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the freedom of their country, laws cerning the same empires seen by and religion, and to be exempted Daniel, Zechariah, and John. from tribute every seventh year, vv. 7, 8. The fourth roll being during which they neither sowed unsealed, the fourth living creature nor reaped. Thus the ruler of directed John's eye to its picture Greece obeyed the voice, and never or representative scenery.

The “ hurt the oil or the wine," where eagle on Dan's banner, over the realone the worship of the true God maining fourth of Israel's tribes, was could be offered during the continu- one of the cherubic emblems of the ance of his empire.

Church triumphant; and also the enThis event answers to the cha- sign of Rome,* whose eagles being racteristics of this roll, as connect- planted on the ploughed soil where ing the Greek empire with the had stood Jehovah's temple, comaffairs of Israel, without pushing its pleted the abomination of desolation, representation into the period of a spoken of by Daniel as standing in subsequent empire ; which violates the holy place. The united object the rules of interpretation and of this hieroglyphic is signally apanalogy

propriate; the eagles being menI have only to add, that Alexander tioned by our Lord himself n as the is clearly the rider of this horse, for symbolic birds of prey, which were his four generals divided bis empire; to hover over Judah during the pea circumstance pourtrayed in Dan- riod of his absence. He selected iel's vision of the empire, but not in this image of their house being left John's.-—And here we have another unto them desolate under the Roproof, that a different period is man reign of terror, till they should viewed in their visions of the same


Blessed is he that cometh in empire; and probably in Zech- the name of Jehovah." ariah’s also. John saw the empire

Mr. Faber considers the rider on only in its integral state under the pale horse to be the undefinable Alexander ; Daniel saw it also in its form of the king of terrors himself ! state of division into four kingdoms: —This surely would violate the anafor the more immediate object of his logy between the four riders as heads prophecy was the point of the suc- of the four secular empires, and be cessive domination of each empire, incompatible with the homogeneity concluding in that of the King of for which he had contended.

The kings with his saints under the

under the metaphorical use of the word whole heaven.The points of al- death,in the last line of the verse, lusion with John were principally seems designedly opposed to the inthose which connected the empire terpretation. And chap. xix, 20, with those who are to sit with the the beast and false prophet are cast Victor on his throne, judging the into the lake of fire before the miltwelve tribes of Israel ;" to which lennium; and consequently are there object Daniel only briefly alludes when “ death and hell are cast in in his last chapter. The distinction after the general judgement." Chap. between their objects ought, I ap

XX, 10, 14. prehend, to form the hinge of the I suppose this rider to be the Prointerpretation of the visions con- teus-persecuting power, seated in

* Tacitus calls the legionary eagles, " the proper deities of the soldiery' of Rome. Faber.

n Matt. xxiv, 28.


Rome pagan, Rome papal, and their territories any portion of the Rome infidel ; who, in reference to prophetic earth. We shall hereafter the Church of God, both Jews and see reason to suppose that North Christians, might justly be charac

Africa and Western Asia are part terized by the name of DE of the platform of the eastern and Neither the Assyrian, Persian, nor

western empire. Greek rulers destroyed the people This rider is distinguished from the of God as such ; but the heathen, three former by a peculiarly characand soon the heretical christian em- teristic attendant-Hades. * Under perors, and their successor the pope, his pagan reign the fabled gate of have done so; and hereafter the the infernal regions was within the same power in its last head will do proper Roman empire ; and that desso likewise.

perate workshop of evil, where VulI am aware that some incongruity can and his fallen deities dwelt, was still remains according to this in- in the heart of Italy. During its terpretation; for if the former three papal domination, purgatory has riders represented individuals and been at its right hand. Truly this not dynasties, so ought this. I think rider has been characteristically the they were individuals historically power of death, and hell followed pourtrayed, in aspects which to be with it.” Though infidelity has in known must be revealed. But when some degree silenced his excommuJohn saw the vision, this Roman nicating bulls, and hindered inquisipower had not, nor has it ever been, torial deeds of darkness, yet the powconfined to one person singularly er given to the last of this world's connected with the Church ; but has potentates will people the regions of been vested in the head of empire woe with all the enemies of God fur the time being, -sometimes em- and his Christ, from " the fourth peror, sometimes pope, and probably part of the earth," under that very ere long king of the Romans; all in infidel sway. Thus the territory of their succession materially concern- his divided empire will soon become ed with the affairs of the Church. the scene of the

supper of the I do not consider any part of the 'great God, where the fowls will eat Indian or American possessions of the flesh of kings, of captains, of the rider to be members of the fig- mighty men, of horses, and of them urative horse; because their in- that sit on them, and the flesh of habitants were persecuted as pagans, 'small and great;'t even of all who and not for any part of the true in the enmity of their carnal hearts faith, as were Jews and Christians :

wage war against Him who is pagans never form a part of God's faithful and true, and against his witnesses in sackcloth; nor



* This circumstance militates against interpreting the seals to be the Christian Church in four estates : because if Hades personifies a spiritual domination which claims unlimited power over the invisible world,” it ought equally to have attended the former riders ; since persecution to death, &c. was as frequent in the first centuries, especially under the Arian persecution ; and the power of the other patriarchs was soon sunk in that of the Pope. The four modes of inflicting death were common in the first ages of the Church, and must have been mentioned especially under the first seal, had its concerns been the peculiar subject of the seals.

f Rev. xis, 18, where the same figure is used for empires and their rulers. See also Hag. ii, 22.

