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What name did they loudly in- How many militia soon joined voke?

the American standard ? 1500. Why did W. find it necessary to From what state ? Pa. detach a part of his army?

What had dissipated the terror of the tories ?

What proclamation did the
Howes send out ?

To whom, was a pardon offered ?
Effect of this proclamation ? CHAPTER LIV.- p. 183.

To what, did the cause of Amer. ica seem hastening?

Confederation of the states.

BatViews and feelings of W. upon tles of. Trenton and Princeton. that subject ?

Washington at Morristown With what aspect, did he show Patriotism of Congress. himself to his soldiers ?

Who assisted and comforted When the American cause was him ?

at the lowest point, in '76, how did safety, every, American soldier be daily flocking to the royal army, comes impatient of the camp; and to make their peace and obtain in a very short time, the army is protection. They saw on the one almost annihilated. Many with side, a numercus, well appointed draw, and it is actually reduced to and full clad army, dazzling their one sixth part of what it was three eyes with the elegance of uniformimonths before from 17,000 to less ty; on the other, a few poor felthan 3,000. Some hope had been lows, who, from their shabby apindulged, that the royal troops pearance, were called ragumuffins, would go into winter quarters, and Aeeing for their safety.' They leave the little shattered remnant consisted mostly

of the troops, that of the patriot army, to enjoy re- had garrisoned Fort Lee, and had pose, wherever they could find an been compelled to abandon that asylum from the snow and from post so suddenly, that they comthe blast. But no, they must be menced their retreat without tents pursued. Animated by success, or blankets, and without any utenthe British become more sanguine sils to dress their provisions.". In than ever with the hope of speedily this situation, they performed a terminating the war of crushing march of about 90 miles, through rebellion at a blow. Washington the greater part of the length of with his destitute and shivering N. J. “The pursuit was urged band, must flee - flee for life with so much rapidity, that the rear flee for the life of liberty and inde- of the one army, pulling down pendence, as well as for their own bridges, was often within sight and life. And do not multitudes flock shot of the van of the other, buildto the standard of the retreating ing them up:"? hero? Is he not immediately so * Every thing at this period of reinforced, as to be able to face the the war," says Botta, “ threatened pride of Britain, and drive back the America with an inevitable catasdesolating scourge? Let Dr. Ram- trophe. The army was so enfeesay reply, “As the retreating Amer. bled, that it scarcely amounted to icans marched through the country, 3000, who had lost all courage and scarcely, one of the inhabitants all energy, and were exposed in an joined them, while numbers were open country, without instruments

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Congress feel with regard :0 ulti-
mate success ?

In what, were they engaged in
drawing up and discussing ?

Meaning of confederation ?
Who had submitted to Congress,

articles of confederation in "751 Dr. Franklin.

Why were they not then acted upon Most of the members were unprepared for such a measure.

When was the subject resumed ?

to entrench themselves, without intended. Multitudes came to imtents to shelter thein, and in the plore the Royal forgiveness, and midst of a population, little zeal- | promise submission: Nor was it ous, or rather hostile, to the re- merely in N. J. in the midst of the public.”

victorious royal troops, that these “ In so profound a distress, the abrupt changes of paily were obAmerican general could not hope served to take place. The inhablo receive prompt or suiticient rein- itants of Pa. flocked, in like manforcements. Consternation reigned ner, to humble themselves at the in all the contiguous provinces ; so teet of the commissioners, and to that each, treinbling for himself, | promise obedience. Every day refused to succor others. Upon ushered in some new calamity; the heel of so many disasters, was and the cause of America seemed the imminent danger of seditions hastening to ruin. The most dison the part of the disaffected, who creet no longer dissembled, that in various places loudly invoked the end of the war was at hand; the name of England. An insur- and that the hour was come, in rection appeared ready to explode which the colonists were abouí to in the county of Monmouth in the resume the yoke. very heart of N. J.; so that Wash- “ But Washington, in the midst ington found himself constrained to of so much adversity, did not dedetach a part of his army, already spair. His constancy was an oba inere skeleton, to overawe theject of admiration. Far from beagitators. The presence of a vic-traying any symptoms of hesitation torious royal army had dissipated or fear, he showed himself to his the terror, with which the patriots dejected soldiers, with a serene at first inspired the loyalists. They countenance, and radiant, as it began to abandon themselves, with- were, with a certain hope of a bet. out reserve, to all the fury, which ter future. Adverse fortune had animated them against their adver- not been able to vanquish, nay, saries. Encouraged by this, the not even to shake, this invincible Howes circulated a proclamation spirit.”. He was indeed supportthrough the country, commanding ed and comforted by Congress. all those who had arms in their Firmly resolved to pursue their hands, to disperse and return to object through every fortune, they their habitations; and all those manifested a similar constancy. It who exercised civil magistracies, to appeared as if the spirit of these cease their functions, and divest great minds increased with adverthemselves of their usurped author- sity." ity. At the same time, a full par- This may serve as a specimen don was offered to all such, as with- of the trials of Washington, and of in 60 days should present them- the incomparable sublimity of his selves before the officers of the stupendous mind. Other trials incrown, and promise obedience to

