« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
own citizens can furnish, as thereby an additional object will be attained; encouragement will be given to American arti
With the returns of the reviews and infpections of the laft year, I fhall alfo caufe to be laid before you thofe of the preceding one; by a comparifon of them you will have the fatisfaction to difcover an increal. ing attention to duty, honorable to the militia, and at the fame time evincive of the beneficial effects produced by the amendments made at the laft feffion to the militia law. It is fubmitted to your judgment to devife fuch farther improvements in the fyftem as fhall be beft calculated to promote difcipline and encourage military
Although it was to have been expected crimes would have multiplied with the increase of our population, it is with pecu liar pleafure I obferve, that from the ducuments in my poffeffion it may be inferred with a degree of certainty, that for the left three years their number has been gradually diminishing. This circumflance, whilft it is highly gratifying to philanthropy, and refpectable to the community, demonflrates the wildom of the alterations made in our criminal code, by the rejection of fanguinary punifhinents and the fubftitution of a lyftem more congenial with the mild fpirit of our free government.
This, with other wife improvements which have from time to time been made in our laws, and the recent judicious revifion and amendinent of them, have given to our jurifprudence fuch a degree of perfection as to induce a belief that any material alterations are at prefert unnecellary. Befides the obvious advantages attending the ftability of laws, it is effential to their due obfervance, that they fhould be generally known and accurately underflood, but this is impracticable whilft they are fubje& to frequent changes, fince time is required to afcertain by judicial decifions, the legal import of fections, admitting of different conftructions; and fuch are too frequently to be found even in amendatory ftatutes. Should you, gentlemen, concur in this opinion, a greater portion of your time than ufual may be devoted to other objects.
The improvement of our fifcal concerns will naturally prefent itfelf to you as of fuperior moment, and the details contained in the Comptroller's annual report, will affift in your deliberations on this impor tant fubject, by fuggefting measures for rendering the funds of the State more produ&ive of revenue. The falutary effects refulting from the economical fyftem and judicious arrangements of the general Government anord an inftructive leffon; and if we purfue an example of fuch high authority and fo worthy of imitation, there is reafon to believe that, the finances of the State may be placed in a condition com
petent to all the exigencies of Governinent, without the neceffity of recurring to taxation.
The tract of land belonging to the State adjoining the Niagara river, including that ceded by the recent Treaty with the Seneca nation of Indians, comprehends the carrying place and line of communication between the Great Western Lakes. This, and other interesting confiderations arifing from its frontier fituation, render it highly important that meafures be taken for its fpeedy and regular fettlement. The intereft of the State alfo requires more effectual meafures than have hitherto been a dop-ed to prevent waftes and intrusions on the public lands. It is to be feared that the indulgent conduct of Government has only tended to increafe thefe pernicious. practices. Most of the offenders are stran gers, ignorant of our laws, and it is time. they were taught that tranfgreffions are not to be rewarded with favors:-Wholefome
fettlers will not risk their labor in improving lands held by fo unjustifiable and precarious a tenure, and found policy as well as juftice forbid our encouraging thofe of a different defcription.
laws on fome of the established officers, at the public expence, and at the fame time to prefcribe the manner in which fuch power fhall be executed. The difficulties which occur in devifing amendments to acts of this kind, without invading corporate rights, ought to serve as an admonition to great care and circumfpection in framing future ones. How far it will be prudent to increase the number of these incorporations before the advantages to be derived from them by the public, fhall be more fully afcertained by a courfe of fair exper iment, is a question worthy of your ferious confideration.
The establishment of common schools' has at different times engaged the attention of the Legiflature; but although its im portance is generally acknowledged, a diverfity of fentiment refpe&ting the best means has hitherto prevented the accom plifhment of the object. The diffufion of knowledge is fo effential to the promotion of virtue and the prefervation of liberty, as to render arguments unneceffary to excite you to prefeverance in this laudable pursuit: Permit me only to oferve, that education, by correcting the morals and improving the manners, tends to prevent thofe evils in fociety which are beyond the fphere of legillation.
