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ance, frugality, and plainnefs of manners; and the minimum, or lowest increase, in thofe which are moft noted for the contrary manners and habits. The future profpects of this country, as well as to a rapid increase of population, as in all other refpects, depend moft materially on the general morals and manners of the people.


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Name (fays an able European writer) any nation that was ever remarkable for juftice, for temperance and feverity of manners-for piety and religion--that did not always thrive and grow great in the world; and that did not always enjoy a plentiful portion of thofe good things, which are accounted to make a nation hap-lars, py and flourishing. And, on the other fide, when that nation has declined from its former virtue, and grown impious and diffolute in manners, we appeal to experience, whether it has not always proportionately funk in its fuccefs and good fortune."


It will be obferved, on perufing the report of the committee who recommended

the fecret appropriation of two millions of dollars, that the object of Cangrefs in making the appropriation was the purchase of the two Floridas. The committee, through their whole report, labour to demonftrate the vaft importance of hofe countries, and of the waters whica pafs through them, to the United Sates. They fiv; " It muft be feen that the poffeffion of New Orleans and the Florida's will not only be requir ed for the convenience of the United States, but will be demanded by their most amberious & neceffities Yet it leems that the executive, regardless of these most imperious neceffites, inftead of applying two millions of dollars to purcha'e a country fo imperious demanded by the neceffities of the United States, tas applied fixteen millions to the purchate of a foreign territory which does not appear to have been dreamed of by the committce or the legiflature; andth Floridas, with the naviga. tion of their waters, of which we ftand in fuch preffing neel, fill remain, and are Hely to remain in the hands of their for. mer proprietors. However, it is probable that the fame committee, it need requie, can now make another report and demonfate that the poffeffion of the Floridas is nat fo ab"Jurel" required for the convenience of the Unit d States; but that the wird lands of Lonilana "will be lemanded by their molt imperious neceflities.

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A Bill for carrying into effed the conven
tion of the 20th April, 1803, between
the United states of America, and the
French Republic.

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That a fum equal to what will be neceffary to pay the intereft which may accrue on the laid flock to the end of the prefent year, be and the fame is hereby appropriated for that purpose, to be paid out of any monies in the treafury not otherwife appropriated.

Be it enacted by the Senate and Houfe of Reprefentatives of the United States of America in Congrefs affembled. That, for the purpofe of carrying into effect the convention of the 30th day of April 1803, between the United States of America, and Sec. 4. And be it fus ther enacted, That the French republic, the fecretary of the from and after the end of the pretent year Treasury be, and he is hereby authorized, an addition to the annual fum of seven to cause to be conftituted, certificates of millions three hundred thousand dollars stock, figned by the regifter of the treafu- yearly appropriated to the finking fund, by ry, in favor of the French republic, or its virtue of an act, entitled "an att making affignees, for the fum of 11,250.000 dolaffignees, for the fum of 11,250.000 dol-provifion for the redemption of the whole of the public debt of the United States," a further annual fum of feven hundred thou. fand dollars, to be paid out of the duties on merchandize and tonnage, be, and the fame, hereby is, yearly appropriated to the faid fund, making in the whole an annual fum of eight milions of dollars, which fhail be vefted in the commiffioners of the fink.

bearing intereft of fix per cenum per annum, from the time when poffeilion of New Orleans fhall have been obtained, in conformity with the treaty of the 30th day of April 1803, between the U. States of America and the Freuch republic, and, in other respects, conformable to the convention aforefaid; the Prefident of the United States is authorized to caufe the faiding fund in the lame manner, fhall be paid certificates of flock to be delivered to the by them for the fame parpole, and thall government of France, or to fuch perfon he, and continue appropriated, until the or perfons, as fhall be authorized to receive them in three months at most, after the exchange of the raufications of the trea ty aforefaid, and after Louisiana fhall be taken poffeffion of in the name of the gov ernment of the United States; and credit, or credits, to the proprietors thereof, fhai! thereupon be entered and given upon the

