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a thing as the turban on the head inghame strongly dissents from this of an Arabian soldier he typificd by view, and we think on satisfactory a crown of gold? We are aware and irrefutable rounds ; but we that there is a great modification in defer the consideration of the arguthe original expressions ós separou ments on this point until some όμοιοι χρυσω, ;

as it were crowns future opportunity, when we hope like unto gold;" but admitting them to bring forward the prominent to have been mock golden crowns,

features of Mr. Frere's system. the type is still superior to the Mr. Cuninghame considers that the antitype.

book with seven seals contained a The events of the sixth trumpet perfect and complete prophecy, as comprise one of those important the number seven denotes, without portions of the Apocalypse, con- the need of any addition or apcerning the meaning of which there pendix ; that each roll of this book is an almost general agreement was of itself also a lesser book, and among interpreters, as far as relates all seven were sealed ; that the to the power designated by the four little book in question is therefore Euphratean angels and the hordes one of these seven rolls : and as of cavalry which accompany them. the circumstance of its being open This is commonly assumed to be the implies that it was previously sealed, Turkish power, which was seated so he thinks it establishes its identity on the Euphrates. There is some as part of the sealed book; and he difference among commentators re- supposes it to refer to that part of the specting the reason why four angels prophecy of Daniel which was sealed precisely are here mentioned, which till the time of the end, but which, at are by Mede supposed to denote the period of the descent of this the four Turkish Sultanies of Bag- angel, is to be understood by the dad, Damascus, Aleppo and Iconium; Church. We extract an important whereas Mr. Cuninghame considers passage. it rather to signify the concentrated

Since, then, the descent of our Lord, resources in the Ottoman race of its

which is now under consideration, belongs own power, and of the three races to the time of the end, and of the seventh of Mahomedan conquerors who had trumpet and seven vials, we may hence

discover a reason for the various circumpreceded. We would only note

stances which accompany and follow this here as we pass on, that the words

Our Lord appears clothed with Loose the four angels which are a cloud, to signify that the hour is at hand, bound in the greater river Euphrates, when he shall come with tlie clouds of must imply some restraint previously which is the emblem of the covenant of

The rainbow is upon his head, imposed upon them, similar to the holding the four winds; and the length arrived, when the influence of his

peace; because the blessed time is at loosing them must therefore mean

peace-giving Gospel shall be extended from their suddenly bursting forth from the rising to the setting of the sun. that restraint.

las in his hand a little book opened, for In the tenth chapter a mighty period is come when its prophecies shall

the reason already assigned, viz. that the angel is seen to come down from

be completely understood by the Church heaven, having in his hand“ a little of God. He sets his right foot upon the book open,&c. Mr. Frere and sea, and his left foot upon the earth, to others consider this to be another denote to his servant John, that he is now and distinct book from that seen in

about to take possession of the universal chap. v, 1; and commencing a dis- kingdom promised to him by the Father,

when all the kingdoms of this world shall tinct series of visions. Mr. Cun

become his kingdom. His crying with a




loud voice, as a lion roareth, is emblem- opinions, Sir Isaac Newton the atical of the awful sounding of the seventh second, (but typically only of the trumpet ; and it seems to signify to us,

144,000 sealed ones derived from that the voice of that trumpet is in effect the voice of the Lion of the tribe of Ju

the two wings of the woman, i. e. dah himself, denouncing vengeance against the eastern and western empires,) his enemies. The seven thunders which and Dr. Gill looked kindly on the utter their voices, are emblematical of the third for a while, but ultimately seven vials of the wrath of God, which are poured out on the sounding of the seventh rejected it. Those, who with Mede trumpet. The - Apostle is forbidden to imagine the number dvw to be symwrite what the thunders had uttered, pro

bolical of a small but sufficient numbably because their contents were to be ber of witnesses, have seen in them fully declared and shown forth under a

prophets and apostles, magistrates different symbol, viz. that of pouring out

and ministers, but more especially of the vials; and it did not seem necessary to the Holy Ghost to describe them twice.

the protestant witnesses for the The above conjecture as to the meaning truth during the 1260 years of of the emblematical roaring of our Lord, popish ascendancy. Lastly, those is confirmed by what follows ; for, in e- who have looked only to the testivident allusion to the voice which he had

mony of the witnesses have conpreviously uttered, he immediately swears,

sidered them to be the Old and New in the awful name of him that liveth for ever and ever, " That there should be

Testaments, or the two Covenants. time no longer ; but in the days of the Some writers have combined two or ' voice of the seventh angel, when he shall

more of these opinions. Thus 'begin to sound, the mystery of God shall ' be finished, as he hath declared to his Brightman considered the Old and

New Testaments to be the witnesses; servants the prophets.” This seems to be declared in reference to the finishing and also the Protestant christians, of the mysterious times mentioned in the as being the preachers and proprophecy of Daniel.” (xii, 7.) P. 100.

