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How much older was Mr. Otis, of Henry prepare the Virginians to than Mr. Henry ?

oppose ? Who considered Mr. Henry the How long was it before the greatest orator, that ever lived ?

Sugar Act? - before the Stamp In what year, did Henry make Act? his first speech, that greatly aston- Concerning what principles, did ished his hearers ?

he teach the colonists to dispute How long was that, after Otis with Britain ? plead against the writs?

In what, did his principles and What British acts did that speech powers fit him to take the lead ? dissolved the political compact, and man, to whom they looked in every left the people at liberty to consult crisis of difficulty, and the favorite, their own safety; that they had on whom they were ever ready to consulted it by the act of 1758; lavish all the honors in their gift." which, therefore, notwithstanding But it was in opposition to the the dissent of the king and his coun- Stamp Act, that Mr. Henry came cil, ought to be considered as the out more fully and more gloriously law of the land, and the only legit- to public view. “ The annunciaimate measure of the claims of the tion of this measure seems at first lo elergy.” He thus persuaded the have stunned the continent from one court to acknowledge the validity extremity to the other. The pressof a colonial law, which the king es, which spread the intelligence and his council had declared null among the people, were themselves and void ; and thus taught the col- | manifestly confounded; and so far onists to dispute with Britain upon from inspiring the energy of rethe great principles of freedom and sistance, they seemed rather disequity, and to vindicate their rights posed to have looked out for topics against the encroachments of tyr- of consolation, under submission. anny.

The truth is, that all ranks of sociBy his political principles, as ety were confounded. well as by his amazing powers, he knew what to hope, what more to was most happily fitted to take the fear, or what course was to be lead in our revolutionary struggle. taken. - The idea of resistance by * He regarded government, as in- force, was no where glanced at, in stituted solely for the good of the the most distant manner; no heart people; and not for the benefit of seems to have been bold enough at ihose, who had contrived to make first, to conceive it. Men, on other a job of it. He looked upon the occasions, marked for intrepidity body of the people, therefore, as and decision, now hung back; unthe basis of society, the fountain willing to submit, and yet afraid to of all power, and, directly or in- speak out in the language of bold directly, of all offices and honors, and open defiance. It was just at which had been instituted, original- this moment of despondency in ly for their use.

He made it no some quarters, suspense in others, secret, therefore, nay, he made it and surly and reluctant submission, his boast, that on every occasion, wherever submission appeared, that

he bowed to the majesty of the Patrick Henry stood forth, to raise people.' He suffered no gale of the drooping spirit of the people, fortune, however high or prosper- and to unite all hearts and hands in

to separate him from the peo- the cause of his country.' ple. Nor did the people, on iheir “Mr. Henry was elected into part, ever desert him. He was the the General Assembly, with exo

No one


For whose good, did he consider Was it expected, that he woula government instituted ?

take the lead in opposing the Whom did he consider as the Stamp Act? fountain of all civil power ?

Why did he finally do this? To what majesty, did' he bow? What assembly, did the resolu

To what aci, did he make the tions state, had been accustomed most noble opposition ?

to tax the colony? Their own. With reference to what, was Mr. Who in Britain, had acknowl. Henry elected into the General edged the right of such taxation ? Assembly?

The king and people. How old was he then ?

What would an attempt to place

press reference to an opposition to finally separated the two counthe Stamp Act. It was not, how- tries, and gave independence to ever, expected by his constituents, ours. Whether this will prove a or meditated by himself, that he blessing or a curse, will depend should lead the opposition." He upon the use our people make of was then but 29 years old. “Mr. the blessings, which a gracious Henry waited, therefore, to file

God hath bestowed on us. If they under the first champion, that are wise, they will be great and should raise the banner of colonial | happy. If they are of a contrary liberty.”

character, they will be miserable. In the mean time, an unexpected Righteousness alone can exalt occurrence called into action his them as a nation. stupendous gifts, and cuddenly “Reader, whoever thou art, regave him a prominence and an member this; and in thy sphere, ascendency, which he could not but practise virtue thyself, and encourimprove. At last, finding that the age it in others. Stamp Act was soon to be in

