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Who succeeded Sewall in the mean time?
For what purpose, was this appointment made?
Whom did the merchants engage, to plead against the Writs? What did Otis say, when offered a fee?
Before how many judges, was the question argued ?
In what apartment ?
of such a writ, and of the authority of the Court to grant it. Not one of his brother judges uttered a word in favor of it; but as it was an application on the part of the Crown, it must be heard and determined. After consultation, the court oraered the question to be argued at the next February term, in Boston, i. e. in 1761.
In the mean time Chief Justice Sewall died, and Lt. Gov. Hutchinson was appointed chief justice of that court in his stead. Every observing and thinking man knew, that this appointment was made for the direct purpose of deciding this question in favor of the Crown, and all others, in which it should be interested.
An alarm was spread far and wide. Merchants of Salem and Boston applied to Mr. Pratt, who refused, and to Mr. Otis and Mr. Thatcher, who accepted, to defend them against this terrible, menacing monster, the Writ of Assistance. Great fees were offered; but Otis, and I believe, Thatcher, would accept of none. "In such a cause," said Otis, "I despise all fees."
I have given you a sketch of the stage, and scenery, and a brief of the cause; or, if you like the phrase better, of the tragedy, comedy, or farce. Now for the actors and per
Mr. Gridley argued, with his characteristic learning, ingenuity and dignity, and said every thing,
How were they drest? Who argued in favor of Cockle's petition?
On what supposition, did Grid ley ground all his arguments?
What was Otis on that occasion? With what, did he hurry away all before him?
What was then and there born? At what age, did Independence declare himself free?
that could be said, in favor of Cockle's petition, all depending, however, on the "If the Parliament of Great Britain is the sovereign legislature of all the British Empire."
Mr. Thatcher followed him on the other side, and argued with the softness of manners, the ingenuity, the cool reasoning, which were peculiar to his amiable character.
But Otis was a flame of fire! With a promptitude of classical allusions, a depth of research, a rapid summary of historical events and dates, a profusion of legal authorities, a prophetic glare of his eyes into futurity, and a rapid torrent of impetuous eloquence, he hurried away all before him. American Independence was then and there born. The seeds of Patriots and Heroes -to defend the vigorous youth, were then and there sown. Every man of an immense, crowded audience, appeared to me to go away, as I did, ready to take arms against Writs of Assistance. Then, and there, was the first scene of the first act of opposition to the arbitrary claims of Great Britainthen and there, the child Independence was born. In fifteen years, i. e. in 1776, he grew up to manhood, and declared himself free.
The court adjourned, for consideration, and, after some days, at the close of the term, Hutchinson, Chief Justice, arose and said, "The court has considered the subject of Writs of Assistance, and
In what year?
With what feelings, did the hearers of Otis's speech appear to go away?
For what, did Hutchinson say, there was no foundation, some days afterwards?
In what manner, was it said, that the court granted the Writs after several months?
Meaning of clandestinely?
can see no foundation for such a Writ; but as the practice in England is not known, it has been thought best to continue the question to next term, that, in the mean time, opportunity may be given to write to England for information concerning the subject." In six months, the next term arrived; but no judgment was pronounced; nothing was said about Writs of Assistance; no letters from England; and nothing more was said in court concerning them. But it was generally reported and understood, that the court clandestinely granted them; and the custom-house officers had them in their pockets, though I never knew, that they dared to produce and execute them in any one instance.
Mr. Otis's popularity was without bounds. In May, 1761, he was elected into the House of Representatives, by an almost unanimous vote. On that week I happened to be at Worcester, attending a Court of Common Pleas, of which Brigadier Ruggles was Chief Justice. When the news arrived from Boston, you can have no idea of the consternation among the government people. Chief Justice Ruggles, at dinner at Col. Chandler's on that day, said, "Out of this election, will arise a faction, which will shake this province to its foundation."