There is perhaps no object connected with the internal commerce of the State of greater confequence to its profperity than the Navigation of Hudfon's river, and under this impreffion the Legislature have at different times granted confiderable fums which have been applied to its improve-meffage, ment and extenfion. It is obvious, however, that the advantages to be derived from thefe expenditures can be of but comparative fmall value, unlefs the public aid fhall be extended to the removal of the obftructions below this city, which greatly impede the paffage of the river, and are found to be annually increafing. If it (hould be deemed expedient to patronize this interefling undertaking, you will perceive the propriety of directing preparatory measures for afcertaining the best manner of accompiifhing it, and of committing its execution. to agents of your own appointment, as attempts on an injudicious plan might, without effecting the object, be productive of injurious confequences.
Some defects which had been difcovered in the laws eftablishing Turnpike Road Companies, were fuggefted to the Legiflature at the opening of the laft feffion. But although the evils apprehended from thefe defects were guarded against in the incorporating acts paffed fubfequent to that period; yet no remedies were extended to the impefections of the then exifting laws: And as in the fe no mode is prefcribed to exact a compliance from the companies with the intentions of Government, he trouble, expence and hazard of vindicating public rights devole on individuals. It is fubmitted whether it would not be expedient to confer the power of enforcing thefe
I fhall occafionally communicate, by fuch other matters as may appear to deferve your notice, without detaining you any longer at this time, than to affure you of my beft endeavors to render your feflion agreeable; & that I fhall always con fider a cheerful co-operation with the Legiflature, in every meafure calculated to promote the honour of the state and the happinefs of our conftituents, among the firft of my duties.
GEO: CLINTON. Albany, January 25th, 1803.
In the debate on Mr. Rutledge's motion, that those who would take upon themfelves the burden of arming their own militia, fhould be exempted from the duties. payable on the importation of arms, Mr. Davis, from KENTUCKY, delivered a fpeech reprobating in pointed terms the conduct of the Deemocrats in the house, with Meffrs. Randolph and Smith at their
Kentucky, Tenneffee and Ohio with arms,
"Mr. Davis faid he could not reprefs his aftonifhment at the obftinate oppofition which had been made to that refolution. He could not but believe that the true reafons for that oppofition had been kept behind the curtain, and that thofe which had been offered to the houfe were merely intended to furnifh gentlemen with an excufe for voting against the refolution. When he looked at the conftitution and found that it was the duty of the general government to organize and equip the militia, and when he heard it flated on that floor that certain individual flates had offered to take upon themselves the burden of arming their own militia, provided congrefs would confent to relinquish the duties upon the importation of arms, he was aftonifhed that any oppofition fhould be made. A few days ago the gentleman from Maryland (Mr. S. Smith) who now oppofed the refolution, delivered a fpeech full of vigour and fpirit upon the fubject of defending our rights, and of the ability and willingness of the people to repel every infraction of those rights. The gentleman then appeared to be infpired with a fpark from the altar of '76-Now he oppofes the arming of the milita-He wished to know how that gentleman intended to fight? whether like the ante-deluvians with clubs? or like the favages of the wilderness, with bows and arrows? Mr. Davis was not lefs furprifed at the conduct of the gentleman from Virginia (Mr. Ran. dolph) who firft oppofed the prefent refolution. That gentleman, a few days ago had affected to make a great difplay of his zeal for defending the rights of the western people, and maintaining the free navigation of the Milliflippi. And what, faid Mr. Davis has been done? What Subfequent to this tranfaction, another bave we to fhew as proof of our refentconfidential meffage has been received ment of treaties violated? We have a from the prefident, and acted upon with little piece of paper about fo big, [fhew-clofed doors.Whether this is a call for ing his hand covered with Joft words about our fenfibility; and this I fuppofe is to be ufed as the children of Ifrael ufed thir brazen ferpent; it is to be held up in the fight of the people of the weltern country, and when they look upon it, they must be fatisfied for any injuries that they may fuffer in confequence of the violation. of their rights.-The gentlemen, having carried that refolution, and publifhed thofe pompous words, now reft fatisfied and refufe to allow us to import arms for our defence. If we want defence, I fuppofe we fhall be told to look at that refolution.
