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FOR THE BALANCE.
To wake the villain to a sense of shame-
Ah, why, alas! when subjects so abound,
Is, that no wound he gain'd, no limb he lost;
When Don Sebaftian, king of Portugal, had invaded the territories of Muly Moluc, emperor of Morocco, in order to dethrone him, and fet the crown on the head of his nephew, Moluc was wearing away with a diftemper which he knew was incurable. However, he prepared to meet fo formidable an enemy. He was indeed fo far spent with his ficknefs, that he did not expect to live out the whole day, when the last decifive battle was given, but knowing that fatal confequences would happen to his children and people, in cafe he died before he put an end to the war, he commanded his principal officers, that if he died during the engagement, they fhould conceal his death from the army, and that they should ride up to the litter in which he was carried under pretence of receiving orders from him as ufual. Before the battle begun he
was carried through all the ranks of his army in an open litter, as they flood drawn up in array, encouraging them to fight valliantly in defence of their religion and country. Finding afterwards the battle to go against him, though he was very near his laft agonies, he threw himfelf out of his litter, rallied his army, and led them on to the charge; which afterwards ended in a complete victory on the fide of the Moors
-He had no fooner brought his men to the engagement, but finding himfelt utterly fpent, he was again replaced in the litter, where laying his finger on his mouth to enjoin fecrecy to his officers, who stood a. bout him, he died in that posture.
A PHILOSOPHICAL COBLER.
ON the day of the coronation of the prefent king of England, (as report has gone,) a gentleman, who had been walking in London in the vaft proceffion, which that event occafioned, happened to make a rent in his fhoe; and went into a cobler's ftall to get it mended. Obferving the cobler to continue intent upon his work, without once looking up to fee the brilliant throng that was conftantly paffing his door, he queftioned him refpecting this indifference. The cobler laconically replied, "This fine fhow is nothing to me: the Lord fent me into the world to mend fhoes, and I muft mind my own bufinefs."
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FOR THE BALANCE.
SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF MAHOMET.
HE impoftor Mahomet, was defcended in a dire line, from Ihniael a fon of Abraham; and his immediate ancefors were among the principal men of the tribe of Korefh. This wonderful man, who, in fucceffive generations, has given both a civil and religious polity to many thoufands of millions of the human race, was born at Mecca in Arabia, in the year of our Lord, five hundred and feventy. eight. Though defcended from an illuftrious ancestry, he was, in his infancy, deftitute orphan. His father, Abdi Allah, dying young, left his widow and Mahomet his infant fon, in very poor circumflances. Mahomet was brought up to the bufinefs of merchandize; for which his nation was famous. The Arabians or Ishmaelites were among the first merchants of whom hiftory gives any account. It was a company of merchants, belonging to this nation, that bought Jofeph of his brethren and fold him into Egypt.—It was the fortune of Mahoinet to be engaged in the fervice of Khadijah, a rich and noble widow, who employed him as her factor in trade, and was fo pleased with his perfon and conduct, that he gave him her
had probably lein dormant in Mahomet's || ing, and with holy angels. Here, accord
Some chriftian writers, in their zeal to vilify the impoftor, have declared that he was deftitute of talents, and fo unlearned that he was unable even to write. Thefe abfurditics confute themfelves. It is the height of folly to fuppofe a man to have been incapable of writing, who was bred up a merchant, and had been employed as a factor in extenfive mercantile concerns; and it is equal folly to believe a man to have been deflitute of talents, who by various cunning artifices, compleatly ef fected both a religious and civil revolution over near one third of the globe. There is no doubt but Mahomet was a perfon of confiderable learning, and of a moft fhrewd and artful mind. Having become rich by his marriage with Khadijah, and purfuing
a line of businels that led him into an acquaintance with people of different nations, he carefully ftudied men, and at length formed the fcheme of immortali zing himfelt by the etablifhment of a new
eligion. The time was peculiarly fav. ourable to this daring fcheme of the impoftor. The declining flate of the Perfians, the luxury and effeminacy of the Greeks, and the ignorant, corrupt and diftracted condition of the chriflian nations generally, at that juncture, both encouraged and facilitated the projects of Mahomet. Having formed and digefted the plan of introducing a new religion, which, while it contained fome great truths, fhould be accomodated to the taste of the moft fenfual and debauched, he, at the age of forty, in order to obtain the character
hand in marriage, when he was twenty-of infpiration, betook himself to a cave. In
