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Strictly speaking, how many When did our external or politirevolutions have we had ?

cal revolution begin ? How are they distinguished ? What is generally meant by the How were they related to each American revolution ? other?

Give some account of the origin What does the venerable Adams of the American revolution, as statsay of the effects of our revolution? ed by Mr. West to Mr. Adams. What query does he suggest con

Who was probably the principal cerning them?

author of those oppressions, which When did the mental revolution produced our revolution ? begin ?

How came George III. to be

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acquaint them with the instructions was in Nov. 1764. In his speech they had given to their agent in to the representatives of the people, England, to exert himself for the Gov. Bernard studiously avoided repeal of the Sugar Act, and to introducing the subject, which he prevent the proposed Stamp Act,

must have known, was uppermost or any other impositions and taxes

in the minds of the Assembly, and on the provinces; and to request most interesting to the people. But the several assemblies to adopt a this did not prevent their deliberasimilar measure. This was an im tions in reference to the policy and portant proceeding. It shows the measures of the parent country, alarm, which prevailed in Ms. and which had excited such general the deep sense entertained of the alarm. The patriotic members of value of ancient rights, which it was the legislature possessed the higk necessary to preserve, if they would feelings and spirit of their ancescontinue a free people. And it tors. They believed that they had must have had the effect to rouse a right to be free, and were deterthe citizens throughout the colonies mined to omit no efforts to remain to a consideration of the evils, which so. They believed, that the present threatened, and to the adoption of pretensions and impositions of Britunited efforts to avert them. ish ministers were unjust; and if

During the recess of the legisla- resolutely opposed, would be withture, from June to Nov. the mem drawn; and that the regard for bers became more fully acquainted civil liberty was so great in Engwith the views and feelings of their land, that neither the people nor constituents. The claim set up by the government would justify such Parliament of their right to tax

arbitrary measures." America, was generally a subject During this session, the legislaof discussion with intelligent men ture adopted a memorial to the through the province. The alarm House of Commons. In this mehad been given by the town of Bos, monal, they mentioned many grievton, and ihe sentiments expressed

They also stated their by the assembly were almost uni inability to pay the duties required versally approved. The pamphlet by the Sugar Act, and such as of Mr. Otis, stating the righis of were proposed to be added by the the colonies, had an extensive cir Stamp Act; and at the same time, culation. From this pamphlet, the to discharge the debt of the provpeople derived correct views of ince, and to contribute to the an. their rights, and a just sense of nual support of their own governtheir value, which they never ceas ment; that the colonies would be ed to cherish and maintain. The much' impoverished by these dunext session of the General Court | ties, and the prosperity of Britain

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such a tyrant ? He was educated How great was their debt ? A by the earl of Bute.

bout 660 millions of dollars. Who was the earl of Bute? Can any pupil calculate the inJohn Stewart, a Scotch nobleman, terest of that sum for a single day, a relation of the Charleses and at 6 per cent. a year? Jameses, who is said to have in How many times greater is the herited their arbitrary principles. British debt now, than it was then:

What special reason did the About six times. British assign for taxing the colo What part of their debt had nies, besides their defending us ? been contracted during the French Their vast debt and needy cir and Indian War ? About two cumstances.


herself be thereby impeded, as ments of the Council and Assembly there would be less demand in the of the province, in favor of the sole colonies for British manufactures. and exclusive right of the legisla

They therefore humbly prayed to tive authority in the colonies to be relieved from the burden im raise taxes; thus virtually denying posed by the late act of Parlia the claims of Parliament on this ment, to have their privileges, subject. It was the first expression especially as to internal taxation, of the legislature of any colony, continued to them; or to have the publicly made on this momentous execution of the laws, already question, then beginning to be solpassed, and of those in contempla- emnly agitated; and though it was tion for raising a revenue in Ameri contained in a letter to an individca, suspended, till the province, in ual, that individual was a public conjunction with the other govern- agent, the document was a public ments in N. A. could have oppor one, and was soon published to the tunity to make a full representation world, as expressive of the views of the state and condition of the and opinious of the patriots of colonies, and of the interests of Ms." Great Britain with regard to them." This imparts to the Sugar Act,

This memorial to the House of an importance, which otherwise it Commons, was accompanied by a could by no means claim. In estiletter from the legislature to Mr. mating the importance of the Sugar Mauduit

, their agent in England, Act, then, two circumstances are expressing more fully their opinion to be considered. It was the first of their exclusive right to tax them act of the British Parliament, exselves. In this letter to Mauduit, pressly designed to raise a revenue they declare," that the people of in this country; and it was the first the colonies have undoubtedly a grievance, that called forth in a right by charter to tax themselves; colonial legislature, an open exthat so far as Parliament should pression of opposition to the prinJay taxes on the colonies, so far ciple of taxation without repre. they would deprive them of this sentation. This principle was the right; and that, had not the first grand bone of contention between settlers of this province imagined us and England. Upon this princithemselves as secure in the enjoy- ple, she insisted and acted, claiming ment of this right as of their title the right to BIND THE COLO to their lands, they probably woult | NIES IN ALL CASES WHAT. never have left England."