Mr. Davis faid it had been his intention to call upon congrefs to fupply the militia of
From the fpeech of Mr. Bayard, delivered in the houfe of Reprefentatives, on the 11th January, it appears that the fecret bufinefs brought before the houfe on that day, by Gen. Smith, was a propofition for a Jecret appropriation of an immenfe fum of money, no lefs than two millions of dollars, and that the muafure is in fome way connected with the affairs of Louifiana. For what purpose this enormous expenditure of public money can be neceffary it is impoffible to conjecture; inafmuch as all information relative to the actual flate of our exifting relations to that country has been zealously oppofed and finally refuted. Whether thefe two millions of dollars have been appropriated and paid out of the treafury:Whether they are to be carried by fury:-Whether they are to be carried by Mr. Monroe to the Firft Conful for the purpose of infuring a more favourable reception than our minifters formeriv met with from the fame court: Or whether they are to be employed as the most fatisfac. tory argument which can be used for convincing the First Conful of the expediency of continuing to us the free exercife of a right long enjoyed and fecured by the moft folemn ftipulations, are queftions which cannot be answered, and refpecting which the people will probably never be informed. The whole affair is involved in profound fecrecy. All that can be conjectured with any degree of certainty is that a propofition has been made for fecretly appropriating two millions of dollars, and that the appropriation has fome relation to Louisiana.
more money, and whether the call has been
plifhing the fame end.
[Gaz. of the United States.]
The Prefidential project of a Dry-Dock has been fcouted out of Congrefs, by the united voice of federalifts and democrats.
It was our intention to have published, in regular detail, the proceedings of the prefent feffion of Congrefs. But this is neceflary. We fhall, therefore, in future, found impracticable, and it is deemed unfelect fuch parts from the debates, &c. as are more immediately interefting to our readers. No fubject that has occupied the attention of Congrefs, has been of equal confequence with the ceffion of Louifiania to France, and the infraction of our treaty with Spain by the fhutting of the port of have the democrats (with very few excepNew Orleans-and, yet on no fubject, fions) betrayed fuch a thameful apathy. In vain have the federal members exerted themfelves to obtain information on the
fubject. The Virginian Randolph, with a majority of the heufe of reprefentatives at his command, has fuccefstully oppofed every atteinpt of the kind. The federalifts contend, that the fubjeét is of vaft, importance, and of a preffing nature--that the prefident mentioned it, as fuch, in his meffage at the opening of the feflion-that the feffion is more than half fpent, and that fufficient information is not received to enable Congrefs to act upon the business. The democrats, (at leaft fome of them) declare that it is a matter of but little confequence; and they uniformly oppofe evey motion for calling for information.The democrats as if afhamed of their conduct, have tranfacted every thing relating to the affair, with clofed doors, notwithftanding the exertions of the federalifts for a different mode of proceeding. Thus proceed the affairs of the nation under the reign of darknefs. The executive keeps the reprefentatives of the people in the dark -and the reprefentatives, in their turn, keep the people themfelves in the dark.Indeed, indeed, this is a dark day!
FIRE AT SCHENECTADY.
On the 5th inst. a fie broke out in a barber's shop in Schenectady, which destroyed 3 dwellinghouses, two stables, &c.
Foreign accounts state that Constantinople was almost entirely destroyed by an Earthquake on the 26th Oct. last. The seraglio and a great part of the he
city are stated to have been swallowed up. earthquake was productive of the most extensive mischief in several parts of Turkey, particularly in Wallachia and Romelia.
With manly verse, majestic, clear and strong.