ing to his own account, the angel Gabriel, having wrung out the black drop, or orig-. inal fin, from Mahomet's heart, washed and cleanfed it and filled it with faith and wifdom. Here he compofed the Koran, affifted, as has been fuppofed, by Boheira a Neftorian monk. Strange fits of the epile&tic kind, with which Mahomet was vifited, were artfully improved by him to ftrengthen his pretenfions to divine infpi
After he had lived long enough in the cave to prepare himself for his pretended divine million, he returned to his family; and his first object, in which he foon fuccecded, was to convert his wife, his domeftics and his nearest relations to the faith of the Koran. For about three years, he was cautious and taught privately; when, becoming bold and open, the people of his tribe were fo exalperated against him that, to efcape aflaflination from their hands, he fled to Medina. From this epoch, which in Arabia is called Hegira, that is flight, the Mahometans compute their time, in the fame manner as the Chrif tians compute their time from the birth of our Saviour. After the flight of Mahomet to Medina, bis difciples increafed fast ; and his profeffions and behaviour continued, a number of years, to be mild and conciliating. He declared that his bufinefs was only to teach and admonish; and that he had no commillion to compel men to embrace his religion. At length, fired with ambition and ftung with refentment against his oppofers, he threw off the mask and erected the bloody flag ; de
this recefs, he pretended to have had fa-
miflioned him to deftroy the lives of fuch
as fhould refufe to fubmit to the Koran. This pretended divine commiffion was executed, by Mahomet and his fucceffors in office, with the utmoft rigour. The Ma. hometans, ufing the irrefiitable logic of the fword and of all manner of cruelties, propagated and eftablifhed their religion in Afia, in Europe and in Africa; and overfpread countries, once enlightened and free, with hedious darkness and with the moft horrid defpotifm.
A vaft and mighty nation has been raifed up, within a little more than one century, out of chaos, as it were, which threatens the fpeedy downfall of the Mahometan power. Both Turkey and Perfia, which are the vitals of Mahometifm, weakened and distracted with internal divifions, behold the rapid growth of the Ruffian power, with jealouly and fear; and are probably defined to fall before it.
The Hegira, or flight of Mahomet, from which Mahometans commenced their era, happened in the year of Christ, 622; therefore the present year, according to their Calender, is dated, 1181.
FOR THE BALANCE.
To the EDITORS,
T this alarming crifis, while political doctrines are advanced and measures are attempted, by men high in office, which are utterly fubverfive of the liberty of the prefs, it is neceflary to teft the prefent conduct of fome of the leaders of the democrats with their former profeffions and to expofe their hypocrify to the view of the public. For this purpofe, I request you to republifh an extract from a pamphlet, containing a number of letters, which were directed to prefident Adains and alfo to publifh my remarks upon it. At the fame time, I advise you to be cautious; for the late refolve of the Virginia affeinbly, and the fpeech of Govcrnor M Kean, which have been foon fol
lowed by a public avowal, that truth itself
is a libel, induce me to believe that there is a fyftematic plan to muzzle the federal preffes.
Your monitorial and agricultural departments are fafe: but, in regard to pol itics, I warn you not to publish the whole truth. You may yet have caufe bitterly to remember the old adage, namely, " the ruth is not to be spoken at all times."A crefore, if there fhould be any fentient in my remarks, that will expofe you to the lath of the new republican law, I
wifh you to fupprefs it. But to the point. -In the firft number of the aforementioned pamphlet, the writer, after declaring the fedition law to be unconftitutional, proceeds and concludes as follows:
Yet, Sir, however clear your opinion, "however decided your conviction may be, on this great conflitutional queflion, "there is one point in which we must all agree. It is a truth, which cannot be denied, a truth fupported by facts, as "notorious as they are alarming, that the "fedition bill is in the higheit degree
dangerous and inexpedient. In this part "of the world it is juitly regarded as an "attack on the liberty of the prefs, and has "roufed the attention of the moft fupine. "It has inflamed that fpirit of fufpicion "and difcontent, which, unfortunately for "the people, has been already too power. "fully excited, and has a direct and obvious tendency to produce the very crime "which it profeffes to punifh. God for"bid that I fhould fay, that fuch was the object for which the law was made. If "I entertained an opinion fo difhonorable "to my countrymen, fo difgraceful to
humanity, my foul would fink with "horror and defpair. But I cannot def"pair. Truth, liberty, and virtue, muft "prevail in America, and I therefore, be. "lieve, that the fervants of the people, will "not continue a law, merely because it "has paffed, when they know, when they "fee, that the evil which it has already produced, infinitely outweighs all the good "which they expected to obtain.
