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What influence were these letters calculated to have in Britain?
Where was the chief advantage of these letters ?
Of what letter, may they be cou sidered a part?
Character of the circular? In what light alone, did the writ ers wish to have it considered?
What would they take kind in any other House of Representatives?
How was this circular received?
discussed by a large committee, chosen to prepare them; and finally being reported to the House, were discussed and accepted. They could hardly fail of having a salu
ence in Britain, to increase the number, to warm the hearts, and arm the understanding of our british friends.
Gracious Sovereign, Your Majesty's faithful subjects, the Representatives of your prov-tary, and very considerable influince of the Massachusetts Bay, with the warmest sentiments of loyalty, duty and affection, beg leave to approach the throne, and to lay at your Majesty's feet, their humble supplications in behalf of your distressed subjects, the people of this province. We most humbly beseech your Majesty to take our present unhappy circumstances under your royal consideration, and afford us relief in such manner, as in your Majesty's great wisdom and clemency, shall seem meet."
During the same session, they prepared letters to the Marquis of Rockingham, (who had been a great instrument in procuring the repeal of the Stamp Act,) to Gen. Conway, to the Earl of Camden, and to William Pitt. "These letters," says Mr. Alden Bradford,
are written with great ability, and breathe a noble spirit of freedom. These papers show the diligence, the interest and zeal, which the patriots of that period exhibited and their unwearied efforts to secure the rights and liberties of the people." These letters were drafted by Otis, corrected by S. Adams, and then considered and
But the grand influence, the chief advantage of these letters, was in this country. They were sent on to the several colonial assemblies in company with the circular letter, co-operated with it, and may in a sense, be considered as a part of it. Nay, they may in fact, be considered, as by far the most important part of it. The simple circular, addressed immediately to the other Assemblies, is remarkably modest, respectful, and conciliating. "This House," say they, "hope, that this letter will be candidly considered in no other light, than as expressing a disposition freely to communicate their mind to a sister colony upon a common concern, in the same manner, as they would be glad to receive the sentiments of your, or any other House or Assembly on the continent." In conclusion, they remark, "The House fully satisfied, that your Assembly is too generous and liberal in sentiment, to believe, that this letter proceeds from an
How durable was the excitement produced?
Why was this excitement then peculiarly needed?
To whom, was it grievous and distressing?
To what degree, did it sting them ?
ambition of taking the lead, or dictating to the other assemblies. They freely submit their opinions to the judgment of others; and shall take it kind in your House to point out any thing further that may be thought necessary."
This circular with its appendages, or more properly speaking, this compound circular, was the very thing, which was exceedingly needed in the colonies, at that time. After being unspeakably excited and distressed by the Stamp Act, the people were scarcely less enraptured by its repeal. Feeling as though they were forever emancipated, they settled down into a calm, which was most dangerous to their libertiesa calm, from which, they were most reluctant to be aroused. At least, this was generally the case. A powerful stimulus was needed to operate upon the vast mass of patriotism, that was slumbering in all the colonies. Such was the Ms. circular. "The circular of the House of Representatives of Ms." says Chief Justice Marshall, "was well received in the other colonies. They generally approved the measures of opposition, which had been taken, and readily united in them. They too petitioned the king against the obnoxious acts of parliament, and instructed their agents to use all proper means to obtain their repeal."
By this circular, which was immediately published in all the colonies, an excitement seems to have been produced, that never subsided, but continued constantly in
What did they require the Legislature of Ms. to do?
Why could not this be done? How many members voted in favor of rescinding?
What were they called? What was done to the G. C. for not rescinding?!- By whom?
creasing, till independence was actually declared.
Perhaps no document or transaction of a colony, was ever more grievous and distressing to the British ministry, than this circular. It wounded them most deeply. Nay, it seems to have stung them to madness -literally, to madness, unless perchance they were mad before. Their consequent order was not merely tyrannic and cruel; it was downright insanity. They required the Ms. Legislature to rescind a resolution, that had already been executed. And strange to think! another House of Representatives were required" immediately to rescind the resolution of the last House, to transmit circular letters to the other British colonies," &c. when the letters had been actually sent, and several, if not all of them, had been kindly answered!! And in obedience to royal authority, the House did condescend to act upon the degrading question, whether they should rescind a resolution of their predecessors, which, having been executed, even Omnipotence could not now alter. The vote was taken, and more surprising still, 17 members voted in the affirmative, while 92 voted against it. The former were held up to public execration, and stigmatized as the INFA MOUS SEVENTEEN. For thus refusing to attempt an impassible act, the House was immediately prorogued by Gov. Bernard, and the next day dissolved, agreeably to the command of his royal
Agreeably to what command?
Where did Parliament wish persons to be sent for trial, who should be accused of treason in Ms.?
How did the Americans regard this measure?
What spirited resolutions were passed by the Va. assembly on that occasion?
How did Gov. Botetourt punish them?
What two colonies appear to have been most forward and decided in resisting British tyranny? Ms. and Va.
What horrible scene was exhibited in Boston, March 5, 1770 ? By whom?
Commander of these soldiers.? How many were killed and wounded? Five killed and six wounded.
What is this affray often called? Boston Massacre.