whole of the preient debt of the United States, inclufively of the flock created by virtue of this act, thall be reimbursed and redeemed, under the fame nitations as have been provided by the finit lection of the above mentioned act, refpecting the annual appropriation of feven millions three undred thousand dollars, made by the


books of the treafury, in like manner as
for the prefent domeflic funded debt, which
faid credits, or flock, fhall thereafter be
transferable only on the books of the treaf-
ury of the Und States, by the proprie-
for or proprietors of fuch flock, his, her
or their attorney: And the faith of the U
nited States is hereby pledged for the pay.
ment of the intereft, and for the reim-
burfement of the principal of the faid con-
Venti.3. Provided, however that the
fecretary of the treatury may, with appro-
bation of the p.cf lent of the United States,
and with the affent of the proprietors of the
faid flock, vary the terms and inftallments
fixed by the convention for its reimburse-
ment. And provided alfo, That every
proprietor of the faid flock may, until
otherwife directed by law, on furrender-
ing his certificate of fuch flock, receive
another in the fame amount, and bearing
an intereft of fix per contum per annum,
payable quarter yearly at the treafury of
the United States.

rent money of Holland, for each dollar, if payable in Amfterdam.

Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That the annual intereft accruing on the laid flock, which may in conformity with the convention aforcfaid, be payable in En. rope, fhall be paid at the rate of four thi lings and fix pence fterling for each d.... lar, if payable in London, and at the rate of two guilders and one halt a guilder, cur

Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the fecretary of the freatory in li caute the faid further fum of feven hundred thou fund dollars to be paid to the commiflion. ers of the finking fund in the fame man. ner as was dire&ted by the above mentioned at, refping the annual appropriation of feven million three hundred thoviand doilars and it thall be the duty of the commiffioners of the finking fund to caufe to be applied and paid out of the faid fund, yearly, and every year, at the treasury of the United States, fuch fum and fums as may be annually wanted to difcharge the annual interc and charges accruing on the flock created by virtue of this act, and the feveral inftalments, or parts or princi. pal of the faid ftock, as the fame fell become due, and may be difcharged, in conformity to the terms of the convention a forefaid, and of this st.


Louisiana purchase as follows:The provident attention of the Prefi dent in fecuring lands for pofterity will doubtless be duly appreciated. It is true that fome four or five centuries hence fuch an acquifition may have its advanta


ges. We are, however, much inclined to fuppofe that "oppreffed humanity" will firit be offered an afylum" in this extenfive country, and the hardy fons of New-England will be called in defence of the new dominion or in fuppreffing infurrections, if Infurgents are not made fecretaries, to leave their bones in the back forefts of Louifiana. If we have found it difficult and even impracticable to defend the former territory of the United States, we have fears, to us apparently well fou"ded, that the addition of an immenfe widernefs, peopled by uncivilized nations, will by no means favour the poffibility of affording general fecurity and protection.

Balance Closet.



It would (to use a Yankee phrase) puzzle a dozen Philadelphia lawyers, to unriddle the conduct of the democrats towards that great ornament of their party, Edward Livingston, Esq. Perhaps we have no right to pry into the secrets of the cabinct; but we hope we shall not be thought ever curious and impertinent, if we do presume to ask a little information concerning this mysterious affair. was, when it was thought the duty of printers to inform their readers of every fact which could, in the most remote degree, interest the public; but now, bush is the word, and democratic editors, who pretend to be intimately acquainted with all stateWhen secrets, are as dumb as Egyptian mummies. Mr. Livingston was removed from the office of Attorney of the United States for the district of NewYork, or (to use a humorous remark of the Utica Patriot) "when bear began to eat beer," it was sup posed that it was done merely to remove from his shoulders one of those monstrous burdens under which he was bending-he being, at the same time Mayor of New-York. But when he was also removed from the latter cffice; and that, too, after avowing his willingness (if Captain Cheetham may be believed) to retain that burden-what could the people think?


to do but to bring forward his proof; because if it could be made to appear that Mr. Livingston actu. ally met in caucusses with the gentlemen above. mentioned, nothing more would be necessary to justify the president and the council of appointment for turning him out of office.

