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some of the laws, that he had aided What had the colonists done for in passing ?

redress, in every stage of oppresHow had he abdicated govern sion ? — How answered ? ment here?

Of what, had the colonists warnWhat other flagrant injuries had ed their British brethren ? he committed against us ?

To what, had they appealed ? What was he then doing, to coin What had the colonists conjured plete the work of death, desolation them to disavow? and tyranny ?

To whom, did Congress appeal Against whoin, had he constrain for the rectitude of their intentions ? ed some of our captured citizens, to What did they then declare the bear arms ?

colonies to be ?

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here; we have appealed to their we mutually pledge to cach other, dative justice and magnanimity; our lives, our fortunes, and our and we have conjured them by the sacred honor. ties of our common kindred, to dis

these usurpations, which Signed by order and in behalf of would inevitably interrupt our

the Congress, Le connections and correspondence. JOHN HANCOCK, President.

They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity.

Attest, We must therefore acquiesce in CHARLES THOMPSON, Secretary. the necessity, which denounces our

separation, and hold them, as we In the course of a few weeks, * hold the rest of mankind, enemies this Declaration was signed by the in peace, friends.

following members, constituting alWe therefore, the representatives most the whole Congress. Some of the United States of America, in of them, however, were chosen general Congress 'assembled, ap after the 4th of July. pealing to the Supreme Judge of Of Ms. Samuel Adams, John the world for the rectitude of our Adams, Robert Treat Paine, El. intentions, do, in the name, and by bridge Gerry; the authority of the good people of of N. H. Josiah Bartlett, Wilthese colonies, solemnly publish liam Whipple, Matthew Thornton; and declare, that these united col Of R. I. Stephen Hopkins, Wm. onies are, and of right ought to Ellery; be, FREE

INDEPENDENT or Ćt. Roger Sherman, Samuel STATES; and that they are ab Huntington, William Williams, Isolved from all allegiance to the Oliver Wolcott;

British crown; and that all political Of N. Y. William Floyd, Philip connexion between them and the Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis state of Great Britain, is and ought Morris ; to be totally dissolved; and that, Of N. J. Richard Stockton, John as free and independent states, Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, they have full power to levy war, John Hart, Abraham Clark; conclude peace, contract alliances, Of Pa. Robert Morris, Benjamin establish commerce, and to do alí Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John other acts and things which inde Morton, George Clymer, James

pendent states may of right do. Smith, George Taylor, James Wil. * And for the support of this decla son, George Ross;

ration, with a firm reliance on the of Del. Cesar Rodney, George protection of Divine Providence, Read, Thoinas M'Kean ;

AND

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In whose name?

CHAPTER LII. p. 179. From what, absolved ?

What did they mutually pledge Washington at N. Y. Battle of in support of this declaration ?

Brooklyn. Buttle of White Relying upon what ?

Plains. Capture of Fort By whom, was this signed in be Washington. Washington's half of Congress ?

Retreat in N. J. By whom, in a few weeks ?

By whom, from your native What place did Washington take state?

for his head quarters, after leaving From what state, was there the Cambridge! - - Why? greatest number of signers ?

Off what island, did Gen. Howe From what state, was there the arrive in June ? least number?

With what army? Whole number?

Where had they been ? Average of the ages to which What is Sandy Hook? A small thev lived ?

island, south of N. Y. city, and very How was this declaration re near the coast of N. J. ceived through the land ?

By whom from England, was By whom, with peculiar exulta Gen. Howe soon joined, off Sandy tion?

Hook ? What did the soldiers hope ?

What relation was Lord Howe How did the people view the to Gen. Howe? Brother. evils, which they suffered from the How large was the army, formed

by their united forces ? By what prospect, were they Where did they land? On Stapeculiarly animated ?

ten Island. Of Md. Samuel Chase, William the Bostonians. The soldiers hopPacha, Thomas Slone, Charles ed, that they should no longer be Carroll; t

branded with the odious name of Of Va. George Wythe, Richard | rebels. They were animated by Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, the consideration, that they should Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nel not risk their lives for the trifling son, jun. Francis Lightfoot Lee, purpose of procuring a repeal of a Carton Braxton ;

few oppressive laws, but for a new Of N. C. William Hooper, Jo- organization of government, that seph Hewes, John Penn;.

