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are made to appear in all the translations, These arguments are ably fol- . the last, as well as the preceding, would lowed up by others, and objections have been joined by the conjunction."* to this view are met and disposed “ The Greek verb kupw to be, to exist,
of : and the result is that in a close expresses precisely the (havalt
) the Hebrew radix of 117; and English version he would represent I am therefore inclined to think with the ELOHIM and ó Okos by the words learned Bishop Pearsont and some other " THE OMNIPOTENT,
or ALMIGHTY; critics, indeed I have no doubt of the
and JEHOVAH and Κυριος, by
THE fact, that the authors of the Septuagint
ETERNAL.” version considered Kuplos as standing in a similar relation to klipw, as 7999 to 1777.
We make another extract or That is, they did not employ Kuplos as two, for the purpose of exhibiting
Lord,' when translating 747", but as a by what mode the apparent violaterm expressive of existence or being, like
tions of grammar in the Apocalypse the Hebrew term itself. Though Kupios be used both for Jehovah and Adonai in
are accounted for by the Author. the Septuagiaí, a difference is sometimes " Of the introduction of definitions I made, as in Gen. xv, 2, 8, where 7179 1978 have already had occasion to take some (Adonai Jehovah) is rendered CEO TOTA notice ; but it is necessary that we should Kvple, and in other places. It is also de- here bestow some farther attention upon serving of notice, that the Greek scribes this subject, as the change of construction, were wont to distinguish the one word with which these definitions and explanafrom the other, by writing on the margin tions are accompanied, has led critics who the Hebrew word 797", when that was the were not aware of their existence and use one intended.
From this circumstance to charge the inspired penman with violathe unmeaning word IIIII had its origin, tions of grammar. In Rev. i, 4, John which is only a defective copy of the wishes the benediction of “grace and peace Hebrew word 7971, read as Greek from to the seven Churches in Asia, ano 780 left to right. According to Jerome this
ων και ο ην και ο ερχομενος,”-rendered was common in the copies of his age; in the common version, “From him which (Ep. 136 ;) and in some of the antient is, and which was, and which is to come.” copies the word Jehovah was preserved in The Greek reader will at once perceive the Greek translations in its own Hebrew that the preposition ano, which never character. (Ep. 130.) It is curious
governs any case but the genitive, after enough that Origen's Hexapla underwent being here followed by an article in the a similar metamorphosis, from the ig- genitive, is followed by three articles in norance of transcribers. One of his the nominative case ; and this will perhaps columns exhibited the Hebrew words in strike him with the more surprise from Greek characters, of which some fragments seeing, that the next words, kai twv €TTA have come down to us as quotations. In πνευματων, ,
" and from the seven spirits," one of these the word Jehovah, in Malachi follow the usual Greek construction : but ii, 13, has been converted into il 7 l. We his surprise will lessen when he reflects meet with the same change in the text of that ο ων και ο ην και ο ερχομενος, reIsaiah printed by Curterius with the present here the indeclinable Hebrew noun commentary of Procopius.—The method 99.99, Jehovah. The Hebrew not admitting, adopted by John precluded the possibility like the Greek, inflection in the oblique of such errors as arose from writing the cases, the writer puts these defining terms word Jehovah on the margin. Like the in what a Grecian would call the nominaAuthors of the Septuagint he expresses
but takes care to intimate, that they this Hebrew name by the Greek word are to be taken as a genitive, by prefixing to Kyrios; but, to prevent the possibility them the article 78 in the genitive case." of being misunderstood, he instantly adds,
• Instances of this kind occur freas already noticed, a periphrasis of the quently in the Apocalypse ;
that is, word Jehovah, as a definition of the words put in the nominative, where, Greek term." Pp. 229 and 233.
from the intention of the Writer not
* The Reader will find in this work a compendious but complete view of the important discussion which took place between Granville Sharp, Bishop Middleton, and others, on a particular rule which concerns the Greek article and the conjunction kar; and the application thereof to the doctrine of the Trinity.