Now the country reader, who is not well acquainted with the arts of able editors," may per haps imagine that on this occasion, Cheetham had somebody ready to swear that Mr. Livingston had held frequent caucusses at Mr Burr's, &c. But this is not his mode of proving things. His proofs are in substance as follow :

We can surmise but two ways to account for the removal of Mr. Livingston-first, he was incapable of performing the duties of his office—or, second, he had joined the "union of honest men," and consequently become a thorn in the side of his party.— Captain Cheetham has attempted, in his way, to ascribe it to the latter, with what success the reader will judge.

Firstly. Cheetham had asserted, that Mr. Livingston had verbally signified his willingness to remain in the office of Mayor. This was denied, and in his defence, he incidentally remarked that caucusses had been held at Mr. Burr's, consisting of

Gen. Hamilton, Mr. Swartwout, Col, Smith, Mr. Edward Livingston, and others."

Secondly "These caucusses were mentioned as a clue to account" for certain conduct of the Board of Health. [That is, gentle reader, the falshood about the caucusses was invented to furnish a clue to another falshood.]

Thirdly. Captain Cheetham" was informed, more than once, that Mr. Livingston was seen going into Mr. Burr's house, when the other persons mentioned were known to be there."

It was asserted, in the Citizen and Watch-Tower, that Mr. Livingston had frequently held caucusses at Mr. Burr's, in company with Gen. Hamilton, Mr. Swartwout, Col. Smith, and others. Mr. Livingston contradicted this assertion, in a note to Cheetham, in which he expressly stated, "that the whole of the story was a fabrication destitute even of the color of truth." Thus Cheetham and Mr. Livngston were at issue, and the former had nothing

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Fourthly, and lastly, and most conclusively Mr. Livingston did not think fit to contradict certain other assertions of Cheetham, which were as true as the above

To those who believe all this sufficient to convict Mr Livingston of having joined the Burvites, or of having intrigued with the federalists for the mayoralty, it will not appear strange that he was removed; but to many this may not be satisfactory proof; and such may be induced to search for some other cause for his removal.


laws, yet unbiaffed by perfonal feelings or party prejudice, you have invariably exhibited dignity and firmnefs tempered with complacency; even when differing with you in opinion, we have always had occafion to admire your rigid impartiality, and the independence of your fentiments.

To shew that Mr. Livingston was not removed on account of any deficiency in ability, "vigilance, activity or zeal," we subjoin the testimony of the Common Council of New York. The following address was presented to him in pursuance of the ananimous resolution of the Council :--

This affemblage of qualities, to rarely combined, would fuffice to command our higheft refpect and esteem, but it was referved for a period of defolatory calamity to difplay the extent of your philanthropy, and your difinterested devotion to the public welfare during the fcenes of affliction and difmay with which it has lately pleafed God to visit our city, we beheld with admiration, and with the moft grateful emo-. tions, the unremitted zeal with which you fought out and relieved diftrefs, and the alacrity with which you facrificed your perfonal fafety and comfort to that of the fuffering poor, regardless of danger and toil, and difdaining all cold examination of the mere limits of official duty; when Lumanity called, you obeyed only the im pulfe of your generous heart. Thus, fir, you have erected in the breafts of the virtnous a monument of gratitude which calumny cannot fully, nor time deface.


We should merit the reproach of our fellow-citizens, and fail in duty to our felves, if we fhould pafs in filence the alflicting moment which terminates your adminiftration as firft Magiftrate of this city; we unite with the utmost cordiality in that applaufe which the public voice hath fo justly beftowed on your conduct, in the execution of the duties of Mayor; on the learning and difcernment difplayed in your judicial decifions; your vigilance, our activity, and zeal, as an executive


Having been connected with you in the discharge of the greater part of those duties, we cannot too warmly acknowledge the uniform politenefs and courtesy of your manners. Inflexible in the prefervation of order, and in the execution of the

The anxiety and alarm which pervaded all ranks of citizens, during the dangerous illnefs which contracted in adminifteryou ing to their relief, pronounced in language which flatterers cannot imitate nor envy diflort the ardour and fincerity of their affection, and we join with them in fervent acknowledgments to the fupreme and beneficent difpofer of events, hath gracioufly fpared your life and reftored you to health.