Is, that no wound he gain'd, no limb he lost;
When Don Sebaftian, king of Portugal, had invaded the territories of Muly Moluc, emperor of Morocco, in order to dethrone him, and fet the crown on the head of his nephew, Moluc was wearing away with a diftemper which he knew was incurable. However, he prepared to meet fo formidable an enemy. He was indeed fo far spent with his ficknefs, that he did not expect to live out the whole day, when the laft decifive battle was given, but knowing that fatal confequences would happen to his children and people, in cafe he died before he put an end to the war, he commanded his principal officers, that if he died during the engagement, they fhould conceal his death from the and that they fhould army, ride up to the litter in which he was carried under pretence of receiving orders from him as ufual. Before the battle begun he
was carried through all the ranks of his army in an open litter, as they flood drawn up in array, encouraging them to fight valliantly in defence of their religion and country. Finding afterwards the battle to go against him, though he was very near his laft agonies, he threw himfelf out of his litter, rallied his army, and led them on to the charge; which afterwards ended in a complete victory on the fide of the Moors -He had no fooner brought his men to the engagement, but finding himfelt utterly fpent, he was again replaced in the litter, where laying his finger on his mouth to enjoin fecrecy to his officers, who stood a bout him, he died in that pofture.
A PHILOSOPHICAL COBLER.
ON the day of the coronation of the prefent king of England, (as report has gone,) a gentleman, who had been walking in London in the vaft proceffion, which that event occafioned, happened to make a rent in his fhoe; and went into a cobler's ftall to get it mended. Obferving the cobler to continue intent upon his work, without once looking up to fee the brilliant throng that was conftantly paffing his door, he queftioned him refpecting this indifference. The cobler laconically replied, "This fine fhow is nothing to me: the Lord fent me into the world to mend fhoes, and I muft mind my own bufinefs."
TERMS OF THE BALANCE.
To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and fifty cents, payable in quarterly advances.
To Country Subscribers, who receive their papers at the office, Two Dollars, payable as above.
To those who receive them by the mail, Two Dollars, exclusive of postage, payable in advance.
A handsome title-page, with an Index or Table of Contents, will be given with the last number of each volume.
Advertisements inserted in a conspicuous and handsome manner, in the Advertiser which accompanies, and circulates as extensively as the Balance.
Complete files of the first volume, which have been reserved in good order for binding, are for sale -Price of the volume, bound, Two Dollars and fifty cents-unbound, Two Dollars. The whole may be sent, stitched or in bundles, to any post-office in the state, for 52 cents postage; or to any post-office in the union for 78 cents.
SAMPSON, CHITTENDEN & CROSWELL,
"HAIL SACRED POLITY, BY FREEDOM REAR'D!
FOR THE BALANCE.
HUDSON, (NEW-YORK) TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1803.
SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF MAHOMET.
HE impoftor Mahomet, was defcended in a direct line, from Ishmael a fon of Abraham; and his immediate anceflors were among the principal men of the tribe of Korefh. This wonderful man, who, in fucceffive generations, has given both a civil and religious polity to many thousands of millions of the human race, was born at Mecca in Arabia, in the year of our Lord, five hundred and feventyeight. Though defcended from an illuf trious ancestry, he was, in his infancy, a deftitute orphan. His father, Abdi Allah, dying young, left his widow and Mahomet his infant fon, in very poor circumflances. Mahomet was brought up to the bufinefs of merchandize; for which his na tion was famous. The Arabians or Ifhmaelites were among the first merchants of whom hiftory gives any account. It was a company of merchants, belonging to this nation, that bought Jofeph of his brethren and fold him into Egypt.-It was the fortune of Mahomet to be engaged in the fervice of Khadijah, a rich and noble widow, who employed him as her factor in trade, and was fo pleafed with his perfon and conduct, that she gave him her hand in marriage, when he was twenty-five years of age. This event gave fcope to that inordinate ambition, which before
Some chriflian writers, in their zeal to vilify the impoftor, have declared that he was deftitute of talents, and fo unlearned that he was unable even to write. Thefe abfurdities confute themfelves. It is the height of folly to fuppofe a man to have been incapable of writing, who was bred up a merchant, and had been employed as a factor in extenfive mercantile concerns; and it is equal folly to believe a man to have been deflitute of talents, who by various cunning artifices, compleatly ef fected both a religious and civil revolution over near one third of the globe. There is no doubt but Mahomet was a perfon of confiderable learning, and of a most fhrewd and artful mind. Having become rich by his marriage with Khadijah, and purfuing