+ On the Creed, p. 147, note. Fol. 1741.
having been understood by critics, they Messiah made an end of sin ; see
and from Jesus Christ the were understood by them, it could faithful witness." Here the nouns Inge
Here the nouns Inge only be because this Book of Daniel Xploto are, according to regular usage,
is the identical « little Book” of put in the genitive, being preceded by ATTO, which never governs any other case ; but the Apocalypse, which the Lion of the words that follow are in the nomin- the tribe of Judah prevailed to ative. The reason, though at first sight open; and as it must have been not so apparent, is at bottom the same
opened and expounded to them anas in the preceding example of this kind
terior to their references to it, so
The identity between the two
Books he endeavours to establish adding και μαρτυς και πιστος ; thereby intimating,' that wherever he uses this by the following coincidences. 1st. Greek expression, he speaks of him, who, The little Book was “ written inin the Old Testament Seriptures, is called side and outside.” He supposes the " THE AMEN." It is owing to a similar
outside characters to have been a cause that the words which follow these in the text, (namely Ó TPOTOTOKOS.
something visible and intelligible to ó apxwv, the first-born from the dead, the Church; and he asserts it to be and the prince or ruler,) are also found the subject of the song—"Thou in the nominative. The Apostle here hast made us unto our God kings applies other two indeclinable Hebrew
and priests, and we shall reign on nouns to Jesus Christ, viz. 9939 bechor and
the earth :” and this also he con79954 elioun, thus informing the reader that these epithets, applied to the Messiah ceives to be borrowed from Dan. vii, in Psalm lxxxix, 27, belong to Jesus Christ, 25—27, in which it was promised, -or, in other words, that he alone is the that the saints should possess the Messiah ; and by the other words which kingdom. 2d. He notices, that he introduces, “ from the dead,” explain. Daniel was commanded to seal his ing the sense in which he is called “ the first-born," in the Psalm from which John prophecies, and that the Book in the takes the epithet.” Pp. 306, 309. Apocalypse was sealed. 3rd. That III. We have reserved for this
as this sealing is seven times rehead a distinct argument, which the peated in Daniel, so the little Book Author advances for assigning an has seven seals. 4th. From the early date to the Apocalypse. It “ little Book” being covered with is derived from references to the writing, he infers its completeness; Book of Daniel ; which references, which denotes, that nothing could as he supposes, are to be found in be added to the prophecy contained all the Apostles.* This Book of in it; and that the removal of the Daniel, the Author argues, was "to seals from Daniel was all that was be sealed till the time of the end ;" wanted to give this knowledge. and therefore previous to the end We doubt if some of these points (which he considers the termination of coincidence will be very obvious of the Mosaic dispensation, when to our Readers; and we doubt still
* Take as an example 1 Thess. v, 2, and 2 Thess. ii, 3–5.
· shut up
more in regard to the seven times as seen “in the hand of Him that repeated declaration in Daniel to sat on the throne.” We will give seal the Book. He considers it it in the Author's own words : once sealed in chap. viii, 26; twice
" In the use of the prepositions John is in ix, 24; twice in xii, 4; and
so rigid, that unless a translator attends to twice in xii, 9. Thus the declara- them with great care, noting the case with tion, that seventy weeks are deter- which they are put in construction, he will mined “ to seal up the vision and
often fail to express the sense of the ori
ginal. In no point have translators failed prophecy,” he makes two seals.
more essentially than in this; giving a Shut up the words and seal the kind of school-boy version, which, in many book” are two more distinct seal
instances, conjures up a false picture to ings, being read thus :
the mind. Take the following as an inthe words”.
stance: Ειδον επι την δεξιαν το καθηseal the book.' “The words are closed up and sealed, hevelenl te Opovo BeAww. (ch.v,1.) Here
the first enl is joined with an accusative, &c.” are two more! Such criticism
in which situation it never, in any instance, as this is very unsatisfactory to our expresses position on or in place,-any own mind: for who would conclude, thing resting in situ ; yet all the versions were he ordered to shut or close up a
have rendered these words thus: " I saw
in the right hand of bim that sat on the letter and seal it, that he was to
throne a book.” Now the fact is-John seal it twice, or that he had been
did not see, nor does he say that he saw, a twice commanded to do one thing ? book in any hand whatever, either right We greatly question likewise, whe- or left. Had he meant to say so, he would, ther so the end,” unto which the
when employing the preposition rl, have
put the noun in the genitive. He tells us sealing is to continue in chap. xii,
that he saw a book on or concerning a cer4 and 9, be the termination of the
tain subject or topic; and informs us what Mosaic dispensation instanced by this subject was,-namely, “the right hand the Author. For first, Daniel is of the one sitting upon the throne.” Conto rest till that end, which again
sequently the right hand' must not be
taken in its proper sense, but in some is synchronous with
other to which the Scripture is not a stran• tion of the prophetical days named
ger. In one word, a little inquiry will ' in the Prophecy;" (see chap. xii, satisfy the Reader, that he here employs 13;) and unless it can be shewn the expression commonly used in the Old that Daniel rose from the dead and Testament for power :-he saw a treatise
or work which had for its principal topic, those days terminated with the close
" the power of the one sitting upon the of the Mosaic dispensation, the
In fact, the text presents a Author's hypothesis must fall to strong Hebrew figure of speech, which the ground. There appears more escapes entirely the notice of the Reader, cogency in the instance cited from
when the preposition is wrongly trans
lated." P. 157. chap. ix, 244" seventy weeks are determined to seal up, &c.”-since This again is unsatisfactory to most commentators are agreed, that us. Though the rule is generally as they terminated at the period above the Author states it, yet we could named: but then the first verse of instance several examples of te the tenth chapter seems to justify governing the accusative when it the conclusion, that an entirely dif- signifies rest in situ : one however ferent vision and prophecy com- taken from this very book may sufmences here.