We muft, indeed, be defutute of the feelings of men if we could witnefs without grief the period which diffolves a connection, endeared by fo many ties; we look in vain for confolation to the future, yet you have fo marked the path of duty, that inferior abilities, it guided by intentions as pure, may follow in the feps traced by your wildom, and fer a preferve the impulfe which your energy hath produced. While we cherish this hope, the memory of your example will direct our conduct, and arirate our zeal, in the difcharge of our refpeftive func

I me


Be, affured, fir, that our attachment to your perfon, and gratitude for your ferviccs, will endure with the recolleron of your virtues, and that you bear with you our lafling regret and effeem, and our prayers for your profperity and happnefs.

And now we are constrained to ask, What bas Mr Ligsten done to deserve ejectment from Fice ?

her this question is so fac rily answered. cur readers spui hear someda giler on the subject U hen they must, with us, remain in doubt and uncertainty.







Monitorial Department.


"THE Bourbon's are a gentle race"--
So faid Sterne, and fo lays truth. Lou-
is the 16th was abundantly bleffed with ali
the milder virtues of his illathrious ances
tors. The benevolence of Henry the 4th
-and of Louis the 6th, furnamed the good
and juft-the generofity of Louis 14h
and the mildnefs and humanity of Louistom
15th, who, from the extravagant affection
in which he was held by his people obtain-
el the name of " Louis Le Bien Aime"
were all concentrated in the bosom of that
excellent Prince: But unfortunately for
himself and his country, though he had
every quality to make him beloved as a
man, he wanted thofe fit to make him


S foon as the lambs are born,
they are put into a warm out-houfe: fome
white peas and bran are mixed together,
and placed near them, as is alfo fome fine
hay, and above, a chalkflone for them to
lick. The dams are turned into good feared as a fovereign; which for the gov-
grafs, and brought to their lambs fourerning of a people, from the earliest ages
times regularly every day. And here it
is obferved, to begin with the youngest,

and not with the oldest lamb, as the laft
milk is found by experience to farten fast-
eft and mot. Every lamb is fuffered to
fuck as much as it will-by this procefsiant
they become extremely delicate.

accustomed to restraint, were to any Prince
neceffary, but moft neceffary to Louis
16th, as a counter-balance and provifion a-
gainst the dangers of that benevolence
which if not under the controul of a vigi-
foirit, makes the monarch lax, unfuf-
picious and fupine. Though born and
bred to unlimited monarchy, nurfed in the
lap of defpotifm, and by education poffef-mind,
fed with the opinion that his will was law,
he brought with him all thofe his natural
difpofitions to the throne, and he carried
them with him to the fcaffold, not dimin-
ifhed but increafed. Every man, il fairly
Every man, if fairly
judged, is refponfible to God or man on-
ly for what his intelligence, means and
opportunities have offered him of doing.-
Were Lours the 16 to be tried before a
just tribunal, and were even acts of fome
feverity and a rigorous exercife of his he-
reditary authority proved against him.
could that tribunal being as we have faid a
just one, confidering the defpotical opin-
ions to which he was bred, and the fenti-
ments that he must have entertained and
believed to be correct, refpecting his rights
over the country confcientiously pals a
very heavy fentence upon him for fuch
conduct? Certainly not. But on the con-
trary, would have had much greater caufe
to be furprifed, if he had acted other wife.

And otherwife Louis the 16th did at,
for from the day he came to the throne to
the day he died, his life was but one un-
interrupted tiffue of conceflion, and felu-
tary, economical, humane regulation, fo

To aid the cause of virtue and religion.

