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How much older was Mr. Otis, than Mr. Henry?

Who considered Mr. Henry the greatest orator, that ever lived?

In what year, did Henry make his first speech, that greatly astonished his hearers?

How long was that, after Otis plead against the writs?

What British acts did that speech

dissolved the political compact, and left the people at liberty to consult their own safety; that they had consulted it by the act of 1758; which, therefore, notwithstanding the dissent of the king and his council, ought to be considered as the law of the land, and the only legitimate measure of the claims of the elergy." He thus persuaded the court to acknowledge the validity of a colonial law, which the king and his council had declared null and void; and thus taught the colonists to dispute with Britain upon the great principles of freedom and equity, and to vindicate their rights against the encroachments of tyr


By his political principles, as well as by his amazing powers, he was most happily fitted to take the lead in our revolutionary struggle. "He regarded government, as instituted solely for the good of the people; and not for the benefit of those, who had contrived to make a job of it. He looked upon the body of the people, therefore, as the basis of society, the fountain of all power, and, directly or indirectly, of all offices and honors, which had been instituted, originally for their use. He made it no secret, therefore, nay, he made it his boast, that on every occasion, 'he bowed to the majesty of the people.' He suffered no gale of fortune, however high or prosperous, to separate him from the ple. Nor did the people, on their part, ever desert him. He was the


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man, to whom they looked in every crisis of difficulty, and the favorite, on whom they were ever ready to lavish all the honors in their gift."

But it was in opposition to the Stamp Act, that Mr. Henry came out more fully and more gloriously to public view. "The annunciation of this measure seems at first to have stunned the continent from one extremity to the other. The presses, which spread the intelligence among the people, were themselves manifestly confounded; and so far from inspiring the energy of resistance, they seemed rather disposed to have looked out for topics of consolation, under submission. The truth is, that all ranks of society were confounded. No one knew what to hope, what more to fear, or what course was to be taken. The idea of resistance by force, was no where glanced at, in the most distant manner; no heart seems to have been bold enough at first, to conceive it. Men, on other occasions, marked for intrepidity and decision, now hung back; unwilling to submit, and yet afraid to speak out in the language of bold and open defiance. It was just at this moment of despondency in some quarters, suspense in others, and surly and reluctant submission, wherever submission appeared, that Patrick Henry stood forth, to raise the drooping spirit of the people, and to unite all hearts and hands in the cause of his country."

"Mr. Henry was elected into the General Assembly, with ex

For whose good, did he consider government instituted?

Whom did he consider as the fountain of all civil power? To what majesty, did he bow? To what act, did he make the most noble opposition?

With reference to what, was Mr. Henry elected into the General Assembly?

How old was he then?

press reference to an opposition to

Was it expected, that he would take the lead in opposing the Stamp Act?

Why did he finally do this? What assembly, did the resolutions state, had been accustomed to tax the colony? Their own.

Who in Britain, had acknowledged the right of such taxation? The king and people.

What would an attempt to place

finally separated the two coun

the Stamp Act. It was not, how-tries, and gave independence to ever, expected by his constituents, or meditated by himself, that he should lead the opposition." He was then but 29 years old. "Mr. Henry waited, therefore, to file under the first champion, that should raise the banner of colonial liberty."

In the mean time, an unexpected occurrence called into action his stupendous gifts, and suddenly gave him a prominence and an ascendency, which he could not but improve. At last, finding that the Stamp Act was soon to be in force, and that no one was likely to step forth to take the lead against it, he "determined to venture; and alone, unadvised and unassisted, wrote the famous Virginia resolutions." "Upon offering them to the house," said he, in a paper, which was by him left sealed, and according to his directions, was opened after his death, "violent debates ensued. Many threats were uttered, and much abuse cast on me, by the party for submission. After a long and warm contest, the resolutions passed by a very small majority, perhaps of one or two only. The alarm spread through America with astonishing quickness, and the ministerial party were overwhelmed. The great point of resistance to British taxation was universally established in the colonies. This brought on the war, which

ours. Whether this will prove a blessing or a curse, will depend upon the use our people make of the blessings, which a gracious God hath bestowed on us. If they are wise, they will be great and happy. If they are of a contrary character, they will be miserable. Righteousness alone can exalt them as a nation.

'Reader, whoever thou art, remember this; and in thy sphere, practise virtue thyself, and encourage it in others.


It was in the midst of this mag nificent debate, while he was descanting on the tyranny of the obnoxious act, that he exclaimed, in a voice of thunder, "Cesar had his Brutus-Charles the first, his Cromwell -and George the third "

(Treason, cried the speaker, - Treason, treason, echoed from every part of the house.) Henry faltered not for an instant; but rising to a loftier attitude, and fixing on the speaker an eye of the most determined fire, he finished his sentence with the firmest emphasis, may profit by their example. If this be treason, make the most of it."


From this period, Mr. Henry became the idol of the people of Virginia; nor was his name con fined to his native state. His light and heat were seen and felt

this right elsewhere tend to destroy British as well as American liberty.

By what majority, did the Virginia Resolutions pass?

What led the speaker of the Assembly and others to cry out, Treason, during the debate?

What did Heury say of George III. ?

Where were copies of these resolutions sent?

What did they conduce to raise still higher?

What colony soon after recom mended a colonial congress?

By whom, was the recommendation well received?

How many members assembled ? Where ?

When? On the first Tuesday of October.

How long before the Stamp Act was to come in force?

Why did they not meet sooner? There was not time for the several legislatures to choose the delegates. Against what, did they remonstrate?

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For what, did they petition? What did they declare to be inseparable?

Principal advantages of the Stamp Act Congress? To give leading members of distant colonies opportunity to become acquainted, to establish correspondences, to learn to co-operate and prepare the way for future congresses.

