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What people first deliberately formed and adopted a constitution of government for themselves?

In what, were our forefathers tried and proved and refined? From whom, does our history deserve attention ?

In whom, does it probably excite admiring gratitude?

Upon whom, has our history the highest claims?

When should the children of our country begin to learn our history? As soon as they can be interested with its most affecting stories.

When should they begin to pursue it as a regular study? When they are about 7 or 8 or 10 years old, according to their capacities and attainments.

What is chronology? Chronology is the science, that relates to dates, or the times when events took place.

In what connection, should chronology be studied? In connection with history.

Why? In order, that we may have a clear idea of the connection of events, and especially of the causes and consequences of such, as are most important.

Why do persons generally so soon forget the history, that they learn? From neglect of geography and chronology.

Why should young children study our history? To turn off their attention from vain and foolish things, and to impress upon

matter of indifference to have been descended from saints and heroes, of whom the "Queen of the Isles " was not worthy that we are reaping the luxuriant harvest in a land, which they found a wilderness, and left a fruitful field. God forbid, that we should forget, or coldly remember, our revolutionary heroes, who bought our independence at the price of every thing they held

their minds the most useful sentiments of religion, liberty and pat. riotism.

How long should we continue to study our own history? As long as we live.

Why do some think, they have already studied it enough? Probably because they never studied it, as they ought.


First 14 years of Columbus.

Into how many periods, does Mr. Goodrich divide the history of the U.S.?


commence ?

Which is the longest of these? By what, is the first period distinguished? In what year, did it How long ago Length of the first period? To what countries did the discoverers of the principal parts of America chiefly belong? Spain, England and France.

Of what nation, were the leaders of these discoveries? The Italian.

To whose naval enterprises, had the attention of Europe been recently drawn The Portuguese.

Object of the Portuguese in these enterprises? (See p. 10.)

What is meant by doubling the southern extremity of Africa?

dear on earth, and sealed our liberties with their blood. It is with peculiar and most impressive emphasis, that the voice of their toils and pains and sighs and tears and prayers and wounds and death, is crying to us, to learn their history, to embalm their memories in our hearts, to emulate their virtues, and as far as possible, to do for posterity, what our ancestors did for us.

Who was most excited by these | land, when his vessel caught fire

enterprises? Columbus.

Where was Columbus born?

In what year ?

How long ago?

In what country, is Genoa? About how far from Rome, ac-. cording to the map?

What was the Italian name of Columbus? Christoval Colon. What studies did he pursue in childhood? Geometry, geography, astronomy and drawing.

Why did he make great progress in these branches? Because he pursued them with most vigorous application,

Why did he pursue these studies with so much ardor? They were intimately connected with his great object.

What was his great object? become a skilful navigator.


What lesson does this teach respecting education? That the attention of the young should be principally directed to important practical subjects.

What lesson of self-denial does this teach us? That we should deny ourselves the pleasures of useless studies and pursuits.

CHAPTER IV. —p. 9.

Columbus, from his first going to sea, to the commencement of his first voyage to America.

At what age, did Columbus commence the business of a seaman? Under what captain, did he serve for several years? Capt. Colon.

With whom, did Capt. Colon often fight? With the Venetians and Mahometans.

For what, was Columbus distinguished under Capt. Colon? Bravery and seamanship.

How did Columbus escape to

near Portugal? By swimming. How far did he swim?

two leagues.

How many miles?


Where did he soon fix his residence? At Lisbon.

Of what country, is Lisbon the capital?

On what river? Which side? Which way from Madrid? About how far? 300 miles. How does that appear from the map? According to the map, the distance is equal to about four and a half degrees of latitude.

How many English miles is a degree of latitude? Very nearly 70; more exactly 69 and one fifth.

Whose daughter did Columbus marry at Lisbon ? Capt. Perestrello's.

Upon what subject, did Colum bus gain important instruction from Perestrello? Navigation.

In what direction, did Columbus expect to find a passage to India? What interesting discoveries had been made in the Atlantic?

To whom, did he first apply for patronage? The senate of Genoa.

Whom did Columbus consider as having the second claim to his services? John II. king of Portugal.

How did John treat the application of Columbus? With the utmost attention.

Who induced John to treat Columbus in a most base and perfidious manner? The advisers of John, to whom he had referred the subject.

What was this treatment? A vessel was secretly despatched to make the proposed discovery.

Why did this vile expedition fail? The conductor had by no means the genius, skill or perse verance of Columbus.

What did Columbus do, when he discovered this treachery? He instantly quitted the kingdom. To what country, did Columbus next repair? To Spain.

Whom did Columbus send to England about the same time? Who was then king of England? Who were then the united sovereigns of Spain?

How were they united? By marriage.

Did they reign unitedly over the whole, or each over a distinct part? Each over a distinct part.

Title of Ferdinand? The Catholic, king of Arragon.

Title of Isabella? Queen of Castile, or Queen of Castile and Leon.

How long did Columbus plead in vain with Ferdinand? Five years.

Why had Columbus heard nothing from his brother, during all this time? Bartholomew had fallen into the hands of pirates.

What court did, Columbus then determine to visit? The court of England.

What is meant by the court of England? The king of England, his ministers and particular associ

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CHAPTER V.- p. 11.

First voyage of Columbus.

With how many vessels, did Columbus undertake his first voyage to the new world? Names? With how many men?

For how long, were they victual led? One year.

Whole expense? About 4000 pounds sterling.