For ten years afterwards, Mr. Otis, at the head of his country's cause, conducted the town of Bos
Why did not the officers execute them?
What is said of Mr. Otis's pop. ularity?
How long did he continue at the head of his country's cause?
In what manner, did he govern Boston and the House of Repre sentatives of Ms. ?
In what, did the revolution be gin at this time?
ton, and the people of the province, with a prudence and fortitude, at every sacrifice of personal interest, and amidst unceasing persecution, which would have done honor to the most virtuous patriot or martyr of antiquity.
I fear I shall make you repent of bringing out the old gentleman. JOHN ADAMS.
In a letter to Dr. Morse, Mr. Adams has the following remarks upon the same subject.
"When the cause came on, how ever, Mr. Otis displayed so comprehensive a knowledge of the subject, showed not only the illegality of the writ, its insidious and mischievous tendency, but he laid open the views and designs of Great Britain in taxing us; of destroying our charters and assuming the powers of our government, legislative, executive and judicial; external and internal, civil and ecclesiastical, temporal and spiritual; and all this was performed with such a profusion of learning, such convincing argument, and such a torrent of sublime and pathetic eloquence, that a great crowd of spectators and auditors went away absolutely electrified. The next May, Mr. Otis was elected by the town of Boston into the legislature, and for ten years afterwards; during the whole of which period, his tongue and his pen were incessantly employed in enlightening his fellow citizens and countrymen in the
To what, were their eyes opened?
From what place, did these alarms spread through the country? What did the speech of Otis breathe into the nation?
Effect of the British efforts to cripple the colonies during the fourth period?
What did Britain show the colonies, by leaving them to bear almost the whole weight of the war of 1756 ?
Of what, did she thus teach them the necessity?
What art did she give them opportunity to learn?
What spirit was awakened in the colonies, by British attempts to crush them?
Of what, did they lay the foundation?
What relation was the Duke of York to Charles II. ?
For what colony, did Locke prepare a constitution?
knowledge of their rights, and developing and opposing the designs of Great Britain. He governed the town of Boston, and the House of Representatives, notwithstanding a few eccentricities, with a caution, a prudence and sagacity, which astonished his friends, and confounded his enemies. His fame soon spread through the continent; and three or four years afterwards was emulated by Mr. Dickinson in his Farmer's Letters, and some other gentlemen in Virginia, began to think.
"Here then, sir, began the revolution in the principles, views, opinions, and feelings of the Amer
ican people. Their eyes were opened to a clear sight of the danger, that threatened them and their posterity, and the liberties of both in all future generations. From Boston, these alarms spread through Massachusetts and all New England; and in course, to New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. A general aspiration for an union of the colonies soon followed."
Mr. Adams elsewhere remarks, "I do say in the most solemn manner, that Mr. Otis's oration against Writs of Assistance, breathed into the nation, the breath of life."
What war commenced 100 years Defore the revolutionary war? Who compelled James II. to quit England?
What very important place did Wm. Phips take from the French in 1690 ?
What distinguished character was born at Bridge's creek? Last sachem of the Wampaneags?
Greatest battle with the Indians in New England?
In what colony, was there a rebellion the same year, that king Philip was killed?
In what southern colony, did a great number of Palatines settle in 1710?
Who was Dinwiddie ?
For what, was Mount Hope distinguished?
What patent was granted to Wm. Penn?
What colony did James Oglethorpe conduct?
What company obtained a charter of 600,000 acres of land on the Ohio?
What pupil of Eliot did Philip employ as his secretary? Who was Alderman?
Of what colony, was William Berkley governor, at the commencement of Bacon's rebellion ? For what purpose, did Dinwiddie send Washington to the region of the Ohio, in 1753 ?
For what, has Swanzey been most distinguished?.
Where was Capt. Lathrop kil.ed?
The name of what city signifies brotherly love?
Most gifted Indian preacher ? In gaining what great victory, had Josiah Winslow the command? What ancient town was burnt by Bacon's followers?