fice for the present case; viz. chap. We
are presently afterwards xx, v. 1, wherein the angel is said to startled with another bold hypo- have a great chain in his hand," thesis of the Author, concerning επι την χειρα αυτο.
Here there the Book, described in chap. v, 1, is no mention of the right hand ; and unless therefore the learned open and clear ones,"__thus actually conAuthor can also reconcile this latter verting what John plainly teaches was
done for the opening and explaining of a passage with Hebrew phraseology,
book that was formerly sealed, into the as he would the former, we must
formation of a new sealed book, containing question the legitimacy of his in- seven sealed and hidden prophecies!" To terpretation.
treat the Apocalypse thus, is to lock it up. We extract the following, because If these prophecies be indeed sealed, vain they either refer to a great ques
must be every attempt to explain them. tion at issue between interpreters idea that the book' of ch. v,
This notion has been taken up from an
'sealed of the Apocalypse ;-viz. whether
with seven seals' must be different from the main visions therein contained the little open book' of ch. x, 2. But are parallel with each other, or
had those who have embraced this opinion occur in regular chronological suc
attended to the Greek text, they would cession : : or they affect the general latter imports, that the book here spoken
have seen that the expression used in the principle of interpretation.
of is one that had been opened" (CVEVY
Mevov,) plainly intimating, that' before “ One point in particular, respecting having been opened,'—which is the corthe structure of this remarkable prophecy, rect sense of the Greek,-it had been a deserves great attention. A considerable sealed book; and that having been so portion of the particulars detailed by John, opened by the removal of the seals, as was not, as has been generally imagined, detailed in the preceding chapters, it has exhibited to him in dramatic action,-if, been explained in such a manner that it on such a subject, I may employ such a may now be understood : and accordingly,
On the contrary, many of the John was commanded to eat the book ; things, which he states himself to have
(ch. x, 9 ;) that is, properly to consider and seen in the vision, were brought to his digest its contents, that he might be able view, precisely as he intimates in the first to prophesy still farther respecting peoples, verse of the first chapter; eonjiAVEV— they and nations, and tongues, and many kings, were symbolized to him : they were sym- or kingdoms. Nor does the circumstance bolical representations, such as he de- of its being called a little book' (Blscribes ; that is, pictures of some kind, lapidcov) in ch. x,
Blupiduov) in ch. x, at all alter the case ; contained in a book, which was unrolled for this only serves to describe still farther before him. Had translators properly at- the book' mißlcov) of ch. v, informing tended to the circumstance, tbat, in ilis the reader that the one alluded to the one part of the prophecy, especially from the ' that had been opened,' by removing the beginning of the sixth to the end of ihe seals from it-is not a large volume ; a ninth chapter, John, besides describing fact which is correctly true respecting the the other circumstances of the vision, book of Daniel, and particularly the sealed gives a detailed account of things, cir- parts of his prophecy. Every notion then cumstances, and actions, seen by him in of such a structure, as that which has just pictorial representations in the unsealed been alluded to, should be rejected, as roll itself, they would perhaps have suc- quite foreign to the nature and design of ceeded better in attaining the author's the Apocalypse." P. 174. sense ; and many of the sudden changes “ To me it appears impossible, that the in moods and tenses which occur, and true sense can be elicited, by any system which hasty critics have presumed to which would ascribe to the Book such a stigmatize as arbitrary, capricious, and
structure as necessarily to require, that not to be accounted for, would have been the parts of each series of symbols shall seen to be perfectly appropriate, and ab- be considered as following each other in solutely required by the very nature of chronological order, each individual part the detail." P. 172.
