lamented ?

them unprepared.

By another ness in another world, and the first messenger the snake skin was sent fruits of eternal glory." His death back, charged with powder and was deeply lamented, not only by bullets. The Indians,

however, the Plymotheans, but by all the refused to receive it. They were colonists in New England. afraid to let it continue in their Perhaps no magistrate has eves houses ; and it was brought back more happily blended decision, ento Plymouth. Here the corre ergy and faithfulness, with conspondence ended. It was judged descension, suavity and kindness. prudent, however, to fortify the Bradford would suffer no one to town. This work was performed trample on the laws, or disturb the by the people, while they were peace of the colony. During his pinched and pining with famine. administration, there were frequent

In this exigency, Gov. Bradford accessions of new inhabitants. found the advantage of his friendly Some of them were refractory. intercourse with the Indians. He But his wisdom and authority made several excursions among obliged them to respect the laws them, and procured corn and beans, and customs of the country. The faithfully paying for what he re following instance may serve as a ceived.

specimen. A company of young Thus serving his generation men, newly arrived, were very unmost faithfully and effectually, and willing to comply with the governbeing ardently beloved and highly or's order for working on the pube respected by all the good, he lived lic account. On a Christmas day, to a good old age, notwithstanding they excused themselves, under all his amazing hardships, toils and pretence, that it was against their afflictions. Having nearly reached conscience to work. The governthe point of three score years and or gave them no other answer, than, ten, he had a sweet release from that he would let them alone, till every pang and every care. The they should be better informed.' In night before he died, his mind was the course of the day, he found them 80 enraptured in view of religious. at play in the streets. Command truth and future blessedness, that ing the instruments of their game he said to his friends in the morn to be taken from them, he told them, ing, “ The good Spirit of God has that it would be against his congiven me ă pledge of my happi. | science, to suffer them to play, while

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ou the hannock, and even to the Potomac. gainst the taste, was dashed from their lips. gwer, that tan, who had remained faithful to ormed. I riage of Pocahontas to Mr. Rolfe. | scribed. So deep and dark was

CHAPTER XXIII. - p. 36. Who succeeded Powhatan?

In what year? ed this meste Indian massacre in Va.

Whom did he exceedingly hate !

What stipulations did he renew ! On what rivers in Va. were there How long did he continue at English settlements in 1622? + peace with the colonists ? others were at work; and that if new settlers, as for his qualifica. they had any religious regard to tions to execute the vengeance, his the day, they should show it in the resentments dictated. He renewexercise of devotion at home. This ed, however, the stipulations of genile reproof had the desired ef- Powhatan, and for about four years, fect, and prevented the repetition the peace remained undisturbed. of such disorders.

Rejoicing in prosperity, the coloWas it not in special mercy to nists neglected every precaution the Pilgrims, that their excellent for safely. Unsuspicious of danfriend and father, Gov. Carver, ger, they paid no attention to the was taken from them, to give place machinations of the Indians. Like to the youthful sage and Christian the peaceful inhabitants of a sociehero, that succeeded him ? But ty, completely established, they perhaps such questions should be were no longer soldiers, but citisuppressed. Had Carver lived, he zens; and were so intent on what might have been no less illustrious was subservient to the comfort or than Bradford. It is of little im embellishment of civil life, that portance for us to decide, which of every martial exercise began to be ihese worthies was the superior. It laid aside. The Indians, whom rather becomes us to give thanks they commonly employed as huntto God for the virtues and graces ers, were furnished with fire arms, and c'istinguished usefulness of and taught to use them with dex

terity. They were admitted at all times, freely into the habitations of

the English, as harmless visitants; + Note I.

were fed at their tables, and lodged. India i massacre in .Va. 1622.

in their chambers. During this

state of free and friendly interThe colony had increased so fast, course, the savages formed a conthat in he year 1622, settlements spiracy to cut off all the colonists, were scattered, not only along the without distinction of age, sex or banks of James and York, rivers, character. All the tribes in the

cepl those east of the Chesapeak, In this year, the cup of prosperity, were successively gained over, and of which the colonists began to united in the plot; and the means

of perpetrating it were concerted In the year 1618, died Powha with amazing secrecy. To each

tribe a station was assigned, and a the English, ever since the mar particular work of destruction prePowhatan was succeeded, not only their dissimulation, that they were in his own dominions, but in his in accustomed to borrow boats of the

iluence over all the neighboring English, to cross the river, in order Tould be tribes, by

. Opecancanough, a bola to concert and mature their execraand cunning chief, as remarkable ble designs. The 22d of March for his jealousy and hate of the was designated as the day of de

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Why did not the comunists attend How many persons were slaughto the machinations of the Indians ? tered in a single hour ?

What arms were the Indians in What part of the whole colony ! structed to use ?

Who had warned the people of How were they treated by the Jamestown of their danger ? English? In the most friendly and Who had informed Mr. Pace ? hospitable manner.

How long beforehand ? What conspiracy did the Indians What was the consequence to form, during this friendly inter- Jamestown and some of the adja course ?

cent settlements ? What day was designated for the With what, were the survivors perpetration of this design? overwhelmed?

What did the Indians do the pre Where did they assemble for ceding evening, the better to dis- safety? - What ensued ? guise their intentions ?

What was the fate of some of How did the Indians behave on the nearest tribes ? the morning of the massacre ? From what dread, were the col

What is said of the suddenness ony delivered ? of the execution !

struction to all the whites. The

several of the adjacent settlements better to disguise their intentions, In other districts, the colonists ran they brought on the preceding eve. to their arms, and with desperate ning, deer, turkeys and fish as pres valor, repulsed the assailants. ents. Even on the morning of the Though the blow was thus pre massacre, they came freely among vented from descending with its full the whites, behaving in their usual effect, it proved very grievous to an friendly manner, until the very in- | infant colony. In some settlements, stant of commencing the carnage. not a single white man escaped. At mid-day, finding the whites per- | Many men of prime note, and among fr" , secure, the savages rushed at these several members of the counole upon them in their different cil, were slain. The survivors, oversettlements, and indiscriminately whelmed with grief, astonishment murdered men, women and child and terror, abandoned all their redren. So sudden was the execu mote settlements, and assembled for tion, that few perceived the weap- safety, in Jamestown and its vicinions or the blows, that proved their ty. Confined within narrow limits, death. Thus in one hour, and al they were less intent on schemes or most at the same moment, fell 347 industry, than on thoughts of repersons, nearly a fourth part of the

venge. Every man took arms. A whole colony. But for two circum- | bloody war against the Indians enstances, the slaughter might have sued; and neither old nor young been almost universal. An Indian, were spared. They hunted the Innaned Chanco, had been domesti dians like wild beasts. Some of cated ya Mr. Pace. He is repre the nearest tribes were totally ex• senter as having been converted to terminated. Christianity. The nigh preceding These deeds of death, which the massacre, this Indian was in were considered as necessary acts duced, probably by a sense of duty, of retaliation, were followed by to give information of the horrid plot, some happy effects. The colony to Mr. Pace, who had been to him were delivered so entirely from as a father. Mr. Pace instantly flew dread of the Indians, that the set to Jamestown; and the alarm was tlements began again to extend given in season, to save that and and their industry to revive.

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