[The following, which is the eighth article in the declaration of the first Congress under the old confederation, resolved on, October 24, 1774, is a pleasing trait of former times, and conveys a very seasonable and useful admonition to the Edit. Bal.] present generation.



E will, in our feveral fations, encourage frugality, economy and induftry, and promote agriculture, arts, and the manufattures of this country, ef pecially that of wool and will difcountenance and difcourage every fpecies of extravagance and diffipation, efpecially all horfe-racing and all kinds of gaming, cock fighting, exhibitions of fhews, plays, and other expenfive diverfions and entertainments; and on the death of any relation or friend, none of us, or any of our families, will go into further mourn


ing drefs, than a black crape or riband on
the arm or hat, for gentlemen, and a black
riband and necklace, for ladies.”



| long as he was in power, and after that, of
all he had to bestow-his wifhes for the
good of his people. To pourtray his heart,
and to enumerate the acts of patriotifm, lit-
erality, clemency and benevolence which
diftinguifhed him, and which will render
him illustrious in hiftory as they do at this
moment dear to the hearts of the French
people, would be to detail every act le
did, every fentiment he uttered, and we
believe every thought he conceived. Let
us, however, mention a few; fuch as w:
can immediately call to rememberance.
The first act of his reign was to remove
all pert
fons who had given caufe of com-
plaint by their arbitrary and oppreffive
conduct in the time of the former King.

The next that we recollect was an ediâ which he loft no time after his acceffionta the throne in iffuing, to forbid the clues.

for time immemorial of punishing d ferters from the 'arn y with death. In this one gracious and humane departure from the established laws and cuftoms of the realm, the heart of Louis the 16th was at once developed, and his whole fubfequent conduct, in almost every a& ferved but to illuftrate it more and more.

As a proof how ftudioufly he confulted the real good and the difpofition of the people, and how fecure and confident he was of their affections, he fuppreffed the Muf quetaires, and feveral other corps who acted as his body guards, divefting himself of fo much of the fecurity of his life and pow. er, as it afterwards turned out, to eafe the burthens and indulge the feelings of his people.

The dignity and enlargement of his and the unbounded liberality of his fentiments, are fufficiendly illuftrated in his appointing M. Neckar, who was not only a foreigner, but a proteflant, to the high and important truft of Director General of the Finances.

And when the wretches who condemred him to death, dragged him to the feaffold, as they would do any ignominious felon to the gallows, did they not remember, or could they, could any man in France have forgot, that his benevolence fripped him of all precautionary and preventive eftablishments within which defpotilm intrenches it-And that above all, he abol ifhed the cuftom which had ever before him prevailed of obtaining confeffion by torture, and which, till his fentiments were known, were confidered as infeparable from the laws of France.

His humanity, as vigilant as ardent, left no good undone that he could do, no good unrewarded that was done by others. An English velfel was fhipwrecked on the coaft of France. A gallant French peafant ef the coaft, whofe name, though it now evades our recollection, will be recorded for ever, having ftripped and got a cord

tied round his body, plunged into the fea, and reaching the veffel was dragged afhore with two of the unhappy people. Though much hurt, he a fecond time ventured to the wreck, and faved two more. He was now fo languid, and bruifed, and cut with the rope, that he was fcarcely able to crawl, yet a third time he ventured, and brought away one. Reaching the fhore he fainted; but after fome time, roufed by fcreams from the wreck, he got up and again returned to it, and again was dragged afhore with one that clung to him; from thence he was carried home fo hurt and exhaufted, that his life was defpaired of. To call in queftion the works of Onnipotence, or to doubt that they are founded in all perfect wifdom and goodnefs, though his defigns and ends are myfterious and unfathomable by us, is forbidden to man; yet can it be criminal to be astonished at fuch a fecming prodigious incongruity; fuch a boundless diverfity and oppofition in the nature of that one being, man, as here prefents itfelf; or in that aftonishment to afk, How it could happen in the nature of things, that fuch a inan as we have just defcribed, fhould partake of the fame nature and form, be ranged under the fame head in the claf. fification of animal exilence, have the fame number and kink and thape of limbs, organs, and features, be born in the fame country, or even world, nay, breathe the fame air, and be bred up under the fame forms, cuftoms, habits, and civil and religious inftitutions, as thofe hell baraing fiends, Robespierre, Marat, Danton, Tallien, and the other Jackobins, already roafting, or for whom, to ufe the words of Zanga, "Hell blows all her fires."