deed he had, perhaps even greater, the laws and authority of Britain.

which for want of room must be This proclamation had the effect passed over in comparative silence



A little before independence was What states had acceded to it, declared.

more than two years before ? All Why did it then appear peculi- , but Md. arly needful ? For mutual security, Why was the assent of Md. so and for obtaining foreign aid. long delayed? The people of that

By whom were these articles pre- state insisted, that the western and pared ? By a committee of twelve uncultivated lands, which, by the delegates, one from each state, ex- treaty of Paris, had been ceded to cept N. J.

England, should be the general When were they submitted to property of all the states, and not Congress ? The next week after ihe particular property of those the declaration of Independence. states, that by royal charters

How long were they under con- claimed these lands. sideration at that session ? Nearly How was the matter finally sela month.

tled? The point was in a great When was the subject again re- measure yielded to Md. sumed ? In the spring of 77. What state nobly took the lead

What occasioned so long delay ? | in making the concession ? N. Y. The difficulty of agreement, and ihe Effect of this long delay ? It gloomy aspect of our affairs. probably conduced to protract the

When were the articles adopted by Congress ? Nov. 15, 1777. What if the union had been de.

What name did the articles of layed several years longer ? The confederation give to the states ? war would probably have been proTHE UNITED STATES OF AMER- tracted still farther.

Why did the confederation conFor what, did they enter into a duce to bring the war to a close ? firm league of friendship? For Our enemies had presumed, that we their defence and mutual welfare. never could confederate. When

Against what, did they bind they saw it actually done, they themselves, to assist each other ? were confounded, and probably in Against all force or attacks, made a great measure discouraged from upon any of them.

attempting to subdue the new reWhat civil privileges was every public. state to retain ! Its sovereignty, Why did our enemies think, that freedom and independence, and the colonists could never confederevery right, not expressly yielded ate? On account of their differto the United States.

Mention some of the most impor- In what? In origin, in religion, tant rights yielded. The righi of in manners and customs, and espemaking war or peace, or treaties cially in interest. with other nations.

Why are the battles of Trenton When was the union completed and Princeton treated of in the by the acceptance of all the states ? same nole? March 1, 1781.





because they appear to have reBattles of Trenton and Prince heroism, and to have coalesced in

sulted from one amazing effort of

producing vast effects upon friends These two articles are considered and foes. Considered as one, they in the same note, because they so may doubtless be regarded as the nearly coincided in time and place, I most efficacious and beneficial of all prevent this?

How may they be regarded, What great city was in danger when considered as one ?

of being soon taken by Cornwallis ? What disaster did they counter- Who made it his great object to balance?

When did Washington retreat What great river was then beaeross the Delaware ?

Iween Cornwallis and PhiladelIn what state was he, when he phia ? bad crossed the Delaware ?

What did Washington do, to preOf what state, was Cornwallis vent Cornwallis from crossing the then master ?

Delaware ?

as more

our military operations

contempt for the poor, ragged, nathan counterbalancing the disaster ked, iying rebels was no less than at Brooklyn, and as furnishing the their abhorrence. One of their ofbrightest jewel in the crown of ficers tauntingly said, that with a Washington. No battle that has corporal's guard, he would engage been fought within 100 years, there to repel every attack, that the rebfore, seems to claim' more attention els would dare to make. This from the friends of freedom. very security of the enemy prob