EVER. This principle we denied, “ This letter contains a full and denounced as tyrannical, and most explicit declaration of the senti- | vigorously opposed, first by argue


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What oppressive act soon fol-, causing it to be passed ? George lowed the Sugar Act ? p. 151.

In what year, was the Stamp

When did the House of Com-
Act passed ?

mons resolve, that it was expedient How many letters are in the to pass the Stamp Act? In March, word stump?

1764, just before passing the Sugar What did this Act ordain? Act. What minister brought into the Why was the passing of the House of Commons, the bill for Stamp Act so long delayed? To the Stamp Act? George Gren- ascertain, what articles should be ville.

taxed,and allow the colonists to subWho was the principal agent institute some other tax, if they chose. ments and entreaties, and then hy power, a law-giver and judge-an arms. This produced the revolu- elevation from the humble, degiad. tion; or rather the two revolutions; ed condition of oppressed British for there were really two, very dis- colonies – to the rank of indepentinct from each other; the first, in dent freemen -a transition from ternal and merely mental, the other being the mere appendage and external and visible; the one in a despised suburbs of monarchy, to great measure finished before the becoming a great and flourishing other began, the former, however, nation, the first and happiest REthe cause of the latter. This is a PUBLIC in the world subject, which deserves much more is a revolution, and of all political attention from the youthful student, revolutions, by far the most glorithan it generally receives.

It may be difficult to delerThe American Revolution," mine the time, when the first besays the venerable Adams, gan. The way had been preparing not a common event. Its effects for ages and centuries. Perhaps and consequences have already no point of time has a higher claim been awfül over a great part of the

to this distinction than the hour, globe. And when, and where, are

when the thunder of Otis blasted they to cease? But what do we forever the Writs of Assistance. mean by the American Revolu This prepared the Bostonians to tion? Do we mean the American make a stand against the Sugar War? The revolution was effect Act. Their opposition kindled ed, before the war commenced. at least the feeling of opposition The revolution was in the minds through Ms. and through all the and hearts of the people

rest of the colonies. Opposition to change in their religious senti the Sugar Act prepared ihe way to ments, of their duties and obli oppose the Stamp Act. Thus opgations." This was certainly a position to British tyranny advancrevolution, most stupendous in it- ed, continually extending, increas self, and glorious in its consequen- ing and propagating itself, till the ces. But surely no one can doubt, | affection of the colonists was almost that what is generally denominated entirely destroyed, and loyalty was our revolution, was really a revolu

That completed the first tion. Not indeed the American revolution, and prepared the way War.” That was but the neces

for the second. It prepared the sary attendant and promoter of the way to decide the awful question external revolution. But a change of our independence, on the field of government - an entire separa of battle. This political revolution Lion from Britain, as :a governing | began, when our independence was



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What seems to have been the nists to prepare to oppose the design of Providence in delaying Stamp Act About 18 from the the Stamp Act? To give the col time, that it was first threatened. onists opportunity to prepare to

What minister most ardently oppose it.

exclaimed in favor of the Stamp In what month, was the Stamp Act? Act passed ? In March.

Who indignántly replied to When was it to be in force in the him ? colonies ? In Nov. following. What, did Barre say, had plant

How many months had the colo ed the Americans ? declared in 1776, and terminated, sovereign in Europe, who was when it was acknowledged by Brit- lodged so poorly; that his sorry, ain in 1783, perhaps more proper- dingy, old, brick palace of St. !y, at the commencement of Wash- James, looked like a stable, and ington's administration in 1789. that he ought to build a palace

When the American tevolution suitable to his kingdom. The king is mentioned, the latter or external, was fond of architecture, and political revolution is chiefly in. would therefore more readily listen tended, though sometimes the writ to suggestions, which were in fact er or speaker may mean to include all true. This spot that you see both.