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But to return-No fooner did this fory meet the eyes of Louis, than his godlike heart expanded with joy, with benevo lence, with pride, that he was the Sovereign parent of a people among whom a man of fuch unparalleled bravery and humanity was found, and among whom, no doubt, his wifhes told him many more might be found. He ordered him a comfortable, and to a man in his rank, fplendid penfion for life; but that was not all; that was not enough to fatisfy a heart that hungered and thifted after good. For fuch a glorious deed the amiable Louis thought pecuniary reward quite infufti cient-honours !--fomething that might produce the happy effects of infufing juft pride and delight into the noble fellow's foul, and of fimulating others to the ambition of following his example, the Monarch felt ought in right to be beftowed. He wrote to him-not by proxynot by a clerk in office, or even by a secretary of flate-but with his own hand. At this moment what is there we would not give to be able to prefent our readers with a copy of the letter. But we cannot at prefent-we will endeavour to find


it-it is in the periodical publications of that day. We remember it began thus,


Brave man ;" then expreffed in terms of animated enthufiafm his applaufe; and ended your King and Father-Louis.

After this can it be neceffary to fay more in illuflration of the character of Louis 16th? Yet ought it be overlooked. that in every incident which occurred he evinced the fame heavenly spirit (we may call it fo) benevolence. One trivial incident of a thousand will ferve to display this-He was driving in from Verfailles to Paris, towards the end of our contell with England, to converfe with his Cabinet on fome intelligence of importance which had arrived and which required dispatch.— When about a league (three miles) from Verfailles, one of his horfes fell-the poftillion dropped off & was much and to all appearances dangerously hurt. This great man (truly great becaufe truly good) got together with the Queen out of the coach and ordered the man to be put into it-" Verfailles is nearer than Paris, faid



he, drive back again with him as fast as you can, and we will follow on foot.' One of his lords in waiting took the liberty of remonftrating, that the man might be conveyed to a contiguous cottage and his majefly go on to Paris, and that it was too far for him (he was very corpulent) to walk back again. "No, no, faid he, it is



fitter that bufirefs of ftate fhould fuffor of temporary delay than one of my people want immediate relief-I am deter mined to go back-the walk will be of "ufe to me, and my furgeon will fatisfy 66 me at once whether there is any danger of the poor man's life."

During the courfe of that infamous mockery of juftice, his trial, one of the monflers (perhaps M. TALI IEN, the friend and bofom friend of BONAPARTE) afked Louis what he had done with a certain fum of money (a few thousand pounds)

of which he was known to have been a little time before in pofleflion-the king ftopped a few moments, convulfed with his feelings and at length with his eyes. efffed in tears, anfwered in a faint, tremulous voice, which would have split the heart of any creature having a juft claim to the title of human, J'aimais a faire des Heureux."-I had a picafure in relieving Diftrefs.



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Such was the man whom a democratic faction murdered to get under the iron rod of a foreign ufurper-fuch was the monarch whofe throne is filled by Bonaparte.