would forever put it out of the powOrs. C. Edward Rutledge, Tho er of Britain to oppress them. The mas Heyward, jun. Thomas Lynch, people were encouraged to bear up jun. Arthur Middleton ;

under the calamities of war, and Or Ga. Button Gwinnett, Lyman viewed the evils they suffered, only Hall, George Walton.

as the thorn, that accompanies the

rose. They were peculiarly ani. This Declaration was soon pub- mated by the prospect of an exten. lished through the land, and receiv. sive and unfettered commerce. ed with transports of joy. With That separation, which they had peculiar exultation, was it hailed deprecated, as an evil, they now by the army, by the Virginians and gloried in, as a blessing. But prob

ably no one had then, or has since

had, any adequate idea, how great + The only survivor in 1829. He and extensive a blessing it was desa died Nov. 14, 1832.

tined to prove.

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How far from N. Y. 1

Why is it called the battle of On what days ? The third and Brooklyn? Because it was in the furth of July

vicinity of Brooklyn. For what, was the latter day Of what did that battle consist ? Pot Pin greatly distinguished ?

Several engagements in different
How many square miles does places.
Staten Island contain ? About 100. Why is it sometimes called the

What difficulties did the Howes battle of Long Island ? Because the profess to have power to settle ? different actions were on different

Why would not Washington re-
ceive a letter, which they sent him ? How many men did we lose ?

Why was Washington so punc- Nearly 3000.
tilious? It would be very dishon How many generals captured ?
orable to receive a private letter How much greater was our loss

than the British ?
Whom did the Howes send, to

Effects of the battle of Brooklyn ? negotiate with Washington ? Col. It seems to have occasioned the trePatterson.

mendous evils, that soon followed How did W. and P. treat each and brought our cause to the brink other? Very politely.

of ruin. What title did P. give W. in con

Character of the battle of Brook. versation? Your Excellency. lyn? Probably, of all battles, the

What power, did it appear, that most disastrous to this country. the Howes possessed ?

Why did not Washington order What did w. say to that? As reinforcements from N. Y.? the Americans had committed no ♡ To what place, did W. withfault, they needed no pardon. draw his remaining troops from L.

$ How numerous was the Amer I.? ican army in and near N. Y.? How long after the battle, was

In what part of Long Island, had this retreat ? a great part of the American army

What two occurrences in divine encamped ? Brooklyn.

providence wonderfully favored the Under whom? Gen. Putnam.

escape of our men ? Which way is Brooklyn from N. What would probably have been Y.?

the consequence, if these occurrenWhen did the British forces cross ces had not taken place? Probathe Narrows, and laud on Long Isl. bly every American there would and ? Aug. 22.

have been shortly slain or captured; What are the Narrows? A strait and worst of all, Washington himthat separates Long Island from self would have been lost to the Staten Island.

cause of freedom. How long had those forces been How far from the Americans, on Staten Island ?

were the British encamped ? One on what day, was fought the third of a mile. + battle of Brooklyn ?

For what purpose, was Capt.

formation respecting the enemy. # NOTE C. C.

Col. K, communicated the GenCapt. Nathan Hale.

eral's request to Capt. Hale, who at Gen. Washington, after the re once offered himself a volunteer for treat from Long Island, applied to that hazardous service. Having Col. Knowlton, to

adopt some passed in disguise to Long Island, method of gaining the necessary in examined every part of the British

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Hale sent to Long Island, soon af How many weeks, after the bat ter this retreat ?

tle of White Plains 1 How far did he succeed ?

What other fort was soon evacu What order did Howe issue on ated ? his apprehension ?

Where was Fort Lee ? Oppo What favors were denied him ? site to Fort. Washington, W: of

What reason was assigned for the H. destroying his letters ?

What large river, did WashWhat was his dying observa- | ington cross about that time? tion !

North River. ♡ Result of the skirmish at Har Another name for North Riv laein ?

To what place, did Washington Through a considerable part of soon withdraw, with part of his what state, did W. then retreat ? troops ?

Who closely pursued him? Which way are White Plains Through what considerable from N. Y.?

places ? How soon after the battle of Which is most westerly, Newark Brooklyn, did the British take pos or Trenton ? session of N. Y.? About a furt What river did Washington cross night.

from Trenton ? When was fought the battle of Into what state ? White Plains ? Vct. 28.