"HORTENSIUS. "Virginia, Jan. 1799.
ginia democrats, was the avowed author of Col. Hay, one of the leaders of the Virthe letters to Mr. Adams, figned "Hortenfius." He was a friend of Callender, and advocated his caufe, as an attorney, when he was profecuted for a libel against the Senate of the United States. While
Callender was publifhing The Profpect
before Us" while Duane was continually pouring forth torrents of abuse upon the federal adminiftration, and accufing every department of the government with mighty flickler for the liberty of the prefs. the vileft corruption, Col. Hay was a But mark the man!-He and his friends are now in power; and it is no longer neceffary that the preffes fhould be free. -This fame Col. Hay has lately thrown a printer into jail, for refufing to give bonds for his good behaviour; that is to fay, for refufing to bind himself and fureties in the penal fum of a thousand dollars, that he would not utter or publifh aught, which the democrats might deem a libel ! Robefpirre and Marat were alfo republiBut Col. Hay is a republican and patriot.
cans and patriots, and were zealous declaimers for the liberty of the prefs, till they had thruft themfelves into power; and then, if any printer prefumed to pubhis head, without a trial. lifh any thing against their conduct or was even fufpected of fuch a defign, off went
I intended to have applied fome re marks nearer home. It is reported that Mr. Spencer was among the loudest in exclaiming against the oppreffion and tyfederal adminiftration, for paffing it.ranny of the Sedition Law, and against the However, Mr. Spencer was then in the minority; and might think it neceffary the wicked federalifts, who then held the that every battery fhould be opened against reins of government. "Circumstances
ple of Hudfon, as well the democrats as A CITIZEN requests the peothe federalifts, feriously to confider the bitter fruits of the new order of things, in this little city, particularly reipecting the late aftonifhing increafe of the number of juftices' courts..
Our former city juftices, Pitkin and Northrop, had comparatively but little ofbelieve, as often as once a quarter. But ficial bufinefs. A jury-cafe, before them, was a very rare thing: it did not happen, mark the change! Juftices' courts in this nearly four-fold; and jury cafes, perhaps place, within two years, have multiplied
Characteristics of a good affembly-man.
"1. To accept his delegation with a fincere detire, and for the fole purpose of rendering his country all the fervice in his power.
2. Seriously to confider what laws will be moft beneficial; induftrious in collecting materials for framing them; and prompt to hear all men, efpecially the moft. judicious, on the ftate of his country; and the regulations propofed to render it more. flourishing and happy
3. To make confcience of doing his proper fhare of bufinefs in the houfe, without leaving it to others to do his part, by which they muft neceffarily neglect their own; every member being bound in honour to do as much as he can.
4. Candidly and impartially to form his own judgment for himself, yet to be always open to conviction, and upon cogent arguments for that purpofe, ready to change, and frankly to confefs the change of his fentiments.
5. To detach himself from all local partialities and county-interefts, inconfiftent with the public weal; and ever confidering himfelt as the reprefentative of the whole ftate, to be affiduous in promoting
the intereft of the whole, which muft ultimately produce the good of every part. 7. In every vote he gives, to be folely directed by the public emolument; and never influenced in his fuffrage by motives merely selfish or lucrative.
9. To be inflexible in his refolution of acting agreeably to the dictates of his confcience to be utterly regardless of the applaufe or cenfure, that may enfue upon the difcharge of his duty.
10. Never to be inftrumental in promoting to any office or truft his dearest connections or intimates, whom he believes not qualified for the department; nor ev
The continuance of the public tranquility, the growing profperity of the flate, the attachment of our fellow-citizens to our happy conftitution and their difpofition to pay due obedience to the laws, which your excellency has been pleafed to mention, demand our grateful acknowledgments to that overruling Providence from which all our bleffings proceed.