IN that branch of the art of purifying dwellings, whether on land or water, which refpe&ts expunging foul air a machine. which would easily and completely per

form the bufinefs has ever been confidered a defideratum. Thofe who have hitherto conftructed ventilators have gone to work on a wrong principle: inflead of attempting in the first inflance to evacuate the foul air entirely, leaving its place to be fupplied by the pure and healthy, they have only aimed to dilute it in fuch a manner as to render it lefs noxious. It is well known that the noxious air which infefts the holds of fhips and all dirty and filthy apartments is fpecifically heavier than that of the atmosphere, and that of course it occupies the loweft fpace and muft continue to poifon the whole mafs of air admitted from above, till taken up and entirely removed out of fuch veffel or apartment; this is more particularly true of vellels holds which have no outlets at the fides and only from above through the deck. This mode of ventilation is performed in the moft perfect manner by the Air-Pump Ventilator of Mr. Robotham, and yet, ftrange to tell, the public, fo far from encouraging a machine of this defcription, which has been fo long wifhed for and requefted, have not yet confented even to make trial of it, except in a very few inflances, when, indeed, it has met with the moft decided approbation.

There can exift no rational doubt in the mind of any person who understands the fubject that the health of crews might be a long time preferved by this thorough mode of ventilation only; but if the prefervation of the health and lives of thofe employed by the owners of lea veffels is not a fufficient motive to induce them to make trial of a machine which promiles fo much ufefulness, the prefervation of their property one would fuppole would fuggeft the neceffity of it. Impure air is not only the offspring but the direct point of putrefaction: thofe who are in the habit of going to fea with cargoes of perishable animal and vegitable fubflances need not be told this. If with fuch cargoes care is not taken by fome means to defroy or get rid of the rot ting or putrifying vapour as faft as it is extricated, the procefs of putrelacion muft be accelerated full filty fold. From this fame caufe we frequently fee fhip loads of hfh, flesh, coffee, grain, flour, &c. wholly fpoiled, and a malignant and infectious difcafe generated among the people. Nor does the milchief ftop here; the veffel itfelf fhares in the ravages of this all dif folving principle. Jalances are not wanting to new that in a fingle feafon the planks and timber of a foul, unhealthy veffel, may be to far defroyed by rotting as to render it neceffary for it to undergo a thorough repair.

The aparatus for ventilation contrived by Mr. Robotham is fimple, cheap, capable of being put in motion at all times, and with little labour, and we conceive merits encouragement and reward.-Bee.

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On the 27th Oct (fays the Gazette of the United States) the Senate piffed the bill authorifing the prefident to make ufe of the army and navy and of a detachment of 80,000 militia for the purpose of taking poffeffion of New-Orleans and Louifiana, and giving him a defpotic and unlimited power over the inhabitants of thofe countries. This we prefume, in the houfe of reprefentatives, and in the prefident's newspapers, will be entitled "An all for the Diminution, of executive Patronage and to reflrict, within proper Limils, the dangerous Prerogatives of the Chief Magiftrate."

In the houfe of reprefentatives, on the 29th Oct. the act from the Senate, authorizing the Prefident to take poffeffion of Louisiana, and to affume the temporary government thereof, paffed, Ayes 89,

Noes 23.

A very interesting debate took place in the House of Representatives, on the 24th Oct. on Mr. R. Griswold's resolution for calling on the president for the title to the province of Louisiana.

tain further evidence of our title before
we attempted to excercife a jurifdiction
over a country and over a people whom
perhaps we had no right to controul.

The only article faid Mr. G. which re-
lates to the title, is the firft article of the
treaty, and it is thus expreffed :

Art. I. WHEREAS, by article the third of the treaty concluded at St. Idefonfo, the 9th Vendemiaire, an. 9 [1ft October, 1800,] between the First Conful of the French Republic and his Catholic Majefty, it was agreed as follows:


His Catholic majefty promifes and
engages on his part, to cede to the French
republic, fix months after the full and en-
tire execution of the conditions and flipu.
lations herein relative to his royal highnefs
the duke of Parma, the colony or province
of Louifiana, with the fame extent that it
now has in the hands of Spain, and that it
had when France poffeffed it; and fuch as
it fhould be after the treaties fubfequently ||
entered into between Spain and other