# Is Christendom denominated “ the fourth part of the (prophetic) earth” in rcference to Chaldea, Persia and Greece, whose proper original territories remain separate

Four modes by which the noble are heard crying, come and see,army of martyrs has been formed, which were the connecting characare mentioned. The “sword” may teristics of the four first seals : the designate the gladiatorial combats, to prophetic platform having being which the primitive Christians were erected, it was to stand till the emdoomed by pagan Rome. Papal pires of this world pass away. The Rome exterminated by hunger" next seal opens in evident connexthose who retained the Bible and its ion with the persecuting power; simple faith and practice in the val- exhibiting a vision of the disembodied lies. Its Inquisition* may by emi- spirits of the saints" that were nence be styled “ death,” by what- slain for the word of God and for ever engine it is inflicted. As the the testimony which they held.Spirit of prophecy places “the There is some contention respectbeasts of the earth” last, some form ing what particular body of martyrs of death under the infidel power John saw at the period of his vision, may be meant.

But history shows A. D. 96: whether only those slain that in most persecutions three of up to the Dioclesian decree of A. D. these modes have been employed by 311; or those under the Arian perthe Roman power: “those that do secution ;

secution; or both these together, know their God and instruct many waiting for such as were slain at the yet fall by sword, flame, captivity and Reformation, &c. The choice despoil, for days :" probably the three pends upon the system of dates to days and a half of the witnesses' which the commentator makes the death; for the text belongs to the word of God conform. One conseprophecy of the infidel king, and quence seems to be, that whatever can only relate to “the time of particular body is supposed to be seen the end.

by John under the fifth seal, that Such have ever been the train of body alone enters the blessedness the Roman Proteus. His rival described in the seventh chapter ; by apostate in the former Greek empire which means its striking language is would have merited the same at- deprived of its appropriate sense, tendants, were he designed by the and literal Israelites are excluded rider of the third horse, and must from its millennial scene. And have been characterized in similar was not Stephen, with all the marrespects.

tyrs also of pagan, mahometan and vv. 9—11. The three following papal persecutions, with one accord rolls depict the scenes in both states desiring the day of righteous retribuof existence, connected with the tion, and the promised restitution of abused dominion of the fourth rider. all things which God hath spoken They present no horse or rider, no by all his holy prophets ? All these other empire, no living creatures

rest for a little season, t till


from the proper Roman territory of ten kingdoms, and of the eleventh, the states of the Church? For when the other beasts (enemies) were slain in respect to their dominance and conquest, their lives were prolonged. (Dan. vii, 12.) Chaldea, Persia, and Greece exist, and not under the government of Rome. Chaldea is desolate, but has a distinct church, which the missionary Wolff considered pure.

* Mr. Faber places “the sword and wild beasts” under Pagan Rome, “ famine" and “fire” under papal Rome, but adds, that the word describes an engine of destruction ; hence I prefer giving it the sense of the Inquisition.

of This, like other Scripture representations, is conformed to human modes of conception ; for in reality it is said to each at the moment of death, “time to thee shall be no longer." The voice which bids them rest for a little season, once said to Judah, after announcing the resurrection of their dead; “Come, my people! enter into thy chambers, shut thy doors about thee, hide thyself as it were for a little moment, titi the indignation be over-past. For behold the Lord cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the (prophetic) earth shall disclose her blood and shall no more cover her slain.” Isa. xxvi, 19-23. By this parallel prophecy the subject of Rev. vi, 9-11 is connected with God's word to literal Israel.

their fellow servants be killed,” on panying promises of Jehovah, for the coming persecutions of the in- the manifestation of his own glory. fidel power, and join them. Then Psalm lvii gives the substance of their the trump that wakes the dead shall cry: the cry of justified spirits cannot sound the knell of the world which be for avenging judgements as such ; lieth in wickedness, and summon

but must arise from their desire that the white robed hosts of God to Christ should be no longer insulted, follow the Conqueror on his pre- but glorified, and be supreme on millennial advent.