Value of a pound sterling? Four dollars and 44 cents.

Value of 4000 pounds sterling? In what year, was this voyage?

Month and day??
Day of the week?

From what port, did he sail? Where is Palos? In Spain, very near the S. E. corner of Por tugal.

Which way from Jamestown? Exactly east.

Where did Columbus expect to land? In India.

At what islands, did he at first touch?

Which way are the Canaries from Palos?

To which quarter of the world, are the Canaries nearest ?

From which of the Canaries, did he take his departure? Gomera. In what direction?

How were many of the sailors affected, when they lost sight of the Canaries? They wept and smote their breasts, fearing they should never see land again.

How did Columbus comfort them? By the prospect of vast wealth.

From whom, did Columbus conceal the progress, that he made? From the sailors.

Why? To prevent their being distressed with the idea of being so far from home.

With what wonderful appearance were they greatly alarmed, when they were 600 miles from

Gomera? The variation of the magnetic needle.

What is meant by the variation of the needle? Its not pointing exactly north.

How did Columbus quiet their fears? He invented a pretended


What new difficulty had Columbus, when they had proceeded about 800 leagues? Insurrection.

What did they wish? To return to Spain.

How did some of them propose to get rid of Columbus? To throw him into the sea.

How did he quell the insurrection? He soothed and threatened; he addressed their avarice and amrition.

How long did they then proceed quietly? About a week.

What did they then do? They assembled on deck, and required Columbus to steer instantly for Europe.

What promise did he make? To sail back, if they did not discover land in three days.

How long was it from that time, before they discovered land? About two days.

On what month and day? How did they then treat Columbus? They threw themselves at his feet, and begged his pardon.

With what ceremony, did Columbus and his followers land?

To whom did they return thanks, and sing praise? To God.

Whom did the natives think the Spaniards to be?

What did they consider the ships?

What was the only valuable manufacture, that the natives could produce? Cotton yarn.

What did the natives call their boats? Canoes.

What did the natives call this island? Guanahana.

What did Columbus call it? San Salvador.

What ornaments did many of the natives wear in their nostrils ? Plates of gold.

Where did they intimate, that gold_abounded? In countries to the South.

In what direction, did Columbus then sail from San Salvador? South.

What very great island did he soon discover? Cuba.

How large a village did he discover in Cuba? It consisted of 1000 inhabitants.

What very important grain did he discover in Cuba? Maize.

What name do we generally give to this grain? Indian corn, or


Why is it called Indian corn? Because it was first found among the Indians.

What great island did Columbus next discover? Hayti.

What did he call it? Hispaniola.

Meaning of Hispaniola ? Little Spain.

Name most generally given to Hayti? St. Domingo.

Which way is St. Domingo from Cuba - From San Salvador?

How were the Spaniards treated by the Haytians? With very great kindness.

Cause of this kindness? The Spaniards were considered as celestial beings.

At what island, did Columbus leave a colony of 33 men? At Hayti.

Why were the Haytians glad to have this colony remain? To defend them from the Carribees.

Where did the Carribees live? On the Carribean islands.

Which way from Hayti? Character of the Carribees? They were horrible plunderers and cannibals.

Why did Columbus find it necessary to hasten back to Spain? On account of the impatience of

his men, and the bad condition of his ships.

What dreadful calamity did he experience on his return? A tremendous storm.

What method did he adopt, to preserve a knowledge of his discoveries?

When did he arrive in Spain

where he had left his colony? Nothing but desolation.

What had become of the colony! Some had been slain by the natives; and the rest were drowned in attempting to escape.

What city did Columbus soon build? Isabella.

How long had he been absent? Where? On the northern cen

How extensively did his fame immediately spread? Throughout Europe.

What was the new world generally thought to be? A part of India.


Second voyage of Columbus.

Who patronized the second voyage of Columbus? Both Ferdinand and Isabella.

Of how many vessels, did his second fleet consist? 17.

With how many men? 1500. From whom, did Ferdinand and Isabella obtain a grant of the lands they wished to occupy? From the Pope.

Why? Because they were claimed by the Portuguese.

Who was then Pope? Alexander VI.

What was his character? He was a monster of wickedness.

What right had the Pope to make such a grant? No right.

Why was he supposed to have such a right? He was considered as Christ's vicegerent on earth.

Meaning of vicegerent?

In what year, did Columbus commence his second voyage? In 1493.

Why did he sail farther to the south than before? To have the benefit of the trade winds.

What did he find at Navidad,

of Hayti.

First city in America, built by Europeans? Isabella.

Most important island discovered by Columbus on his second voyage Jamaica.

Which way is Jamaica from San Salvador?

What part of Cuba is between ? What part of the adventurers on this voyage died in a very few months? Two thirds.

How long was Columbus employed in subduing the Haytians? Several months.

Upon what natives did Columbus impose a tax? All above 14 years old.

In what, was the tax paid? Gold dust or cotton.

How did the Haytians attempt to destroy their oppressors? By


How? By leaving their own lands uncultivated, and destroying their esculent roots.

Meaning of esculent?

Who were the victims of this plot? The Haytians themselves. What part of them died? More than a third.

How were the Spaniards preserved? By supplies from Spain.

Who persuaded the court of Spain to send out Aguado, to watch the conduct of Columbus? The enemies of Columbus.

What did Columbus do to avoid his inspection, and justify himself? He repaired to Spain.

By what course did he return to Europe? An eastern course.

With what difficulty did he continually struggle? The trade winds.

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