a line of businels that led him into an ac
had probably lein dormant in Mahomet's || ing, and with holy angels. Here, according to his own account, the angel Gabriel, having wrung out the black drop, or orig-. inal fin, from Mahomet's heart, washed and cleanfed it and filled it with faith and wifdom. Here he compofed the Koran, affifted, as has been fuppofed, by Boheira a Neftorian monk. Strange fits of the epile&tic kind, with which Mahomet was vifited, were artfully improved by him to ftrengthen his pretenfions to divine infpi
After he had lived long enough in the cave to prepare himself for his pretended divine million, he returned to his family; and his firft object, in which he foon fucceeded, was to convert his wife, his domeftics and his nearest relations to the faith of the Koran. For about three years, he was cautious and taught privately; when, becoming bold and open, the people of his tribe were fo exalperated against
quaintance with people of different nations, he carefully ftudied men, and at length formed the cheme of immortalilength formed the fcheme of immortali-him that, to efcape affaflination from their zing himfelt by the etablifhment of a new eligion. The time was peculiarly fav. ourable to this daring fcheme of the impoftor. The declining flate of the Perfians, the luxury and effeminacy of the Greeks, and the ignorant, corrupt and diftracted condition of the chriflian nations generally, at that juncture, both encouraged and facilitated the projects of Mahomet. Having formed and digefted the plan of introducing a new religion, which, while it contained fome great truths, fhould be accomodated to the taste of the moft fenfual and debauched, he, at the age of forty, in order to obtain the character of infpiration, betook himself to a cave. In this recefs, he pretended to have had familiar conferences with the fupreme be
hands, he fled to Medina. From this epoch, which in Arabia is called Hegira, that is flight, the Mahometans compute their time, in the fame manner as the Chrif tians compute their time from the birth of our Saviour. After the flight of Mahomet to Medina, his difciples increased fast ; and his profeffions and behaviour continued, a number of years, to be mild and conci iating. He declared that his bufinefs was only to teach and admonith; and that he had no commillion to compel men to embrace his religion. At length, fired with ambition and flung with refentment against his oppofers, he threw off the mask and erected the bloody flag ; declaring, in fubftance, that God had commiflioned him to deftroy the lives of fuch
as fhould refufe to fubmit to the Koran. This pretended divine commiffion was executed, by Mahomet and his fucceffors in office, with the utmoft rigour. The Ma. hometans, ufing the irrefiitable logic of the fword and cf all manner of cruelties, propagated and eftablifhed their religion in Afia, in Europe and in Africa; and overfpread countries, once enlightened and free, with hedious darknefs and with the moft horrid defpotifm.
A vaft and mighty nation has been raifed up, within a little more than one century, out of chaos, as it were, which threatens the fpeedy downfall of the Mahometan power. Both Turkey and Perfia, which are the vitals of Mahometifm, weakened and diftracted with internal divifions, behold the rapid growth of the Ruffian power, with jealoufy and fear; and are probably defined to fall before it.
The Hegira, or flight of Mahomet, from which Mahometans commenced their era, happened in the year of Christ, 622; therefore the present year, according to their Calender, is dated, 1181.
FOR THE BALANCE.
To the EDITORS,
T this alarming crifis, while political doctrines are advanced and measures are attempted, by men high in office, which are utterly fubverfive of the liberty of the prefs, it is neceflary to tell the prefent condu&t of fome of the leaders of the democrats with their former profef fions and to expofe their hypocrify to the view of the public. For this purpofe, I request you to republifh an extract from a pamphlet, containing a number of letters, which were directed to prefident Adains and alfo to publih my remarks upon it. At the fame time, I advise to you be cautious; for the late refolve of the Virginia allembly, and the fpeech of Govcrnor McKean, which have been foon fol
lowed by a pubiic avowal, that truth itfelf
is a libel, induce me to believe that there
Your monitorial and agricultural de-
crefore, if there fhould be any fentient in my remarks, that will expofe you to the lath of the new republican law, I
wifh you to fupprefs it. But to the point.