earth as in heaven. Then indeed The ninth verse glances at va- that determined will be poured on rious texts in Leviticus, which prove the desolator :" (Dan. ix, 27 :) but that the blood of sacrifice alone then also the abomination will be sanctified the roll of the law, the removed from the land of Judah ; altar, and whatsoever was found in and the song of praise for salvation the temple for their appropriate ser- shall arise to him who " cometh in vice. It was poured out at the foot the name of Jehovah.” Then those of the altar of burnt sacrifice; which who now rest absent from the body, is therefore the one under which the will put on incorruption, and death souls of martyrs rest,--the one on will be swallowed up in victory as to whose horns all the guilty laid hold them ; for

them ; for “ in the day of vengeance for salvation.* The other, the altar the year of his redeemed is come,” of incense, was always called the i.e. the time of the adoption, to wit, golden altar, (which this is not,) and the redemption of the body," for stood close beside the sanctuary ;

which Rom. viii represents whereas John was at the door of the creation as groaning together.” inner court, just before the altar Meanwhile John "saw white robes of burnt offering. There it was given to every one of them ;" for fitting they should be seen, whose each was separately justified and only hope rested in the blood of clothed in the Redeemer's righteousthe sacrifice, typified by those daily ness, which is the white robe of his presented ; it being for this hope saints. This line presents a secret these martyrs had been “ tortured, link with chap. vii, 9, 14, where the not accepting deliverance, that they whole multitude of the redeemed might obtain a better resurrection.

appears clothed in white robes, John was made sensible to one sub- washed white in the blood of the ject of their supplication, viz. the Lamb ;

Lamb ;-a link which corroborates Lord’s avenging their blood on the the view, that in verses 9-11 persecutors who

or dwell on the the kingdom of Christ is repre(Roman) earth ; but this one evinces sented by the whole body of their recollection of all the accom- martyrs, increasing with the in

so all

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* The Talmud says, “Every one that is buried in the land of Israel is as if he were buried under the altar, for it expiates his sins: whoever is buried under the altar is as if he were buried under the throne of glory.”—The Syriac, Arabic, and Complut. editions read, “ for the testimony of the Lamb."

crease of God; while (as the fol- ariah, he celebrates the return of lowing verses will show,) the wrath Jehovah to dwell in Zion; (chapters of the Lamb overcomes all oppo

i and ii ;) and repeats, after his sition to its progress. Thus it is vision of the four chariots, &c. presented chap. vii in its fulness, (chap. vi,) that the Man, the Branch, in the mystic completeness of the grows up out of his place, sits as a 144,000 of Israel's tribes, the enu- priest upon his throne, and his peomerated multitude of all nations and ple come and build in his temple. kindreds, who have been and are Before proceeding to the sixth gathering till the manifestation of seal we must remark, that it would the sons of God.

be incongruous that trumpets should Thus also, in the parallel visions of sound for judgement on the three Daniel and Zechariah, the kingdom former pagan empires ; since, as I and personal glory of Christ are de- conceive, they announce

God's scribed as immediately succeeding to wrath for the persecution of his the four empires. The four metals of saints. I have endeavoured to show, the image symbolize them, and the that the characteristics of the three stone cut out without hands ap- first empires mark their connexion pears, increases, and at once breaks with the Church of Israel. Two the ten toes of the image, then fills of them befriended it. The first inthe earth. In Dan. vii, soon as the deed persecuted it ; but not as four empires are presented to view, God's people : in that view it was the papal horn appears, grows, per

constrained to honour them; and its secutes the saints till his power ruler carried them captive merely

then the saints in revenge for their king's refusing possess the kingdom. Again, after hira tribute. This is the precise the four horns or powers which hinge on which my interpretation scattered Judah are mentioned, turns, as will, Deo volente, further with their destruction, by Zech- appear hereafter.


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(STRICTURES ON ABDIEL, PAGE 92.) To the Editor of the Investigator. my people;" quoting Hosea i, 10. Sir,

Now when I turn to Hosea, it apIn reading the Investigator I pears to me to mean Israel and not the find so much learning and sublime Gentiles. For in the 9th verse God argument displayed, that I am fear

says to Israel,

For ye are not my ful of exhibiting my opinion; being people, and I will not be your God :" only a very illiterate countryman: and in the next verse in continuation and yet I have opinions at variance it is said, “ And it shall come to pass with most of your Correspondents, that in the place where it was said though I nevertheless read their unto them, Ye are not my people, learned expositions with delight. there shall it be said unto them,

In your No. IV, page 92, Abdiel Ye are the sons of the living God: says :

From Hosea therefore and throughout the chapter it still might every Jew have plainly in

appears to mean Israel. ferred that the Gentiles would be If Hosea intends Israel, we ought called in : for so Paul presses on

to consider, how Paul came to quote them the words, 's I will call them the passage as applying to the Gen

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