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Who was Gov. at this time? What had the leading patriots deposited at Salem ?

Whom did Gage send to seize upon these?

With how many men?

Where did he determine to seek the stores, when he could not find them in Salem ?

Where was his progress arrested? How?

How long did he continue at the bridge?

Who there prevented bloodshed?

they refused, declaring it to be a private road, by which, he had no authority to demand a pass. Perceiving a gondola on the bank, he determined to send over a number of his men. But scarcely was it afloat, when the people scuttled it with their axes. And now there was the utmost danger of instant hostility. At this awful moment, the calm and magnanimous prudence of the Rev. Thomas Barnard interposed. He endeavored to moderate the fury of the British soldiers, by stating to them the folly of attempting to oppose the multitudes, that were flocking together from every direction. It is indeed reported, that he proceeded most solemnly to address them in substance as follows:-"I am well acquainted with the feelings and the spirit of my countrymen. Their minds are highly exasperated. Should you attack them here, or insist upon passing the bridge to execute your orders, I have reason to believe, that not a man of you would return alive." To calm the rage of the citizens, he insisted, that at so late an hour, the intended object of this expedition was impracticable.-Others seconded the pacific counsels of Barnard; and the fury of both parties was so restrained, that, though they continued at the bridge an hour and a half no violence was

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perpetrated upon any person, except that some of the people were a little goaded by British bayonets. Leslie did insist, however, that he must pass the bridge that it would bring an indelible stain upon his honor, to return without this formality. Having pledged his honor, that he would march but 30 rods beyond the bridge, and then peaceably return, the draw was put down, and he was permitted to pass. This he accordingly did, while Col. Pickering, with his 40 brave men, faced the king's troops

at the line, that had been marked out. Leslie returned agreeably to his promise, and soon embarked for Boston.

It seems to be matter of special thankfulness, that Mr. Barnard, (afterwards Dr. Barnard) was thus enabled to stay the scourge of war for more than seven weeks. Bloodshed was not only prevented; but there is some reason to fear, that if hostilities had commenced on that occasion, it would have been less honorable to us and to the cause of freedom, than it was at Lexing


Dr. Barnard was then about 30 years old. He died at Salem in a good old age, about 40 years after, having long rejoiced in the independence, freedom and prosperity of his country.

How many of the militia did they meet at Lexington Who addressed them? What did Pitcairn say to them? What did he then do?

How many were killed upon the spot?

To what place, did the British then proceed?

Which way is Concord from Lexington? -from Lynn ?

How far is Concord from Lexington? Six miles.

At what time, did the British arrive at Concord? About 7 in the morning.

Conduct of 150 militia, that were collected at Concord? They retired at the approach of numbers so superior.

What did the British then destroy?

Why were very few stores found? A great part had been removed.

Issue of a skirmish, that ensued ? A considerable number were killed on both sides, and the British were compelled to retreat. What was their retreat to Lexington? A hurried and distressing flight.

By whom, were they driven? By thousands of the militia, who rushed in from every direction.

Who probably prevented their being wholly cut off or captured, at Lexington?

Number of men under Lord Percy?

Why had Gage sent out this reinforcement? Col. Smith had sent back a messenger from Lexington, to inform Gage of what had taken place, and of the alarm, that was spreading through the country.


Supposed cowardice of the Ameri


The character of the colonists had long been exceedingly under

How did Percy's reinforcement receive the poor, exhausted fugitives? Into a hollow square, into which they had formed themselves.

Conduct of these fugitives, when they found themselves thus guarded? They threw themselves upon the ground with their tongues extending from their mouths, like dogs after a chase.

By what means, were the militia kept at a distance? By the two field pieces of Percy.

What acts of devastation, did the British commit, on their retreat to Charlestown? Plundered and set on fire many of the houses on the road.

Fate of those houses? The flames of most of them were extinguished.

Where did another sharp skir; mish take place? A little below the village of West Cambridge.

How many times more did the British lose, than the Americans, during this expedition?

With what, did the issue of the expedition to Concord, fill the English officers? Chagrin and morů


What did they call the militia, that had driven the regulars to Boston? "A flock of Yankees."

Effect upon the English, generally? It greatly raised their estimation of American courage, and convinced them, that the struggle would be far more severe and san guinary, than had been supposed.

What soon heightened this ef fect? The battle of Bunker Hill.

By whom, had the character of the colonists long been much underrated? t

rated by most of their British brethren. In Jan. 1775, the Americans were held up to abhorrence and ridicule in open parliament. They were represented, as among the most pusillanimous and con

In what assembly, were they much ridiculed in 1775?

What were they declared to be by nature?

Of what, were they said to be incapable?

What Col. said, they would never dare to face an English army? For what, did Grant say a slight force would be more than sufficient?

temptible of the human race. "Can we," said the ministers, "make a serious matter of the resistance of the Americans? Cowards by nature, incapable of any sort of military discipline, their bodies are feeble, and their inclinations dastardly." Col. Grant assured the house, that he had often acted in the same service with the Americans; he knew them well, and from that knowledge, would venture to predict, that they would never dare to face an English army, as being destitute of every requisite to constitute good soldiers; that by their laziness, unleanliness, or radical defect of constitution, they were incapable of going through the service of a campaign, and would melt away with sickness, before they could face an enemy; so that a very slight force would be more than sufficient for their complete reduction. So infatuated was he, with this opinion, that he declared openly, he would undertake, with five regiments of infantry, to traverse the whole country, and drive the inhabitants from one end of the continent to the other. Many ludicrous stories were told of their cowardice, greatly to the entertainment of the ministerial members, who were all confident, that America would make a short and feeble resistance.