having its commencement when the events “Some commentators, mistaking eptire- of the part immediately preceding have ly the nature and object of the sealed book, had their accomplishment; and each whole conceive the Apocalypse to be “ divided series, in like manner, having its com' into two main branches; the former a mencement only after the particulars of 'sealed book, containing seven seals, or the preceding series have been consum• sealed and hidden prophecies; and the mated. Conformably to this system, it latter an open codicil, containing several is quite common with commentators to Salvation to our God which sitteth lation, it seems evident, from so many of upon the throne, and unto the the details pointed out in the above sum- · Lamb ;” which the Author would mary, as all coming down to the same
consider the rider of the first seal as longer—the sounding of the seventh trumhaving not only gone forth, but finished pet—the time for the dead to be judged his whole course, before the rider of the -the pouring out of the seventh vial ; second seal is suffered to commence his which are all so many different expressions journey; and in like manner to give to of the same termination ;) that several of the third a prescribed duration subsequent the series must and do synchronize with in time to the second, and terminating each other throughout a greater or less when the fourth is sent out, &c. And portion of their extent. In strict language thus it follows, as a necessary consequence each new exhibition may be called a disof this mode of procedure, that the ridcrs,
tinct vision in itself ; and, therefore, respectively, have finished their eniire though the different exhibitions and comcourse, and ceased to have any exisience, munications of which the Apocalypse conlong before the events of the first trumpet sists, do, and must, from the very neceshave even their commencement. The ah sity of the case, succeed each other in the surdities that would follow from a similar narration, yet these do not constitute, as mode of interpretation applied to Daniel, has been imagined by many, one continued are apparent enough. Why then should detail of an unbroken series of events, it be held possible to render the Apoca- which are each to be considered as distinct, lypse intelligible by such a process ?
and which are all to take place in the order To particularize all the varied modifica- in which they are written. On the contrary, tions of these systems, which have been it exhibits repeated orderly details of ceroffered in elucidation of the Apocalypse, tain predicted facts, relative to the Church would be a waste of time. Suffice it of Christ and the enemies of this Church; therefore to
say, that though the re- each detail affording precisely that degree velation may be considered as having been of light which suits the propriety of the all communicated on the same Lord's day, symbols employed in each respectively; (and therefore, as a whole, may, for con- and the whole so managed, by means of venience, be called one vision, being; as a the accompanying narrative, that every whole, one Revelation,) yet it is evident, succeeding exhibition throws light upon, that the particulars exhibited, or com- and receives elucidation from, all that have municated, to John, did not follow each preceded : the instruction which the proother without any intermission ; for this phecy thus yields being as the shining is plainly intimated in the prophecy itself. light, which shiueth more and more unto Thus in the fourth chapter the Aposíle the perfect day.” states, that he heard the same voice that had spoken to him before, even the great
There are some other points which voice" as of a trumpet," quoting his own
are treated with considerable force words from chap. i, 10. On the ocasion and ability by Dr. Tilloch; and withto which he alludes he had noted thai he inspired on the Lord's day ;” and them, we say they are
out meaning to pass any opinion on
at least now, on hearing the same voice again adidress him, he says,
“ Immediately I be- worthy the attention of the student came inspired,”-plaiuly intimating ihat
of the Apocalypse. For example ; there had been a suspension of tbe in- the perplexity which arises from spiration ; or, in other words, an interval
, symbolical epithets, used in such a however short it may have been, between
manner as to lead translators to the former exhibition and that which be
mistake them for attributive nouns, proceeds to describe in the chapier referred to." P. 179.
when they are hieroglyphical proper Having given a summary of the
names; and thus often to make two contents of the Apocalypse, the persons, when only one is intended. Author adds :
Thus at chap. vii, 10, we read“Respecting the structure of the Reve
read—“ Salvation to the sitting one period, (namely, the great earthquake, which, in its consummation, is styled the
on the throne, even the Lamb." The great day of wrath--the finishing of the
same observation applies to chap. v, mystery of God, when time shall be no 13, and vi, 15, 16: the Author