The article in the first place recognizes, what has been well understood, that Louifiana was a province of Spain, and in the next place it declares, that by the treaty of France and Spain of the 1ft of October, 1800, Spain has ftipulated that the will, "fix months after the full and entire ex"ecution of the conditions and ftipula"tions relative to the Duke of Parma, "cede to France the province of LouifiaThe title of the U. States therefore, depends upon the execution of thofe conditions and ftipulations. For it will be admitted, if France has never fulfilled the conditions, fhe has acquired no title to the country, and could fell nothing, nor could we purchase. It becomes important then, before congrefs proceed to legiflate for the government of thefe people, that we should afcertain what were the extent of the stipulations in refpe&t to the Duke of Parma, and whether thofe ftipulations had been execured; for on this, our tittle might probably depend. A recurrence to the meffage and the treaty would throw no light upon thele points, and it became neceffary to look further before the houfe poceedto decide.

The treaty of Ildefonfo between France and Spain of the 1ft of O&t. 1800, had been referred to in the treaty under confid




Said, that he had obferved by adverting to the meffage of the prefident of the 21ft inftant, that it was expected congrefs would forthwith provide by law for the prefervation of order and tranquility in the prov ince of Louifiana. The general fubje&ted together with the treaties with France of the goth of April had aheady been referred to a committee of the whole boule and made the order of that day, and he prefu-eration; it was the inftrument by which med the first object which would engage France had acquired the title, if the had the attention of the committee would be ever obtained one, and being one of the tithat to which he had alluded. He did not tle deeds of the domain, it must be prefumthat the government of the U. States,

had been careful to obtain a copy.

That treaty was equally important to the executive and to the legislature, for without poffeffing it, it must be prefumed that the executive could not have confented to the purchase, and without examining it,

however think that the meffage of the prefied
dent or the treaty which attended it, fur-
nifhed that evidence of our right to inter-
feic in the government of Louifiana,
which could utify the houfe in paffing
any law upon that fubject.

He thought it became neceffary to ob

the legislature could not decide whether we had acquired a rightful jurifdiction ver the country. Under thefe impreffions he thought it neceffary and proper that a call fhould be made on the president for a copy of that treaty.

Mr. Grifwold faid, he would obferve allo, that the treaty of Ildefonso would not probably afcertain all the facts which it was neceffary to establish in regard to the title. That treaty contained only a prom. ife to cede the country in queftion, as appeared by the article which had been tranf cribed; and this only upon the perform. ance of certain conditions. The actual ceffion had not been difclofed, but for the purpofe of clearing up the title the deed or inftrument of ceflion ought to ap pear.

There was an additional fact which Mr. G. thought it important to afcertain, whether Spain had confented to the trans. fer of this country to the U. S. This fact may be important in feveral points of view. If Spain confents to the transfer, fhe either admits that the conditions have been executed on the part of France, or fhe waves her claim to a full exercife of them, and in either event, it may be faid that the claims of Spain have been extinguifhed. But if Spain has remonftrated againft the transfer, it prefents a strong reafon to believe that the conditions have never been fulfilled, or if they have been fulfilled, that we fhall be compelled to poffefs this country by force. The complexion and extent of our preparations to poffefs the country muft in a measure be regulated by the difpofition of Spain to

wards us.

With this view of the fubje&t, Mr. G. faid that he could not doubt the neceffity of calling on the prefident for further information before the houfe proceeded to act. In doing this however he would be careful not to ask an improper difclofure of executive fecrets, or interfere with the prerogatives of the executive in refpect to treaties. The treaty of Ildefonfo be prefumed could be no fecret, as one article of that inftrument had been tranfcribed into the treaty under confideration. Nor could the actual ceffion, or any of the ev idences of title be confidered as fecrets to be withheld from the legiflature; becaufe without poffeffing them, congrefs could never know what legiflative provifions were neceflary for a full execution of the treaty. He had always believed that the power of making treaties under the conflitution belonged exclufively to the prefident with the confent of two thirds of the Senate and that when atreaty was once fairly and conftitutionally made and rati fied, it became the law of the land, and as fuch every branch of the government was bound to carry it into execution. But

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