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What commander immediately

What British commanders conmarched into Boston ?

ducted an attack upon the fort on How was he received by the in- Sullivan's Island ? kabitants ?

In what year? 1776. How long had the Bostonians Who defended the fort! suffered from British outrages ? What was the issue ?

Where did 1500 loyalists with What was the fort called, from their families, go ?

that time? Fort Moultrie.
For what purpose, had meeting What states obtained a respite
houses been stripped of pews and from war by means of this repulse ?

How long?
With what perfidious cruelty, had
Gage treated the Bostonians? He
promised to sun or them to leave
lown, if they would deliver up
their arms; but when they had
complied with the condition, he

CHAPTER LII. - p. 177.
would let but few of them go.
To what city, did Washington

Independence. repair with the greater part of his army, soon after the evacuation of What did the enemies of the colBoston ? To New York.

onists often accuse them of desiring Near what city, is Sullivan's Isl- and seeking ? + and ?

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† Note B. B.

seeking independence almost from Independence.

the beginning. But this our fa

thers constantly, and no doubt sinOf all human transactions of a cerely denied, with the most solemn political nature, the declaration of professions of loyalty to the king our independence may unquestion- of England. When oppressed, they ably be regarded as the most mag- wished to cast off the yoke of op nanimous and the most beneficial. pression, but not of allegiance. It For the production of this event, does uot appear, that the Writs of millions and millions of important Assistance, in '61, or the Sugar events were made to conspire, Act in '64, or the Stamp Act in '65, through a long lapse of ages and or the British declaration in '66, centuries, and these events were of their right to bind the colonies probably few, compared with those, in all cases whatever, or the quadwhich were destined to flow from ruple Revenue Act in '67, or keepour independence. To the philos. ing standing armies among them in opher, to the patriotic American, '68 and at other times, or the Bosto the friend of man, scarcely any ton Massacre in '70, or the crafty object can be more interesting or and insidious tea-expedition in "73, important. Is it not strange - is it or the Boston Port Bill in '74, or not grievous, that a subject so mo- its dreadful operation in "75 and mentous, a subject that is soon to '76, or the many aggressions and be hailed and shouted through the abominations of the royal governworld, should have received no ors — it does not appear, that any more attention from the historic of these injuries at the time of per

petration, or all of them together, The enemies of the colonists of. till some time after, induced our ten accus

of desiring and most ardent patriots to think seri


How did they answer it?

Who nas represented IndepenCan you mention some of their dence as having been horn in '61 ? grievances, that seemed sufficient What did he probably mean by to make them wish for indepene that expression? Thai an event deuce ?

took place, which was most emiCan you mention the dates of nently conducive to independence. some of them ?

How does it appear, that he did For what object did they fight not then consider the Bostonians at Lexington, Concord, West Cam- determined upon independence ? bridge and Charlestown ?

What associations would the pa

ously of a separation from Britain. In Nov. 1775, Richard Penn, When they fought and bled at Lex- | Gov. of Pa. whom Congress had ington, at Concord, at West Cam- sent with their petition t to the bridge, at Charlestown - when they king, was excuined before the mustered by tens of thousands in House of Commons upon this very the region of Boston, it was not point. He there solemnly testified, for independence, but to repel in- that he did not believe, that Conjuries and obtain redress. Mr.gress had formed any designs of inAdams has indeed represented, that dependence. Independence was born at Boston From such a state of loyalty, in '61. Yet he could not mean, that there was a sudden transition in any one at that time, had a serious favor of separation. the course design or thought of independence. of three or four short months, the For in '75, he declared, “ There is whole population of the colonies not a man in the province among became almost unanimous in favor the whigs, nor ever was, who har. of independence. This appears to bors a wish of that sort,(a wish be one of the most remarkable for independence.) Again, “our events that ever transpired in the patriots have never determined or universe of thought. I know not, desired to be independent states." that any one has fully accounted Though a train of mighty causes for it; and yet perhaps, strange as had been preparing the way for in- it is, it is not altogether unaccountdependence, yet it is manifest from able. the measures, which they adopted, The Governor of the world apthey had no such object in view. pears to have made in his proviá Had independence been their dence, the most wonderful arrangeobject,” says Dr. Ramsay, “ even ments for just such an event. at the commencement of hostilities, Oppressed, mocked, grieved and they would have rescinded the as- exasperated, as the colonists had sociations for non-importation, and been, many of them must have imported more largely than ever. sighed in secret for independence, Common sense revolts at the idea, if it had not appeared impracticathat colonists, ünfurnished with mil- ble - for independence, that they itary stores, and wanting manu- durst not name to their nearest confactures of every kind, should, at fidants. For in the way of declar the time of their intending a serious ing and maintaining independence, struggle for independence, by a there seemed to be difficulties, apvoluntary agreement, deprive themselves of the obvious means of pro

