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From what kmg, had Puritans great hopes of relief? James I.
Why? He had professed kindness to the suffering Puritans, and strong disapprobation of the ceremonies of the church of England. What was the result? The Puritans were most grievously disappointed.
How were their ministers treated? They were persecuted in every quarter.
In what year, commenced the reign of James I.? 1603.
Who was then Archbishop of Canterbury? Whitgift.
Who soon succeeded Whitgift, in that office? Bancroft.
Character of Bancroft? He was a more dreadful persecutor than Whitgift.
For what, was he a most proper tool? To execute the tyranny of James.
What did James say to some of the Puritans, after he had pretended to hear their defence at Hampton Court? "If this be all your party have to say, I will make them conform, or I will hurry them out of the land, or else do worse."
What did James do, that was worse? He restrained them from going out of the land, that he might persecute them there.
the clergy in the synod of 1563, and confirmed by the queen's majesty, to be sound, and according to the word of God;-that the queen's majesty is the chief governor, next under Christ, of this church of England, as well in ecclesiastical as civil causes;that in the Book of Common Prayer, there is nothing evil, or repugnant to the word of God; but that it may well be used in our Christian church of England;and that, as the public preaching of the word in this church of England, is sound and sincere, so the public order in the ministration of
CHAPTER XIX.-p. 37.
The Puritans, previously to their arrival at Cape Cod.
What measure did many of the Puritans adopt, to escape the tyranny of James? To leave their country.
To what country, did many of them flee? To Holland,
In what part of England, did the Plymouth colony originate? lu the northern part.
In what counties?
What was the occasion of then separating from the established church?
About what time, was that revival?
What did the converts resolve to enjoy? Liberty of conscience.
Who was the first pastor of a distinguished church, formed from these converts? Mr. Clifton.
Who was their next pastor 1 Mr. Robinson.
Who was the first elder of that church? Mr. Brewster.
Where did they conclude to go, to escape persecution?
What great difficulty was in the way of their flight?
What treatment was received by a number of Puritans, who attempted to escape at Boston? They
the sacraments is consonant to the word of God.' Some things in this form the Puritans did not believe, and could not believe. Had they therefore, acknowledged these things to be true, they must have been guilty of lying to God, and to their own consciences. They shuddered at the thought of committing such wickedness. bodies and goods, and all we have,' said they, ' are in her majesty's hands; only our souls we reserve to our God, who alone is able to save us, or condemn us.''
Brook's Lives of the Puritans, 1: 35, 39.
were betrayed to the officers of tyranny.
In what year, did Mr. Robinson's church escape to Holland? 1608.
On what coast, were they driven by a storm?
In what city, did they first settle in Holland?
Which way is Amsterdam from London?
How long did they continue at Amsterdam?
What was their principal motive for leaving Amsterdam?
To what city, did they remove? Which way is Leyden from Amsterdam?
How many communicants had they at one time, at Leyden? 300.
What favorable testimony did the magistrates of Leyden give to the Puritans ? *
What reasons are stated, as inducing the Puritans to leave Holland
To what wilderness did they resolve to take their flight?
*The integrity and piety of the Puritans procured them esteem and confidence in a land of strangers. Though poor, they had credit to borrow money of the Dutch, whenever they wished; for they were always punctual to pay. They were industrious and faithful; therefore, a preference was given to their custom and to their work.
Just before these fathers of NewEngland left the city, the Dutch magistrates, from the seat of justice, gave this honorable testimony of their worth. In addressing the Walloons, who were the French church, These English," say they, "have lived among us now these ten years, and yet we never had one suit or action come against them; but your strifes are continual."
In what year? 1617. How long after they removed to Amsterdam?
First measure, adopted, after this resolution? A meeting for fasting and prayer.
Where did they decide to set
What favor did they ask of James? Free toleration. What intimation did James give them ?
Why did not Mr. Robinson go with the first planters? It was judged best that he should remain in Holland with the majority of the church.
Who was appointed to go with the pilgrims, as their spiritual teacher? Elder Brewster
How many vessels did they procure for their enterprise? Names?
Which was the largest ?
Which did they purchase?
+ NOTE E.
Mr. Robinson's Farewell Address, and Letter.
All things being in readiness for their departure from Leyden, they kept a day of solemn humiliation and prayer. This was in July. On one part of the day, Mr. Robinson preached from Ezra 8: 21. "Then I proclaimed a fast at the river Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of him a right way for us and for our little ones and for all our substance." The conclusion of this discourse is truly excellent. It con tains an exhortation, which breathes a noble spirit of Christian liberty, and gives a just idea of the senti ments of this most excellent man. It exhibits a spirit of charity and genuine liberality, which perhaps
What spirit does his concluding exhortation breathe?
How, did he say, they should regard any new truth, that God should show them from his word?
From what, did he think, more truth would break forth?
has not been surpassed since the days of the apostles. This will appear the more remarkable and lovely, when we consider the general bigotry of the age, and the narrow principles of the Brownists, from which he had recently escaped.
"Brethren," said he, we are now quickly to part from one another, and whether I may live to see your face on earth any more, the God of heaven only knows; but whether the Lord hath appointed that or not, I charge you before God and his blessed angels, that you follow me no farther, than you have seen me follow the Lord Jesus Christ.
"If God reveal any thing to you by any other instrument of his, be as ready to receive it, as ever you were to receive any truth by my ministry. For I am verily persuaded I am very confident, that the Lord has more truth yet to break forth out of his holy word. For my part, I cannot sufficiently bewail the condition of the reformed churches, who are come to a period in religion, and will go, at present, no farther, than the instruments of their reformation. The Lutherans cannot be drawn to go beyond what Luther saw. Whatever part of his will our God revealed to Calvin, they will rather die, than embrace it. And the Calvinists, you see, stick fast, where they were left by that great man of God, who yet saw not all things.