How many days before, did the quarrel commence ? Effect upon the town? General cry raised? Whose promise prevented a more dreadful scene of blood?
What was immediately done with the soldiers?
Of what, were two of them convicted upon trial?
Meaning of manslaughter?
To what, did the event give occasion?
Effect of these addresses? Where was the Gaspee burnt? - Why?
Why was no one punished for
Why had but little tea been brought into the country for some time before 1773 ?
How much had accumulated upon the hands of the East India Company? 17,000,000 pounds. What did Parliament do for their relief?
How would this regulation affect the price of tea in the colonies?
What was the determination of the colonists, when the Company were about sending tea to this country?
In what year, was the tea sent to this country? In 1773.
What was done with the cargoes, sent to N. Y. and Philad. ? What was done with the tea sent to Charleston, S. C.?
How were the people affected, when the tea arrived at Boston ?
What was the tea called in a notification there? The worst of plagues.
What was done with the tea at Boston! - How many chests?
By how many persons? About 70 or 80.
In how many parties? Three. How dressed? One or two parties were disguised like Indians.
Where was the tea? At Griffin's wharf, now Liverpool's wharf, in the south part of the town.
In how many vessels? Three. Why was no opposition made to those who destroyed the tea? They were guarded by a multitude spectators.
What effect upon the Parliament, had the destruction of the tea? What bill did they pass by way of revenge?
What injury to Boston, was the Port Bill? It stopped their trade, and soon reduced the people to great sufferings.
What were those suffering Bos tonians styled? Living martyrs of liberty, and the generous defenders of the rights of man.
How were they in some measure relieved? By liberal contributions from various parts of the country
Of what, did Parliament consider Boston as the chief seat? What did a second bill essentially change?
Upon what, did it make the council, &c. dependent?
Where did a third bill authorize
How many letters are there in the word tea? in port? In what year was convened the second Colonial Congress? What mouth? - Where?
Where had the first been convened? - How long before? 20 years.
President of the second Colonial Congress? Of what colony?
Of what, did they recommend the non-importation ?-non-exportation?
Upon what declaration, did they agree?
tion to the late acts of Parlia ment ? t
Who, did they say, ought to be held in detestation?
What does Dr. Ramsay say of the faithfulness of that congress? Over whom, did they possess great ascendency?
Encomium of Lord Chatham? How many addresses did they vote and send? Those of chief importance were four.
To whom, was the first? - the second? - the third? - the fourth? To their constituents.
What did this congress particu larly recommend to their constit. uents, just before their dissolution ? Another congress.
On what condition? That their grievances' were not redressed.
By whom, were their resolutions highly approved? The colonies.
What colonial assembly was the only one, which withheld its approbation from these resolves? That of N. Y.
What reason does Dr. Ramsay assign for this? Their metropolis had long been head-quarters of the British army in the colonies; and many of their best families were connected with people of influence in Great Britain.
Who, did they say, ought to be Who ordered the General Aswilling to assist Ms. in their opposi-sembly to convene Oct. 5, 1774 ?
How did Gage countermand this order?
Meaning of countermand?
Into what body, did they there form themselves? A Provincial Congress.
What part of the militia, did they determine, should be enlisted, as Minute Men?
Meaning of Minute Men? Men who should be prepared at a minute's warning, to march, when called upon by the Committee of Safety.
What colonies did the ProvinCongress request to unite with them, to augment the army to 20,000 ?
To what place, did the Provincial cial Congress immediately adjourn?
Whom did they choose president at Concord?
To what place, did they adjourn from Concord?
For what most important object, did they form a plai?
For what purpose, did they choose the Committee of Safety? To call out and employ the militia to protect the country.- Meaning of militia?
For what purposes, did they appoint the Committee of Supplies? To equip and support the militia, if called out, and to secure the public stores, that had not been seized by Gov. Gage.
In what month, did this Provincial Congress meet again?
How many soldiers did they determine to have in readiness for any emergency ?
† NOTE Z.
Leslie and Barnard. Though the first scene of our evolutionary tragedy opened at Lexington, it would doubtless have previously opened at another place, but for the magnanimous efforts of a worthy messenger of peace.
At this period, Gov. Gage on the one hand, and the leading patriots of Ms. on the other, were exerting their utmost efforts, to prepare for war. For this object, the latter had deposited some military stores at Salem. These Gov. Gage was desirous to snatch from the hands of the provincials. For
Who introduced a conciliatory bill into Parliament, in 1775? — For what object?
By what majority, was that bill rejected?
CHAPTER L.-p. 166.
Expedition of Leslie. Skirmish-
Where opened the first scene of our Revolutionary Tragedy?
Where had it seemed very likely to open a few weeks before? t
this purpose, near the close of Feb. 75 he employed Col. Leslie with 140 soldiers. Having landed at Marblehead, this party proceeded to Salem. Not finding the stores at Salem, Leslie was led to conclude, they had been removed to Danvers. Eager to execute his orders, he immediately marched for Danvers. His progress, however was arrested at the draw-bridge on the confines of these two towns. There he found a multitude of citizens, and looking across the bridge, discovered Col. Timothy Pickering with 30 or 40 soldiers, who had taken up the draw. Leslie ordered them to put it down; but