Hutchinson, Carlton and Tryon, who had been governors in Ameri

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ca, were once called upon to give their opinion upon the question of going to war with the colonies. H. said, that the people would_not with their armies, resist G. Britain that a few troops would be sufficient to quell them, if any one should make opposition. Carlton said, America might be easily conquered, though it would require a considerable army for the purpose; that he would not pretend to march from Canada to N. Y. or Boston, without 10,000 men. Tryon said, it would take large armies and much time, to bring America to their feet; that the power of Great Britain was equal to any thing; but all that power must be exerted to put the monster in chains.

It is said, that a British officer (probably Gen. Short) once said to Gen. Putnam, "Do you not think, that with 10,000 good royal troops, I could march through the colonies without opposition or molestation?"

"You undoubtedly might," said Putnam, "if you should restrain your soldiers from plunder, honorably purchase and pay for every article you might use, and treat every American with all possible civility and kindness. But remember, if you should offer the least injury or insult to any individual, though every man should be absent, the women would instantly rush out with their brooms, and sweep every one of you into the ocean."

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How large an army soon assembled in the vicinity of Boston? 30,000.

Over what towns, did the army extend? Charlestown, Cambridge and Roxbury.

What important fortresses, did the Americans think it desirable to secure?

On what lake?

In what colony, were they? Which side? How far apart? 12 miles. Which most northerly? Who led the expedition against these fortresses ?

With what success? Who demanded the surrender of Ticonderoga ? In what name? In what month?

What battle soon followed the capture of T. and C. P.? Month and day?

Where is that hill ? What name is now given to that hill by the best authority? BUNKER HILL.

How many men were sent to fortify Bunker Hill?

By whom, commanded? Colonel Prescot.

Object of fortifying Bunker Hill? To prevent the British from marching through Charlestown into the country.

When did the provincials commence the fortification?

How large a redoubt did they make during the night?

Meaning of redoubt? A square fort, defended on but one side. When were they discovered by the British?

How did the British immediately attempt to annoy them?

From what hill in Boston, did the British fire upon them?

Conduct of the provincials under this cannonade ?

How many men did they lose during the forenoon?

How many British were sent to attack them by land?

By whom, commanded? What reinforcement did the Americans receive a little after noon? About 500 men.

By whom commanded? General Warren, and General Pomeroy. Which party commenced the


At what distance, did the provincials return the fire?

With what effect?

How near did the Americans suffer them to approach the second time ?

With what effect, did the Americans again return their fire?

What was the success of the third charge of the British?

Why were the Americans then compelled to retire ?

How much greater was the loss of the British than of the Americans About twice as great.

Most memorable British officer that fell? American?

How were the horrors of the scene greatly increased? By whose orders? Consequences of the battle to the Americans?

What did they learn respecting their enemies?

Of what, did they learn the im portance?

Effect of this battle upon the na tion?

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Name, given to the third colonial congress? Second Continental Congress?

Where did they meet?
In what year?

What was now resolved upon, by the colonies ?

Whom did Congress choose for commander in chief?

How old was he then ? What colony had sent Washington to that Congress?

What resolution did Congress express, on presenting him with his commission?

To what office did they appoint Ward, Lee, Schuyler and Putnam?

To what office did they appoint Pomeroy, Montgomery, Wooster, Heath, Spencer, Thomas, Sullivan, and Greene?

Where did Washington first take command of the American army?

In what month, did he arrive at Cambridge?

How was he received by the army?

What extent of region, did the army occupy?

What places besides Boston, did the British occupy?

What is Boston Neck? The neck of land that unites Boston with Roxbury.

To what control, did Washington soon bring every soldier?

Who soon captured St. John's and Montreal from the British? What other city did he soon attack? Who aided him? Who had sent Arnold? Issue of this attack? Which of them fell?

In what year, did the Americans evacuate Canada ?

What mark of distinction did Congress show Montgomery? Who was the royal governor of Va. in 1775?

Meaning of royal governor! Governor, appointed by the king. What southern colony had been among the foremost, in opposing the tyranny of Britain?

How had Dunmore attempted to thwart the defensive measures of the Virginians?

What did this occasion? Where did Dunmore flee? What great political alteration did he make ?

On what condition, did he proffer freedom to slaves?

What town did he burn? Why?

How many persons were deprived of habitations?

In what state is Norfolk? Which way from Cape Hatteras?— from Charleston ? from Sacket's Harbor?

Where did the royal governors of N. and S. C. flee?

In what year, did most of the royal governors abdicate? Meaning of abdicate?

In the spring of what year, did Washington think of expelling the British from Boston? How?


What purpose was adopted in a council of war?

What is a council of war? A council, consisting of the principal officers, to give advice to the commander in chief.

What did these heights command?

How were the British affected, when they saw the fortification of Dorchester Heights?

What remark did the English Admiral make upon the subject! Determination of the British ? On what month, did the British evacuate Boston ?

To what place did they sail ?

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