"This is a misery, much to be lamented; for though they were burning and shining lights in their
What, did he say, Luther and Calvin would be willing to embrace, if they had been living?
What nickname did he advise them to shake off?
In what month, did they leave Leyden ?
times, yet they penetrated not into the whole counsel of God; but were they now living, would be as willing to embrace farther light, as that which they first received. I beseech you, remember, it is an article of your church-covenant,
That you be ready to receive whatever truth shall be made known to you from the written word of God.' Remember that, and every other article of your sacred covenant. But I must herewith exhort you to take heed, what you receive as truth. Examine it, consider it, and compare it with other scriptures of truth, before you receive it. For it is not possible, that the Christian world should come so lately out of such thick anti-christian darkness, and that perfection of knowledge should break forth at once.
"I must also advise you to abandon, avoid and shake off the name of Brownist. It is a mere nickname, and a brand for the making religion and the professors of it, odious to the Christian world."
Having said this, with some other things, relating to their private conduct, he devoutly committed them to the care and protection of divine providence.
While at Southampton, they received a most affectionate and instructive letter from their beloved pastor. The following extracts may give some idea of its spirit and its value.
"Loving Christian Friends,
"I do heartily and in the Lord, salute you, as being those, with whom I am present in my best
affections, and most earnest longing after you, though I be constrained for a while to be bodily absent from you. I say Constrained, God knowing how willingly, and much rather than otherwise, I would have borne my part with you in this first brunt, were I not by strong necessity, held back for the present. Make account of me in the mean time, as a man divided in myself, with great pain, and as (natural bonds set aside) having my better part with you. And although I doubt not, in your godly wisdoms, you both foresee and resolve upon that which concerneth your present state and condition, both severally and jointly, yet have I thought it my duty to add some further spur of provocation to them that run well already; if not because you need it, yet because I owe it in love and duty.
"And first, as we are daily to renew our repentance with our God; so doth the Lord call us in a particular manner, upon occasions of such difficulty and danger, as lieth upon you, to both a more narrow search and careful reformation of your ways in his sight.Sin being taken away by earnest repentance, and the pardon thereof sealed up to a man's conscience by his Spirit, great shall be his security and peace in all dangers, sweet his comforts in all distresses, with happy deliverance from all evil, whether in life or death.
"Next after this heavenly peace with God and our own consciences, we are carefully to provide for peace with all men - especially with our associates. For that, watchfulness must be had, that we
neither do give, nor easily take offence. Neither yet is it suf ficient, that we keep ourselves by the grace of God from giving of offence except withal we be armed against the taking of them, when they are given by others. In my own experience, few or none have been found, which sooner give offence, than such, as easily take it; neither have they proved sound or profitable members in societies, who have nourished this touchy humor.
"But besides these, there are divers motives provoking you above others, to great care and conscience this way; as first, you are many of you strangers as to the persons, so to the infirmities, one of another, and so to stand in need of more watchfulness this way which doth require at your hand, much wisdom and charity for the covering and preventing of incident offences that way. And lastly, your intended course of civil community will minister continual occasion of offence, and will be as fuel for the fire, except you diligently quench it with brotherly forbearance.
"And if taking offence causelessly, or easily, at men's doings, be so carefully to be avoided, how much more heed is to be taken, that we take not offence at God himself Which yet certainly we do, so oft as we do murmur at his providence in our crosses; or bear impatiently such afflictions, as wherewith he pleaseth to visit us. Store up, therefore, patience against the evil day, without which we take offence at the Lord himself in his holy and just works.
strikingly resemble in character? | Mr. Robinson.
Which way is Southampton from Winchester from Oxford ? Whom did they meet at Southampton?
From whom, did they receive a most interesting letter?
In what respect, did he say, he was present with them?
What, did he say, had held him back from going with them?
What, does he say, we must daily renew?
What peace should we seek, next after peace with God and our own consciences?
With what persons, should we especially strive to be at peace? What characters are generally most ready to give offence?
At whom, should we be more especially cautious not to take
"Lastly, whereas you are to become a body politic, using among yourselves, civil government - let your wisdom and godliness appear, not only in choosing such persons, as do entirely love, and will promote, the common good; but also in yielding unto them, all due honor and obedience in their lawful administrations; not beholding in them, the ordinariness of their persons, but God's ordinance, for your good; not being like the foolish multitude, who more honor the gay coat, than either the virtuous mind of the man, or the glorious ordinance of God. But you know better things, and that the image of the Lord's power and authority,
rulers? Because they would be
men of their own choice.
In what month, did the Pilgrims embark at Southampton?
Who was master of the May. flower? Capt. Jones.
Who was master of the Speed well? Capt. Reynolds.
What complaint did Reynolds soon make? That his vessel was leaky.
At what port, did they stop, to make repairs? At Dartmouth. At what port, did they next call? At Plymouth.
What was there the decision respecting the Speedwell?
Principal cause of her condemnation? The treachery of Reynolds.
What was done with her pas sengers ?
How many passengers did the Mayflower then contain?
On what month and day, did she sail from Plymouth?
-How long after Columbus first sailed from Gomera ?
What kind of a voyage had the Pilgrims? Stormy, dangerous and dreadful.
What land did they first discover ?
Present name of the place?
which the magistrate beareth, is honorable, in how mean persons soever. And this duty you ought the more conscionably to perform, because you are (at least for the present) to have them for your ordinary governors, which yourselves shall make choice of for that work.
"An unfeigned well-wisher to your happy success in this hopeful voyage.
This letter being read to the whole company at Southampton, was very gratefully received; and afterwards produced the most hap py effects.