Though Washington had just re- ably suggested to Washington, a ceived å reinforcement of 2000 thought, which no one could have men, mostly Philadelphians, he cherished but himself, and led him was constrained to flee with his to form the design of striking a army from Trenton across the Del-blow, that should be as terrible to aware. This humiliating event took the enemy, as it would be sudden. place December 8. Cornwallis was In other circumstances, it might now master of N. J. and there was have been criminal rashness; but the greatest danger, that he would now it was as prudent, as it was cross that river, and seize upon daring. Though by several reinPhiladelphia, and perhaps put an forcements, his army was augmentend to the war and to our liberties ed to 7000 heterogeneous troops, at once. To prevent this was the yet there was the greatest reason to grand object of the American fear, that this army would be soon chief. He endeavored to secure dispersed and annihilated, and that every boat upon the river, and to the cause of liberty would sink. place the most effectual guards “ The present aspect of their afalong the western bank. He did fairs," says Marshall, “ not think it prudent, however, to tremely unfavorable to the U. S. trust to these securities for a single The existing army, except a few moment longer, than was absolute- regiments from Va. Pa. Md. and ly necessary. 'At that season of N. Y. affording an effective force the

year, one or two days of freez. of about 1500 men, would dissolve ing weather might give the royal in a few days. New Jersey had in troops an easy passage to the cap- a great measure, submitied, and the ital.' Probably in expectance of

militia of Pa. had not displayed the this, the British had taken up their alacrity expected from them. Gen. quarters in several places in N. J. Howe would, most probably, avail for the greater convenience of plun- himself of the ice, which was to be dering the inhabitants, and terrify- expected, and of the dissolution of ing them into loyalty. There the the American army, to pass the royal troops felt very nearly as se- Delaware, and seize Philadelphia. cure, as though they had been at This event was dreaded, not only deace with all the world. Their on account of its intrinsic impor

was ex

What probably suggested to Of what advantages would Washington the thought of attack. Howe be likely to avail himself, ing the British ?

to seize Philadelphia ? What might it have been in 'oth- Why would such an event be er circumstances ?

then peculiarly disastrous ? What was the whole number of What plan did Washington then W.'s army at that time?

form ? What was there the greatest By how many divisions of his reason to fear, respecting that ar

army? my?- respecting the cause of lib- What night was chosen to com

mence the expedition ? - Why? What state had, in a great meas- How many divisions were unaure, submitted to the enemy? ble to cross the river ?


tance at any time, but on account himself, with 24 hundred of his of its peculiar importance at this, choicest spirits. In spite of the when that army was to be recruit- war of elements, in spite of every ed, on which the future hopes of obstacle, they were enabled by the America were to rest. It was good hand of their God upon them, feared, and with reason, that this to cross the river; though much event would make so unfavorable more time was requisite, than had an impression on the public mind, been anticipated. At 4 in the as to deter the American youth morning, they were ready to comfrom engaging in a contest, becom- mence their march of nine miles ing desperate."

down to Trenton. This they did At this awful crisis, Washington in two columns, by two roads, in formed the plan of passing the riv- order to attack the enemy at differ. er, and attacking several British

ent points. Washington, at the posts at the same time. This was head of his column, took the eastintended to be done by three divis. ern road; and at 8 o'clock, attackions of his army crossing the river ed and drove in the guard upon in different places. The night of that road. In three minutes, he had Dec. 25th was wisely chosen for the satisfaction to hear the guns of the commencement of this expedi- the column, that had taken the river tion, as the excesses of Christmas road. Their arriving so nearly at would, doubtless, render the enemy the same time, was a most wonderless vigilant and active the next ful smile of Providence. Had there morning, than any other morning been one half hour's difference, the

expedition might have ended in deThis great design, however, was feat and destruction to the Ameriexecuted but in part. 'Two divis. ions of the army under Generals At so late an hour in the mornCadwallader and Irvine, toiled and ing, Col. Rawle was prepared with toiled and toiled in vain, in at- his Hessians, to give our men a tempting to cross the Delaware. warm reception. Though attacked The piercing cold, the storm and in two places almost at the same tempest of mingled rain and hail moment, the defence might have and snow, together with the float- been obstinate, and the contest treing ice, with which the river was mendous, if that gallant officer had deeply loaded, baffled all their ef- not been cut down by a death-blow, forts, and drove them most reluc- at the very commencement of the tantly to their camps.

action. This instantly threw his Not so with the other division, troops into confusion; and very which consisted of Washington / soon nearly 1000 laid down their

in the year.

can cause.

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