Yet, Sir, however clear your opinion,
agree. It is a truth, which cannot be "denied, a truth fupported by facts, as "notorious as they are alarming, that the "fedition bill is in the higheit degree
dangerous and inexpedient. In this part "of the world it is juftly regarded as an "attack on the liberty of the prefs, and has "roufed the attention of the moft fupine. "It has inflamed that fpirit of fufpicion "and difcontent, which, unfortunately for "the people, has been already too power. "fully excited, and has a direct and obvious "tendency to produce the very crime "which it profeffus to punifh. God forbid that I'fhould fay, that fuch was the object for which the law was made. If "I entertained an opinion fo difhonorable "to my countrymen, fo difgraceful to "humanity, my foul would fink with "horror and defpair. But I cannot defpair. Truth, liberty, and virtue, muft prevail in America, and I therefore, believe, that the fervants of the people, will "not continue a law, merely because it has paffed, when they know, when they fee, that the evil which it has already produced, infinitely outweighs all the good "which they expected to obtain.
cans and patriots, and were zealous de-
Virginia, Jan. 1799.'
I intended to Lave applied fome re marks nearer home. It is reported that Mr. Spencer was among the loudest in exclaiming against the oppreffion and tyranny of the Sedition Law, and against the federal adminiflration, for paffing it.However, Mr. Spencer was then in the minority; and might think it neceffary that every battery fhould be opened against the wicked federalifts, who then held the reins of government. "Circumstances alter cafes." aiter cafes." This fame Mr. Spencer, I am informed, has lately avowed principles and attempted measures, in comparifon with which, the Sedition Law was mildness itself. So the world goes-but enough.-Mr. Spencer is AttorneyGeneral, and the federal printers, in this ftate, feem to be in his hands therefore, I fay again beware.
FOR THE BALANCE.
CITIZEN requests the people of Hudfon, as well the democrats as the federalifts, ferioufly to confider the bitter fruits of the new order of things, in this little city, particularly refpecting the late aftonifhing incrcafe of the number of juftices' courts..
Col. Hay, one of the leaders of the Virginia democrats, was the avowed author of ginia democrats, was the avowed author of the letters to Mr. Adams, figned "Hortenfius." He was a friend of Callender, and advocated his caufe, as an attorney, when he was profecuted for a libel against the Senate of the United States. While
Callender was publifhing The Profpect
before Us," while Duane was continu
ally pouring forth torrents of abufe upon
the his are now in power; and it is no longer neceffary that the preffes fhould be free. -This fame Col. Hay has lately thrown a printer into jail, for refufing to give bonds for his good behaviour; that is to fay, for refufing to bind himfelf and fureties in the penal fum of a thousand dollars, that he would not utter or publifh aught,fing to fociety, a juftice of the peace, which the democrats might deem a libel ! (falfely fo called,) who, with a view to But Col. Hay is a republican and patriot. make money by his office, encourages Robefpirre and Marat were alfo republi- wrangling, and law-fuits, is among the
Without making any perfonal reflections, I would fay generally, that, while a capable juftice of the peace, who acts as a peace-maker, is an ineftimable blef
Our former city juftices, Pitkin and Northrop, had comparatively but little official bufinefs. A jury-cafe, before them, was a very rare thing: it did not happen, I believe, as often as once a quarter. But mark the change! Juftices' courts in this place, within two years, have multiplied nearly four-fold; and jury cafes, perhaps ten-fold. Men are almoft daily called off from their bufinefs to attend, as jurymen, at the courts of juftices. Time is wafted, a faunterfag idle habit is engendered and cherished, oaths are multiplied, morals are corrupted, expences are incurred; and
indeed a swarm of ruinous evils are flow
ing in upon us, from this poifonous