When did the Stamp Act come into operation?

Why were no stamps to be found?

What was the consequence? How were the feelings of the people against the Stamp Act manifested?

What was done at Boston in August?

Who were the sons of liberty? Their object?

For what were societies instituted?

In what part of Europe, had we many to aid us in our struggle with Britain? - How? t

What act did they more particu. larly oppose?



themselves. Some their secret prayers; more, their sympathies; and some devoted to our cause, the mighty efforts of their tongues and pens. But for such assistance, we might even now be wearing the yoke of Britain. Particularly, they opposed the Stamp Act. They opposed its rise and progress, and did much toward procuring its repeal. To borrow the language of Dr. Ramsay, "Some speakers of great weight, in both houses of parliament, denied their right of taxing the colonies. The most distinguished supporters of this opinion were Lord Camden in the house of peers, and Mr. Pitt in the house of commons. The former, in strong language said; 'My position is this; I repeat it; I will maintain it to my last hour. Taxation and representation are in

What pretended right did some of them deny ?

Most distinguished opposers of this practice?

Most distinguished of these two? Pitt.

With what, did his approbation inspire the Americans?

To what, did it embolden them? To what alternative, was the parliament reduced?

Which did they choose? In what year ? 1766. What declaratory act accompanied the repeal?

Why were English merchants and tradesmen deeply interested to have the Stamp Act repealed? Because this act prevented the sale of English goods.

separable. This position is founded on the laws of nature. It is more; it is itself an eternal law of nature. For whatever is a man's own, is absolutely his own. No man has a right to take it from him, without his own consent. Whoever attempts to do it, attempts an injury. Whoever does it, comunits a robbery.' Mr. Pitt, with an original boldness, justified the colonists, in opposing the Stamp Act. "You have no right,' said he, 'to tax America. I rejoice, that America has resisted. Three millions of our fellow citizens, so lost to every sense of virtue, as tamely to give up their liberties, would be fit instruments to make slaves of the rest

"The taxes are a voluntary gift and grant of the commons alone; when, therefore, in this house, we give and grant, we give and grant what is our own. But in an American tax, what do we do? We, your majesty's commons of Great Britain, give and grant to your majesty what? Our own property? No. We give and grant to your majesty the property of your commons in America. It is an absurdity in terms.'

How were the colonies affected by the repeal of the Stamp Act? What right, did they think, the British had relinquished?

What intercourse was revived? Upon what articles, were duties laid in 1767 ?

How were the colonists affected? What feelings were revived in them?

For what, were associations again formed? The non-importation of British goods.

What soon after increased the public excitement ?

To whom, did the Ms. Representatives send a circular in 1768 ? +

By what act, was this circular occasioned?

"He concluded with giving his advice, that the Stamp Act be repealed absolutely, totally and immediately, that the reason for the repeal be assigned, that it was founded on an erroneous principle.' The approbation of this illustrious statesman, whose distinguished abilities had raised Great Britain to the highest pitch of renown, inspired the Americans with additional confidence, in the rectitude of their claims of exemption from parliamentary taxation; and emboldened them to further opposition, when at a future day, the project of an American revenue was resumed."


Massachusetts circular to the colonial assemblies, in 1768. Among the various subordinate causes, that conduced to separate us from Britain, few had greater influence, than the circular letter, addressed by the House of Representatives of Ms. to the Legislatures of the several colonies. It was occasioned by what is often called the Revenue Act of 1767, laying a duty

Upon what, did the Revenue Act of 1767 lay a duty?

Grand object of the circular? First business of the G. C. of Ms. after they heard of the Revenue Act?

For what, did they exert their utmost efforts?

In what month, did Ms. legislature achieve most important services in the cause of freedom?

To whom, did they prepare 'a long letter?

upon glass, paper, paints and tea, though it had some respect also to other acts. The grand object of this circular letter, was to induce all the other colonies to unite with them in petitioning the king to redress their grievances.

Intelligence of the revenue act of 1767, arrived in Sept. but the General Court did not sit till Dec. 30. Their first business was to attend to the state of the provinces, and exert their utmost efforts to frustrate the machinations of the British Ministry. At the beginning of the year 1768, they were prepared for action. With all the caution of hoary-headed experience, with all the zeal of the most ardent patriotism, rendered indignant by repeated oppressions, they applied themselves to emancipate their country from the British yoke. In one month their work was nearly accomplished; and never perhaps in a single month, did any legislature achieve more important services in the cause of freedom. Let the month of January 1768 be gratefully and indelibly inscribed upon the heart of every American, and of every hater of tyranny, to the end of time.

The first thing was to prepare a very long letter to Dennis De Berdt, who was then their agent in England. In this, they most thoroughly discuss the subject of their rights, and clearly, though temperately, show, that the Revenue act,

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&c. were oppressive and tyrannical. This letter, De Berdt was to use according to his best discretion, to correct British errors, to enlighten British minds, and to promote the cause of justice and freedom.

They conclude their letter to De Berdt, as follows. "We have reason to believe, that the nation has been grossly misinformed with respect to the temper and behavior of the colonists; and it is to be feared, that some men will not cease to sow the seeds of jealousy and discord, till they shall have done irreparable mischief. You will do a singular service to both countries, if possible, in detecting them. In the mean time, we desire, you would make known to his Majesty's ministers, the sentiments of this House, contained in this letter, and implore a favorable consideration of America."

Their next business was to prepare a letter directly to Lord Shelburne, one of the British ministers, whom they considered a little more favorably disposed toward them, than some others. Among other things, they labored to impress his mind with a sense of the dangers, the hardships, the toils and the merits of our forefathers, and the consequent claims of their posterity."

A still more important and more difficult labor seems to have been, preparing a petition directly to the

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