claimers of them. Vitringa inclines Great has been the diversity of to unite the two Testaments opinion in regard to “ the two wit- covenants in a similar manner with nesses,” and the events intended the testimony of the Waldenses ; by their death and resurrection, and considers the reed also, with which now come before us in the which the temple and altar were eleventh chapter of the Apocalypse. measured, to be the rule of the Law Those who have looked for two and Gospel persons have found them in Enoch Such of the writers just alluded and Noah, Moses and Aaron, Mo- to, as have supposed the witnesses ses and Christ, Elijah and Elisha, to have been slain before or in their Joshua and Zerubbabel, John Huss own times, have necessarily affixed and Jerome of Prague; whom they interpretations on this point equally have supposed to be the witnesses at variance with each other. Mr. on the same ground that Abel is Brightman, who wrote in 1616, said yet to speak : (Heb. xi, 4 :) but supposed the Scriptures to have subsequent writers considered the been disabled and reduced to a dead scripture instances to be only types letter, by the Council of Trent, of the witnesses. Those who have

Those who have 1546; whilst those, who in modern looked for churches have interpret- times have considered the Old and ed them of the body of Jews and New Testaments to be the witnesses, Gentiles, of the two Churches of (as Mr. Irvine and Mr. Frere,) fix Smyrna and Philadelphia, and of the the date of their suppression and Waldenses and Albigenses. Dr. revival to the period of the French Homes embraces the first of these Revolution. Mr. Brightman further



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supposed the German protestant were to occupy the holy city. The churches to have been symbolically fire which proceeds out of their killed at about the same period with mouth and devours their enemies, the act of the Council of Trent, and their power to turn water into when by the power of the Emperor blood, and to shut heaven that it Charles V. the Smalcaldic confe- rain not,

rain not, he refers to their dederacy was dissolved ; and George nunciation of judgement against Megelburgius boasted, that in the impenitent sinners, and the awful opinion of men the protestants were fact, that when a people refuse to utterly overthrown. Others have repent at the preaching of the supposed their death to have been Gospel, the Lord withholds from fulfilled by the persecutions in the them the outpouring of the Spirit. reign of Queen Mary, by those of These particulars are supported and James II, and by the massacres of the illustrated by apposite Scripture protestants in France.—The Wal- testimonies. denses and Albigenses, according to The most important circumstance Dr. Gill, were killed by a decree of in support of his general argument the Duke of Savoy in 1686, and next follows; viz.- that the death restored by another in 1690.

and resurrection of the witnesses, To return however to our Author, whatever events may be intended Mr. Cuninghame, after Mr. Faber, thereby, happen before the end of the adopts in substance the latter part second woe, and consequently before of Mr. Brightman's opinion; only the coming of the third woe. He that in passing through their mas- refers to the words which follow at terly hands it has come forth with the close of the Scripture narrative much greater symmetry of form and The second woe is passed; behold, with some advantageous additions.* the third woe cometh quickly.” The

The Author makes the temple second woe, as we have seen, is exand altar in the first verse a symbol plained of the Turkish invasion ; of the true spiritual Church of God; the third woe he makes, with the and the outer court left for the generality of commentators, the Gentiles, of the visible and pro- French Revolution ; and he confessing Church. Of the spiritual

Of the spiritual sequently concludes, that the death Church he considers there are three and resurrection of the witnesses emblems: Ist, the two witnesses in must have transpired between these sackcloth, testifying against the cor- two periods. ruption and degeneracy of the visible The events symbolized by their Church ; 2dly, the two candlesticks death and resurrection are thus exholding forth the light of truth; and plained. The confederacy of Smal3dly, the two olive trees, denoting cald, formed by the protestant the abundant supplies of the Holy princes of Germany for the defence Spirit given to the true Church : of their religion, being finally dethe meaning of all which is, that stroyed by the defeat and capture of God would raise up a small number the Elector of Saxony in 1547, of faithful men, a truly spiritual new system of doctrine was imposed Church, that should witness for the upon them and their subjects by the truth during the whole period of 1260 Emperor Charles, with the condays; which is the same as the 42 currence of the Pope. This system months, during which the Gentiles was read in the diet in May, 1548,

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* Mr. Faber has since abandoned it, and taken up with that repudiated by Dr. Gill.