+ This last ineffectual petition, to curing such foreign supplies, as which the king and his ministers, their circumstances might make would not deign to give an answer, necessary."

was styled the oLIVE BRANCH,

upon this

- to

One was

triots have rescinded, if they had What if these difficulties could had independence in view ? have been removed ?

Who was examined before the By what measures, in '75, did House of Commons

the British render our situation despoint ?

perate ? What did Gov. Penn testify ? When did intelligence of these

What sudden transition then took acts reach the colonies ? place in the minds of the colonists ? With what effect ?

What had appeared in the way What indignity was shown lo the of independence ?

king's speech? palling to the stoutest heart. Could the wavering became resolved; ihese have been removed, we should the timid grew bold; and the lovers probably have declared indepen- of peace were willing to gird on the dence many years before. It only harness of war. remained, then, for the British to On this stupendous occasion, the render our situation desperate

conduct of Congress was as pruleave us nothing to_hope from a dent and cautious, as their feelings further connexion. This they did, were ardent and energetic. Though chiefly by two measures, which they probably most of them were conadopted in Dec. 1775.

vinced that such a measure was an act to employ 16,000 Hanoveri- indispensable, they were far from an Mercenaries against the colo- hurrying the declaration of indenists; and the other, an act to ex- pendence. In the first place, they elude the colonists from British pro- recommended to the respective tection.

colonies to form such constitutions Near the beginning of March of colonial government, as each 1776, intelligence of these acts should judge conducive to the pubreached the colonies. The indig. lic good. This recommendation nation, occasioned by them, among was

adopted by Congress, May 10. all classes, can scarcely be imag- Being immediately communicated ined. The king's speech was con- by the Provincial Assemblies and demned, and ordered to be burnt Conventions, it was acted upon, in the centre of the camp. at Cam- and governments were generally bridge. Before this, the king had established accordingly. This was been treated with the utmost re- perhaps the greatest stride tospect, affection and loyalty; and all wards a general declaration of inthe sufferings, which the colonists dependence through the land. Nay, had endured from British oppres- it seems little short of a virtual sion, had been ascribed to ministers declaration of independence, by and to parliament, as their authors. each of the Colonial Assemblies, But now the king is represented as who complied with the recommenequally abominable. The burning dation, of his speech seems to have lighted Under the influence of Congress, the fires of independence through the Provincial Assemblies took up out the land.

These fires were the question of independence; and every where fanned by the breath all except Pa. Md. and N. Y. were of popular enthusiasm, while new in favor of immediate separation fuel was supplied from a thousand from Britain. Measures had also sources. By means of pamphlets been taken, to ascertain the sense and newspapers, light and heat up- of the people ; which was on this subject, were flashing far pressed in instructions to their rep. and wide. Generally speaking, I resentatives in the Colonial Assem


How had the colonists treated the king before ?

Whal alteration was then made in their banners? They were distinguished by 13 stripes.

For what? To show the union of the 13 colonies.

Conduct of Congress on that occasion ?

What did they desire the colonists to form ?

How was this desire treated ?

Toward what, does this appear to have been the greatest stride ?

Of what, does it seem little short?

Or what bold measure, were most of the colonies in favor ?

What Convention instructed their

blies, and was generally in favor of individuals, whose principles were independence. In s. C. the peo- pure, but whose souls were not of ple were peculiarly ardent for this ihat firm texture, which revolumeasure. In Va. the public sense tions require, shrunk back from was so decisive, that the convention the bold measure.Some in Connot only instructed their representa-gress were not satisfied, that the tives to move the resolution in the time had come for the declaration grand Council of the continent, but of independence. For several days, declared that colony an indepen. therefore, the subject was most soldent state, before the measure was emnly and ably discussed. - John sanctioned by Congress.