We are happy to find that, notwithflanding the unwarrantable conduct of the Spanifh Intendant at New-Orleans, to prevent the free navigation of the Mifliffippi, all caufes of complaint will probably be removed by wife and temperate meafures on the part of the executive of the United States; but if we fhould be difappointed in that refpect, we have the highest confidence with your excellency that every exertion will be used by our citizens to vindicate our national rights against any power by which they may be invaded.
The execution of the various matters committed to your excellency's more immediate direction, during the recefs of the leigflature, meets our full approbation ; and it gives us much fatisfaction to learn that the duties which were aligned to the different departments, have been executed with wifdom and fidelity.
We are fully fenfible of the neceflity of replenishing our magazines with military ftores in time of peace, and of making fuch further appropriations for that purpofe as the ftate of the treafury may warrant.
The increafing attention to military duty by our citizens will excite us to make further improvements in our fyftem for the promotion of military difcipline and the encouragement of military ardor.
may be practicable the neceffity of recurring again to taxation.
The speedy and regular fettlement of that tract of land adjoining the Niagara river belonging to the ftate, the preventing further waftes and intrufions on the public lands, and the other important matters recommended by your excellency will demand our earliest attention.
Permit us to affure your Excellency, that we fhall be happy in making the feffion agreeable to you and bent ficial to the ftate. By order of the Senate,
J. VAN RENSSELAER, Pref. Senate-Chamber, Jan. 28, 1803.
TO WHICH HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR MADE THE FOLLOWING REPLY: GENTLEMEN,
I thank you for this refpetful addrefs, and for the obliging manner in which you are pleafed to exprefs your approbation of my conduct. It gives me peculiar fatiffaction to find that you concur with me in opinion relative to the importance of the objects recommended to your confideration, and I anticipate with pleasure the public benefits that will be derived from your attention to them.
Albany, Jan. 28, 1803.
ANSWER OF THE ASSEMBLY TO THE GOVERNOR'S SPEECH.
The Affembly are highly gratified with your Communication to both Houles of the Legislature, and unite with your Excelleney in" unfeigned gratitude" to the Supreme Difpofer of all events, for the continuance of public tranquility, and the increafing profperity of the State. We cannot however, veiw without concern the conduct of the Spanish Intendant at New Orleans, which, in the violation of the faith of Treaties, is calculated to obftru&t the enterprise and growing commerce of the citizens of the United States, and in a peculiar manner to affect our fouthern brethren in de
It gives us great pleafure to be informed that by the amelioration of our criminal priving them in a great measure of the free code, the number of crimes has gradally navigation of the Miffilippi. The fenfidiminished for three years paft, notwith-bility excited on this occafiion is the natuftanding the rapid increafe of our popula- ral refult of injuries committed on the rights tion; a fyftem fo fuccefsful in its opera- of a free people, who confider national tion, and fo congenial with the mild fpirit honour above all price, and are determined of our free government, cannot fail to re- to fupport it at every hazard. Under ceive our warmeft fupport and encourage- thefe impreffions we believe that found policy as well as the dictates of humanity The fifcal concerns of this ftate fhall point out the propriety of attempting to obreceive from us that early and deliberate tain redrefs by negociation, before an apattention which their importance demands,peal to arms, and therefore highly approve and we affure your excellency that we fhall readily concur in every proper and economical measure to render our funds more productive and to fupercede as far as
the wife and temperate meafures of the Prefident to remove all cane of complaint. Should thefe fail, we have no doubt the people of this ftate will be among the first
in firmness and patriotism to vindicate our national rights, from whatever quarter they may be affailed."
The obedience to the laws manifefted by our fellow citizens affords the higheft fatisfaction, and ought to ferve as a new proof of the error of those who infift that the People are incapable of felf-government.While fuch fentiments remain we have little to apprehend from the machinations or intrigues of foreign powers.