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and immediately imposed upon the · dead, a sufficient number were subjects of all the protestant princes, • found to supply all the places." the cities which offered resistance (Tom. i, p. 612.) being compelled to submit. Such These events our Author further of the protestant pastors as refused shews took place in the broad to subscribe it were cast into prison, street” or principal kingdom of the and others ejected by violence; the empire ;* and as the beast is said in magistrates averse to it were the prophecy to kill them, so here moved, and the princes were in the secular head of the Roman emduced by fear to take an oath to pire is shown to have been the agent observe it. The reformed worship who accomplished their defeat. was entirely suppressed, and the The earthquake which happened at people forced to attend on the the same period is the Reformation ; Romish ministers. But towards the and the tenth part of the city falling end of 1551, Prince Maurice of is England, which shook off the RoSaxony suddenly took arms for the man jurisdiction at that time, the relief of the protestants, and made Reformation in this country being such a rapid and unexpected pro- completed by the accession of Edgress, that the Emperor fled with ward VI. in 1547, the very year in the utmost consternation; as did which the emperor Charles destroyalso the members of the Council of ed the Smalcaldic league. For reTrent, which was thereby broken maining particulars we must refer to up. The immediate effect of this the work. proceeding was the treaty of Passau, Hitherto tre have only differed securing to those who had declared from Mr. Cuninghame in regard to for the confession of Augsburgh,

Augsburgh, subordinate matters of detail : in the exercise of their religion with- this instance however, though we out molestation.

acknowledge he makes out a strong Mr. Cuninghame supports his in regard to the witnesses view by striking quotations from themselves, we have to dissent from history. Among these he adduces his interpretation of their death. an extract froin Fra Paoli Sarpi, the Our principal objection is, that catholic historian of the Council of Mr. Cuninghame makes the slaying Trent; who, speaking of the pro

of the witnesses to take place pretestant ministers and doctors re- vious, by nearly 150 years, to their stored to the churches and schools having finished their testimony in at this time, says,

Although it sackloth, which he elsewhere admits might have been thought that does not terminate till the end of there remained very few of the the 1260 years, A. D. 1792. (p. 197)

doctors and preachers, (who had We are aware that Mece would ' taken refuge under the protection render orav teleowo!

when they of princes,) and that banishments shall be about to finish their testiand persecutions had almost ex- mony;" but even adopting this interminated them; yet, as if they terpretation, there is so marked a had been again raised from the connexion between their exaltation


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* Mede clearly evinces the impropriety of the word street in this instance, if it be understood in the ordinary English acceptation. He shows that our Lord was not crucified in a street (as the Apocalypse states) in the usual notion of the word; nor could the dead bodies of the witnesses have been seen under such circumstances by kindreds, tongues and nations, &c. ; wherefore he concludes alatela to mean the principal province or region.





to heaven and their ceasing to pro

We are not called upon to support phesy in sackcloth, that the difficulty any other

any other interpretation, neither in the way of our reception of this have we any to maintain ; but we view would still remain.—Their nevertheless cannot see the force of being killed appears to us clearly to the objection against the death of mark the termination of their pro- the witnesses being included in the phecy; though the beast may com- period of the French Revolution. mence the war against them, which The earthquake is said to happen terminates in their death, when they the same hour, and to be the effect are about to finish their testimony: of their resurrection and being and it is abhorrent from all the ideas called up to heaven; but as the which we associate with the symbol French Revolution preceded their of a resurrection and ascension to death, therefore it is argued it canheaven, to suppose that the days not be the same hour. But the Reof their mourning are not then formation had equally commenced There appears to

before the death of the witnesses similar violence committed against according to Mr. Cuninghame's the symbol of the cloud in which scheme, and continued afterwards : they ascend, and which we have and yet it may be properly said to been accustomed to connect with have occurred at or during the same the manner of our Lord's ascent; hour or period. And as regards one but which the Author explains of particular effect of that earthquake, the worldly policy which mingled viz. the fall of the tenth part of the with protestant zeal, and the troubles city, there appears an unfortunate which still threatened the protest- incongruity in its being fixed by ant cause.

Mr. Cuninghame to the year of Neither do we concur in the full Edward's accession in 1547: for this, extent of the argument which is even as Mr. Cuninghame himself educed from the chronological note states, was the year in which the in verse 14. For if the words, “the

the Emperor Charles routed the Prosecond woe is past,” imply that the testant forces; and it was therefore transactions detailed between the co-eval with the temporary triumph sounding of the sixth trumpet and of the papacy. And again, Edward that verse had all transpired, then died in July, 1553, when the must the sackcloth testimony of the papist Mary ascended the throne, witnesses have been likewise com- and Romanism became again domipleted; which is just as much refer- nant for a time. This was just one red to in this announcement, as their year after the treaty of Passau, being killed. Yea, the commencement (which was in July, 1552,) between of their period of prophesying ought which and the recess of the diet of strictly to come between the two Augsburgh in 1555, is the period woes; and we conclude therefore fixed by the Author for the triumthat these words have no necessary phant ascent of the witnesses into reference to these matters at all, but power, and their establishment in that the account of the witnesses the same, and the fall of the tenth is an episode.

part of the city.

(To be concluded in our next.)

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