Which way is Trenton from What was the issue ?

Philadelphia ? - from N. Y.? V On what river, was Fort Wash To which, is it nearest ? ington ?

Which side? The E. Under what circumstances of How far from N. Y.? 10 miles. deep depression did Washington By whom, commanded!

conduct this retreat ? By whom, captured ?

♡ What American general has How many were taken prison- been peculiarly distinguished by

trials and perplexities? - When?

ers?

was

army, and obtained the best possi. know, they had a man in their ar ble intelligence, respecting its situ- my, who could die with so much ation and intended operations, he firmness.”. was apprchended in his attempt to Capt. Hale united in his characreturn, and brought before Sir Wil ter the soldier, the patriot and the liam Howe, who gave immediate scholar. His dying observation order to the provost marshal to ex was, “I only lament, that I have ecute him the next morning. The but one life to lose for my counorder was accordingly executed in try." This estimable man a nost unfeeling manner, and hy born in Coventry, Ct. and eduas great a savage, as ever dis- cated at Yale College, where he graced humanity.

was graduated in 1773. The attendance of a clergyman was refused him, and a bible, though requested, was not procured. Letters written to his

* NOTE D. D. muther and friends on the morning wretched state of the army, and of his execution, were destroyed; the provost marshal assigning this

magnanimity of Washington af. extraordinary reasou for that out.

ter the evacuation of Fort Lee. rage,

" that the rebels should not Perhaps no man ever endured a

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Cambridge with every demonstra

What care, in a great measure, How greatly was the American devolved upon him?

army reduced within 3 months ? Who aided him ?

What hope had been cherished To what, may his difficulties be respecting the royal army, after the

evacuation of Fort Lee ?
Can you mention one of the With what hope, did the British
most dreadful of his long trials ? then become more sanguine than
What was probably the influ-

ever?
ence of his previous prosperity, What opprobrious name
upon this trial ?

given to the retreating soldiers ? Mention some particulars of this Where did consternation reign ? prosperity.

What danger was there from the First scene of his great sorrow ? disaffected? greater aggregate of perplexities enabled to drive the British from and trials in an equal time, than Boston; and had been received

Washington, during the first six by her half famished, half frozen Nevzal years of the war; or exhibited a citizens, by such a burst of grate

greater amount of magnanimity ful rapture, as was probably never under them. He had to contend before nor since, excited there, nor with a most powerful enemy, un ever shall be, by mortal man. der vast and numberless disadvan- Long Island seems to have been tages. Though Congress and his the first scene of his mighty sorlitte band of trusty officers afforded

rows, though not indeed of his him all the aid in their power, yet amazing cares and toils. With upon him, in a great measure, de the most pungent anguish, he was volved the care of raising his men,

there destined to behold 'some of of forming them into soldiers, of his choicest troops cut down or and we feeding, clothing and paying them, captured, by hundreds and by

of directing their operations, of thousands, without being able to We providing military stores, of watch afford them the least relief.

ing the movements of the enemy,
and of discovering and defeating " And now misfortunes take their
their designs. His difficulties may

turn to reign,
be regarded as a vast chain of And ills on ills succeed, a dread-
lofty mouutains, scarcely separated

ful train!”
by a plain or vale, with numerous
peaks, lifting their black and crag-

Very soon he is constrained to Their sy heads above their fellows. One quit Ñ. Y. city. Within a few

of the most dreadful of these, was weeks, he deems it prudent to that which he passed from the vi

leave N. Y. Island. About the cinity of Fori Lee to the Dela 12th of Nov. he crosses the Hudware. Its duration was about 20 son and joins Gen. Greene near days. This must have been ren Fort Lee the next day. Within dered more distressing by his pre

three days, Nov. 16, he is robbed vious prosperity. He had been of 26 hundred of his best remainsuddenly elevated to the highest ing troops, being the whole garrimilitary office and honor, that the son of Fort Washington. Within love of freedom could confer. He two or three days after, Fort Lee had been welcomed and hailed at must be evacuated, or its garrison

of 1500 must share the same fate. tion of confidence and of joy, that Terrified by these dreadful dis. beart could wish. He had been asters, and trembling for his own

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