The fifcal concerns of the flate are of the first importance. Our beft endeavours will be exerted to render the funds more productive and to diminish the expence of government by appropriating the public money with the ftrictest economy. We cannot too highly approve the economical fyftem purfued by the general gov ernment, and the falutary effects refulting from the wisdom of its measures; an example of fuch high authority and fo worthy of imitation will be purfued with undeviating attention.
firft day of March, in the year one thoufand eight hundred and one, were pleafed to give their advice and confent that your petitioners fhould be feverally appointed to the offices aforefaid; that commiffions were accordingly in due form figned by the faid Prefident, and directed to be fent to your petitioners by the Secretary of State, but that your petitioners, from fome caufe have been deprived of their commiffions, and are reduced to the neceflity of afferting their rights to the fame in a judicial courfe of proceeding in which as they are advised it will be requifite to produce fatisfactory evidence of the advice and confent of the Senate to the appointment of your petitioners to be juftices of the peace as aforefaid, in the diftrict of Columbia. Application has been made to the Secretary of the Senate for his certificate that the advice and confent of the Senate was given in confequence of the nominations aforefaid, that your petitioners fhould be appointed to be juftices of the peace in the diftrict of Columbia aforefaid, which your Secretary has declined giving without the leave of the Senate. Your petitioners pray the premises may be taken into confideration, and that your Secretary may be permitted to give to your petitioners a certificate in ufual form, fetting forth that your petitioners having been nominated by the Prefident of the United States to the aforefaid offices, severally and refpe&tivly. of juftices of the peace in the diftrict of Columbia, the Senate advifed and confentman fo diftin-ed to their appointment. And as in duty bound, &c.
Poft of laft evening. We prefent our fincere thanks to the gentleman to whofe polite attention we are indebted for this very obliging favour, and lofe not a moment in giving publicity to the forcible and eloquent fpeech of our Senator.-Our readers will recollect, that under the adminiftration of Mr. Adams, feveral perfons were appointed juftices of the peace for the Dif trict of Columbia, and their commiffion regularly made out; but as they were not delivered before Mr. Jefferfon came into office, he faw fit to fupprefs them. It became, therefore, a very inpo tant question, whether the Prefident was authorifed to withhold a commiffion which under his predeceffor had gone through all the forms of law but delivery. Accordingly, three of the juflices who were in this fituation, made application to the Supreme Court of the United States for the purpose of having this enquiry folemnly made and decided upon. The proceedings on this fubject are ftill pending, and the parties who inftiYour uniform patriotifm and folicitude tuted them have been advifed by their for the public welfare, evinced by a long counfel, that an extract from the minutes courle of public fervice, leave no reafon to of the Senate confirming their nominations, doubt of the faithful exercife of the various would be material evidence in their behalf. matters committed to your immediate di- They therefore prefented the memorial reftion. The various and important ob- which is fubjoined. The refolution movjects communicated by your Excellencyed in confequence of it gave occafion to hall receive the confideration they merit. And permit us to fay, that we boubt not If party zeal did not extinguifh all regard your Excellency's co-operation in all thofe for character not enlifted under its own mcafures which the happinefs of our fel-particular banner, every clafs of our citilow citizens or the public weal fall re- zens would furely feel a pride in having quire. our State reprefented by a man fo diftinquifhed for genius, talents and eloquence, as Mr. Gouveneur Morris. But all emotions of this kind are ftifled-In the mad rage for change, we fee our country depri ved of his fer vices, and another toifted into his place, no more like him, than a Satyr to Ilyperion.
TO WHICH HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERN-
Permit me to tender you my warment acknowledgments for this polite addrefs, and for the pleafure I receive from the favorable opinion you are pleafed to exprels of my public fervices.
The correct and patriotic fertiments entertained by you refpecting our national concerns, and the zeal which vou manifeil to promote the intereft of the State, juftify the high confidence repofed in the wifdom of the affembly and cannot fail of being as pleafing to your conftituents, as they are gratifying to me.
GEO CLINTON. Albany, Feb. 4, 1803.
Mr. Morris's fpeech.
SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES.
On the 28th of January last past, was
To the Honorable the Senate of the United
That your petitioners have been informed and verily believe, that John Adams, while Prefident of the United States, nominated to the Senate of the United States, for their advice and confent, your petitioner William Marbury, to be a juftice of the peace in the county of Wafhington, in the diftri&t of Columbia, and your petitioners Robert Townfend Hooe and Dennis Ramfay, to be justices of the peace in the county of AlThe following note, enclofing Mr. Mor-exandria, in the fame diftri&t; that the faid ris's fpeech was received by yefterday's mail, but too late for publication in the
FROM THE EVENING POST.
nominations were duly taken into confid-