With what money, were the Ms. troops paid for their services in 1690 ?
Who, by stratagem, induced the
invading Spaniards to flee from Georgia?
Who was John Sausaman? Who were the Nipmucks? What Indian tribe proved per fidious to the English, during Philip's war?
Against whom, did Capt. Bull defend fort Saybrook ?
What governor in N. E. was seized and imprisoned by the people?
Whom did the Corees and Tuscaroras conspire to destroy in 1712?
For what, did Philip make a confession?
What Col. requested a commission against the Susquehannah Indians?
What most joyful news arrived in this country, May 26, 1689 ?
What tribe of Indians did Col. Barnwell almost entirely destroy? What most distinguished man was born 1732 ?
What word signifies the wood of Penn ?
By whom, was 4007. appropriated for a college, in 1636?
What great tribe of Indians lived on the N. E. of Savannah river? What was the Blessing of the Bay?
In what colonies, were schools established for all classes ? What great political change took place in Ms. in 1684 ?
To what city, did most of the Carolinians fly from the Yamassees?
Who was St. Pierre ?
At the head of what administration, was Pitt placed in 1758? What was the effect of Bacon's death?
What colony consisted mostly of Quakers?
Who were proclaimed king and queen of England in 1689 ?
For what object, did the general court of Ms. appropriate 400l. in 1636?
For what, were the Yamassees distinguished? Who erected Fort Necessity, near the Great Meadows? What did Ms. purchase of the heirs of Ferdinando Gorges?
What tribe united with the Five Nations, and with them constituted the Six Nations?
How old would Washington be, if now alive?
Founder of Philadelphia? What colony consisted principally of Roman Catholics? Who was Milborn?
Who procured a decision in 1684, most injurious to Ms. ?
What are those called, who understand the scriptures in general, as Calvin did?
Where was a Baptist church formed in 1639 ?
In what colonies, were schools founded by the higher classes only?
Where were 60 persons massacred by the French and Indians, in 1690?
Who turned the tide of prosperity in favor of the British in 1758?
Who was "first and foremost " in the cause of liberty, from 1760 to 1770 ?
What religious denomination are opposed to all acts of war and violence?
Who surrendered Fort Necessity to Villiers, July 4, 1754?
Who invaded England at Tor Bay, in 1688 ?
In what colony, were none but Episcopalians allowed to preach, in 1642?
What colony exported 60,000 bushels of wheat, in 1678 ?
Why were the buildings of the first colonists in great danger of being destroyed by fire?
Who was Leisler?
Under whose ministry, did a revival of religion commence in Northampton, in 1735?
In what year was Quebec taken from the French?
What institution was located at Newtown, to enjoy the benefit of Mr. Shephard's ministry?
Who imprisoned Mr. Winslow for bringing William's proclamation to Boston ?
What great political change took place in Ms. in 1692 ?
Most lovely queen of England?
What dreadful disaster happened to Schenectady in 1690?
Distinguished matron, taken captive at Haverhill, Ms. in 1697?
During what war, was Schenectady assaulted by the French and Indians?
What war was terminated by the treaty of Utrecht?
What college was founded about the year 1738?
What fort did Washington surrender to Villiers, July 4, 1754?
What great favor did the excel lent queen Mary attempt to confer upon Ms. ?
What city is 180 miles below Montreal?
Who was Sloughter?
What accusation was brought against the wife of Gov. Phips?
Man, who most bravely defended his children from the Indians at Haverhill, Ms. ?
By whom, was Deerfield burnt in 1704 ?
What most important fortress did Amherst and Boscawen take from the French in 1758?
When did the British ministry take the resolution of subjecting the colonies to the unlimited authority of parliament ?
For what, was George Burroughs condemned and executed?
King of France, cotemporary with William and Mary?
Where was Count Frontenac governor ?
Who was Mrs. Teff?
Who was Charles Paxton ?