P. HENRY." force, and that no one was likely to step forth to take the lead It was in the midst of this mag against it, he“ determined to ven- nificent debate, while he was desture; and alone, unadvised and canting on the tyranny of the obunassisted, wrote the famous Vir- noxious act, that he exclaimed, in a ginia resolutions.” “Upon offer- voice of thunder, “Cesar had his ing them to the house," said he, in Brutus - Charles the first, his a paper, which was by him left Cromwell — and George the thirdsealed, and according to his direc- (Treason, cried ihe speaker, tions, was opened after his death, Treason, treason, echoed from

violent debates ensued. Many every part of the house.) Henry threats were uttered, and much faltered not for an instant; but risabuse cast on me, by the party for ing to a loftier attitude, and fixing submission. After

a long and on the speaker an eye of the most warm contest, the resolutions determined fire, he finished his senpassed by a very small majority, tence with the firmest emphasis: perhaps of one or two only. The may profit by their example. If alarm spread through America with this be treason, make the most of astonishing quickness, and the ministerial party were overwhelmed. From this period, Mr. Henry The great point of resistance became the idol of the people of 10 British taxation was univer- Virginia; nor was his name con sally established in the colonies. fined to his native state. His light This brought on the war, which and heat


seen and felt


this right elsewhere tend to de- For what, did they petition ? stroy ? British as well as Ameri. What did they declare to be in. can liberty.

separable ? By what majority, did the Vir- Principal advantages of the ginia Resolutions pass ?

Stamp Act Congress? To give What led the speaker of the As- leading members of distant colonies sembly and others to cry out, opportunity to become acquainted, T'reason, during the debate ? to establish correspondences, 10

What did Henry say of George learn to co-operate and prepare the III. ?

way for future congresses. Where were copies of these res- ♡ When did the Stamp Act como olutions sent?

into operation ? What did they conduce to raise Why were no stamps to be still higher ?

found? ♡ What colony soon after recom What was the consequence ? mended a colonial congress ? How were the feelings of the

By whom, was the recommenda- people against the Stamp Act tion well received ?

manifested ? How many members assembled ? What was done at Boston in Where?

August ? When ? On the first Tuesday of Who were the sons of liberty ? . October.

Their object ? How long before the Stamp Act For what were societies instituwas to come in force ?

ted? Why did they not meet sooner? In what part of Europe, had we There was not time for the several many to aid us in our struggle with legislatures to choose the delegates. Britain ? How? t

Against what, did they remon- What act did they more particustrate ?

larly oppose ?

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throughout the continent; and he themselves. Some afforded was every where regarded as the their secret prayers; more, their great champion of colonial liberty. sympathies; and some devoted to

The impulse, thus given by Va. our cause, the mighty efforts of was caught by the other colonies. their tongues and pens. But for Her resolutions were every where such assistance, we might even now adopted with progressive varia- be wearing the yoke of Britain. tions. The spirit of resistance be- Particularly, they opposed the came bolder and bolder, until the Stamp Act. They opposed its rise whole continent was in' a flame; and progress, and did much toward and by the first of Nov. when the procuring its repeal. To borrow Stamp Act was to have taken ef- the language of Dr. Ramsay, fect, its execution had become ut. “Some speakers of great weight, lerly impracticable.

in both houses of parliament, denied their right of taxing the colonies. The most distinguished supporters

of this opinion were Lord Camden + NOTE X.

in the house of peers, and Mr.

Pitt in the house of commons. The British opposition to the Stamp former, in strong language said; Act.

My position is this; I repeat it; In our struggle with the British, I will maintain it to my last hour. we had many to aid us among | Taxation and representation are in.

What pretended right did some How were the colonies affected of them deny ?

by the repeal of the Stamp. Act ? Most distinguished opposers of What right, did they think, the this practice ?

British had relinquished ? Most distinguished of these two ? What intercourse was revived ? Pitt.

Upon what articles, were duWith what, did his approbation ties laid in 1767 ? inspire the Americans ?

How were the colonists affected ? To what, did it embolden them? What feelings were revived in

To what alternative, was the them ? parliament reduced ?

For what, were associations aWhich did they choose ?

gain formed? The non-importation In what year ? 1766.

of British goods. Whet declaratory act accom- What soon after increased the panied the repeal ?

public excitement ? Why were English merchants ♡ To whom, did the Ms. Repand tradesmen deeply interested resentatives send a circular in to have the Stamp Act repealed ?