here, was selected for the site, be. Mr. Tudor in his life of Otis, tween this and this point, which gives us the following anecdote. were marked out. The king ap* When President Adams was min. plied to his ministers on the subister at the court of St. James, heject; they inquired what sum often saw his countryman, Benja- would be wanted by his majesty, min West, the late president of the who said that he would begin with royal academy. Mr. West always a million. They stated the exretained a strong and unyielding penses of the war, and the poverty affection for his native land. Mr. of the treasury, but that his majesWest one day asked Mr. Adams, ly's wishes should be taken into if he should like to take a walk full consideration. Some time afwith him, and see the cause of the terwards the king, was informed, American revolution. The minis that the wants of the treasury were ler, having known something of this too urgent to admit of a supply matter, smiled at the proposal, but from their present means, but that told him, that he should be glad to revenue might be raised in see the cause of that revolution, and America, to supply all the king's to take a walk with his friend West wishes. This suggestion was fol. any where. The next morning he lowed up, and the king was in this called according to agreement, and way first led to consider, and then took Mr. Adams into Hyde Park, to consent, to the scheme for taxing to a spot near the Serpentine River, the colonies." where he gave him the following It has been a question, from narrative. The king came to the whom proceeded those measures throne a young man, surrounded by of oppression, which drove us to flattering courtiers; one of whose revolt and produced our revolution. frequent topics it was, to declaim If I do not mistake, it was the against the meanness of his palace, opinion of Mr. Adams, whatever which was wholly unworthy a mon he might think of West's account, &rch of such a country as Ångland. that they should be ascribed to king They said, that there was not a George himself, more than to any


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ild am and in principle, from the very be style of oratory, that he never 2. 123 ginning, a tyrant of the first maged to bave been as arbitrary as any of takes a lous liberty upon earth; but it

From what, did he say, they ♡ Effect of the news of the Stamp

Act, in this country? Was it so ? Principally; but not By whom, were passed resoluentirely.

tions against the acı? What spirit, did Barre say, What colony led the way in these would continue with the Ameri resolutions ? cans?

Who presented the Va. resolu. Where was Franklin at that tious to their house of burgesses ? time?

Meaning of burgesses ?
What did Franklin write to Mr. Two greatest oralors, that ever
Thompson ?

this country produced ? Probably What did Thompson reply? .

James Otis and Patrick Henry.t other person. He represents

Mr. Adams indeed declared in George III. as being in" feeling his old age, that Olis spoke " in a

heard equalled in this or any other nitude. In one of his letters, he country," and also said, "ihat if readily has the following sentence of con Mr. Henry was Demosthenes, and were die gemnation upon bis majesty. “I Mr. Richard Henry Lee, Cicero, bat your have no hesitation or scruple 10

James Otis was Isaiah and Ezekiel say, that the commencement of the united;" yet Mr. Jefferson said, reign of George III. was the com

that Henry was the greatest mencement of another Stewart's orator that ever lived ;” and that

reign; and if it had not been “Mr. Henry certainly gave the Whaler checked by James Otis and others first impulse to the ball of the is anglast first, and by the great Chatham Revolution."

That Mr. Henry begirl and others afterwards, it would

did not give the first impulse, apo

pears clear from Mr, adams's acthe four. I do not say it would

count of the Writs of Assistance. have extinguished civil and relig. But if Mr. Otis was first and fore

most, no doubt, Henry was second, would have gone great" lengths

and scarcely inferior to his great towards it, and would have cost

rival. In 1763, Mr. Henry “elecmankind even more than the French trified" the Virginians, and prerevolution, to preserve it.”

pared them to resist the Sugar Act and Stamp Act, in a mamer, somewhat similar to what Mr. Otis had

done the Bostonians in 1761. In + NOTE.W.

his most celebrated speech," uchen

he plead against the parsons," "he Patrick Henry.

insisted on the connection and reciThis wonderful man was born procal duties between the king and in Hanover Co. Va. not far from his subjects; maintained that gov. Richmond, in the year 1736, about ernment was a conditional compact,

years after the birth of Mr. composed of mutual and dependent Olis, at Barnstable, Ms. As a covenants, of which, a violation by statesman, patriot and orator, the one party discharged the other; and

was scarcely less illustrious intrepidly contended, that the disthan the latter. Indeed, I should regard, which had been shown in not be offended with the Virginians, this particular, to the pressing wants

they should think the citizen of of the colony, was an instance of their own state the greater light. royal misrule, which had thus far

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