Adams of Ms. was its chief advoThe public opinion having been cate, and John Dickenson of Pa. thus extensively and decidedly a man, perhaps no less patriotic manifested in favor of indepen- a man who had rendered most imdence, the next step in Congress portant services to liberty, was his was to make the motion for the

chief opponent. declaration. This was done on the The motion, having been made 7th of June, by Richard Henry on Friday, was discussed on SatLee, of Va. a star of the first mag- urday the 8th, and on Monday the nitude in the constellation of our 10th of June. The discussion was worthies. It was in the following then postponed to the 1st of July. words, Resolved, that these United This was done for farther considerColonies are, and of right ought to ation, and with the hope of more be, free and independent states, and perfect unanimity. that all political connexion between On the first of July, the subject them and the state of Great Brilain was resumed, agreeably to assignis, and ought to be, totally dis- ment, and discussed for four days. solved. This resolution was sec- Of this awfully interesting scene onded by John Adams, of. Ms. Mr. Webster has given us a most “ This public and unequivocal pro- striking miniature picture.t posal, from a man of his virtue Let us, then," says he," bring and shining, qualities, appeared to before us the assembly, which was spread a kind of sudden dismay. about to decide a question, thus A silent astonishment, for a few big with the fate of empire. Let minutes, seemed to pervade the us open their doors, and look in whole assembly.” And here the upon their deliberations. Let us reader may be expecting to find, survey the anxious and care-worn that this resolution was immediate countenances ; let us hear the firmly and unanimously adopted. This toned voices, of this band of pawas by no means the case. Though triots. there had been such an expression in favor of independence, yet, says

+ See discourse on Adains and Dr. Ramsay, some respectable | Jefferson, p. 36.

delegates to move for independence in Congress ?

What Convention declared their colony an independent state, before the declaration was made in Con

What, for a few moments, seemed to pervade the assembly?

Why did some shrink back from the measure ?

How long was the subject discussed in Congress ?

Leading supporter of the measure ?- Opposer ? :

Why did Congress adjourn, before they finished the discussion ?

gress ?

Who made the motion in Congress for the declaration of independence ?

Of what colony? - When ?

Hancock presides over the sol. we possess, but struggling for someemn sitting, and one of those, not thing, which we never did possess, yet prepared to pronounce for ab- and which we have solemnly and solute independence, is on the floor, uniformly disclaimed all intention and is urging his reasons for dis- of pursuing, from the very outset senting from the declaration. of the troubles. Abandoning thus

· Let us pause! This step, once our old ground of resistance only taken, cannot be retraced. This to arbitrary acts of oppression, the resolution, once passed, will cut off nations will believe the whole to all hope of reconciliation. If suc- have been mere pretence, and they cess attend the arms of England, will look on us, not as injured, but we shall then be no longer colonies, as ambitious, subjects. I shudder, with charters, and with privileges i before this responsibility. It will these will all be forfeited by this be on us, if relinquishing the ground act; and we shall be in the con- we have stood on so long, and stood dition of other conquered people, on so safely, we now proclaim inat the mercy of the conquerors. dependence, and carry on the war For ourselves, we may be ready to for that object, while these cities run the hazard; but are we ready burn, these pleasant fields whiten to carry the country to that length ? and bleach with the bones of their Is success so probable as to justify owners, and these streams run it? Where is the military, where blood. It will be upon us, it will the naval power, by which we are be upon us, if failing to maintain lo resist the whole strength of the this unseasonable and ill-judged arm of England ? for she will ex- declaration, a sterner despotism, ert that strength to the utmost. Can maintained by military power, shall we rely on the constancy and per- be established over our posterity, severance of the people ? will") when we ourselves, given up by an they not act, as the people of other exhausted, a harassed, and misled countries have acted; and wearied people, shall have expiated our with a long war, submit, in the end, rashness, and atoned for our preto a worse oppression ? While we sumption, on the scaffold.' stand on our old ground, and insist It was for Mr. Adams to reply to on redress of grievances, we know arguments, like these. We know we are right, and are not answer- his opinions and we know his charable for consequences. Nothing, acter. He would commence with then, can be imputable to us. But accustomed directness and earnestif we now change our object, carry our pretensions further, and set up Siisk or swim, live or die, sur for absolute independence, we shali vive or perish, I give my hand and lose the sympathy of mankind. We my heart to this vote. It is true, inshall no longer be defending what deed, that in the beginning, we aim


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