1768 ? | Because this act prevented the sale By what act, was this circular of English goods.

occasioned ? separable. This position is found- “ He concluded with giving his ed on the laws of nature. It is advice, that the Stamp Act be remore; it is itself an eternal law of pealed absolutely, totally and imnalure. For whatever is a man's mediately, that the reason for the own, is absolutely his own. No repeal be assigned, that it was man has a right to take it from him, founded on an erroneous principle.' without his own consent. Who- | The approbation of this illustri. ever attempts to do it, attempts ous statesman, whose distinguished an injury. Whoever does it, com- abilities had raised Great Britain inits a robbery.' Mr. Pitt, with an to the highest pitch of renown, inoriginal boldness, justified the col- spired the Americans with addionists, in opposing the Stamp Act. tional confidence, in the rectitude

You have no right,' said he, to of their claims of exemption from tax America. I rejoice, that A. parliamentary taxation; and emmerica has resisted. Three mil- boldened them to further opposilions of our fellow citizens, so lost tion, when at a future day, the proto every sense of virtue, as tamelyject of an American revenue was to give up their liberties, would be resumed." fit instruments to make slaves of the rest' 66. The taxes are a voluntary gift

| NorE Y. and grant of the commons alone;

Massachusetts circular to the when, therefore, in this house, we give and grant, we give and grant

colonial assemblies, in 1768. what is our own. But in an Amer- Among the various subordinate ican tax, what do we do? We, causes, that conduced to separate your majesty's commons of Great us from Britain, few had greater Britain, give and grant to your ma- influence, than the circular letter, jesty what ? Our own prop- addressed by the House of Repreerty? No. We give and grant sentatives of Ms. to the Legislatures to your majesty the property of

of the several colonies. It was ocyour commons in America. It is casioned by what is often called the an absurdity in terms.'

Revenue Act of 1767, laying a duty

Upon what, did the Revenue Act What office did De Berdt then of 1767 lay a duty ?

hold? Grand object of the circular ? What subject did they discuss in

First business of the G. C. of that letter ? Ms. after they heard of the Reve- What did they show to be tyrannue Act?

nical ? For what, did they exert their What use was De Berdt to make utmost efforts ?

of this letter? In what month, did Ms. legisla- To whom, did they next ture achieve most important ser- write ? vices in the cause of freedom ? What did they endeavor to imTo whom, did they prepare 'a

press upon the mind of Lord Shellong letter?

burne ?

upon glass, paper, paints and tea, &c. were oppressive and tyrannithough it had some respect also to cal. This letter, De Berdt was to other acts. The grand object of use according to his best discrethis circular letter, was to induce tion, to correct British errors, to all the other colonies to unite with enlighten British minds, and to them in petitioning the king to re- promote the cause of justice and dress their grievances.

freedom. Intelligence of the revenue act of They conclude their letter to De 1767, arrived in Sept. but the Gen- | Berdt, as follows. “We have reaeral Court did not sit till Dec. 30. son to believe, that the nation has Their first business was to attend been grossly misinformed with reto the state of the provinces, and spect to the temper and behavior exert their utmost efforts to frus- of the colonists; and it is to be trate the machinations of the British feared, that some men will not cease Ministry. At the beginning of the to sow the seeds of jealousy and year 1768, they were prepared for discord, till they shall have done action. With all the caution of irreparable mischief. You will do boary-headed experience, with all a singular service to both countries, the zeal of the most ardent patriot- if possible, in detecting them. In ism, rendered indignant by re- the mean time, we desire, you peated oppressions, they applied would make known to his Majesty's themselves to emancipate their ministers, the sentiments of this country from the British yoke. In House, contained in this letter, and one month their work was nearly implore a favorable consideration accomplished ; and never perhaps of America." in a single month, did any legisla- Their next business was to preture achieve more important ser- pare a letter directly to Lord Shelvices in the cause of freedom. Let burne, one of the British ministers, the month of January 1768. bę whom they considered a little more gratefully and indelibly inscribed favorably disposed toward them, upon the heart of every American, than some others. Among other and of every hater of tyranny, to things, they labored to impress his the end of time.

mind with a sense of the dangers, The first thing was to prepare the hardships, the toils and the a very long letter to Dennis De merits of our forefathers, and the Berdt, who was then their agent in consequent claims of their posEngland. In this, they most thor- terity. oughly discuss the subject of their A still more important and more rights, and clearly, though temper- difficult labor seems to have been, ately, show, that the Revenue act, I preparing a petition directly to the

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