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YE LOYAL TRAIN who patronize this night,
Yes,-LET HIM COME, and be our vengeance hurl'd
THE HERO whom our matchless Poet drew
And ADIXCOURT, shall fix his glorious name, Coeval with the Universe in Fame. Shall then her ruffian Hosts our land assail, And one, e'en one return to tell the tale? No! "All the Youth of England are on fire,"To meet the base inva ers all aspire; All burn to emulate their Sires of yore, And spread a LIVING RAMPART en the shore ; A Rampart that shall there as firmly stand As the white Cliffs that guard and grace the land.
Nor shall th' HISTORIC MUSE, when on her page, She marks the virtues of this patriot age, Forget the noble Train assembled here, To raise the ORPHAN, dry the WIDOW's tear; To single VALOUR recompence impart, And kindle bounteous zeal in ev'ry heart; But in her glowing Page with pride reveal The present Tribute of that bounteous zeal; While future BRITONS, by the deed inflam'd "Will stand a tip-toe when this night is nam'd."
Translated from the French for the Boston Magazine,
DEMOSTHENES ftopped one day, in the midst of his difcourfe, and began to relate this ftory. "During the heat of fummer, a young man had hired an afs to conduct him from Athens to Megara. At noon the young man, to avoid the ardour of the fun, wifhed to lie down under the fhade of the afs; but the owner difputed his right, alledging that he had loaned the afs, and not his fhadow. The young man, on the contrary, faid, that in loaning the afs, he had alfo loaned the fhadow." Demofthenes here finifhed his tale, and de. fcended from the roftrum; but the people detained him and demanded with earneftnefs how the difpute was terminated.
What!" faid he, " you hear with avidity frivolous tales, proper to amufe chil. ren, and will not liften to me when I speak to you of your own, and your country's interefts!"
AS rude health partakes too much of the country, and of courfe is not very pleafing to people of tafte, a dashing young fellow acquires by his midnight vigils a pallid meagre vifage, which gen. erally denotes an intimate knowledge of [ibid.]
COWLEY, very truly, though fome. what harshly, fays, the civileft of all ntions are thofe whom we account the moft barbarous. There is fome moderation.. and good nature, among certain of the cannibals, who eat none but their enemies, whilft we learned and polite, and Clian Europeans, like fo many pikes and fharks, prey upon every thing we can [wallow. [ibid.]
WOMEN are certainly not at all inferior to men in refolution, and perhaps much lefs in courage than is generally imagined. The reafon they appear fo is be. caule women affect to be more afraid than they really are, and men pretend to be lefs. [Ibid.]
HONOUR is but a fi&titions kind of honesty, a mean but a neceffary fubftitute for it in focieties who have none. It is a fort of paper credit with which men are obliged to trade, who are deficient in the fterling cafh, of true morality and religion.py [Port Folio.
A farcaftic writer, adverting to the lu crative employment of George Rofe, Eiq. and others, who, during Pitt's adminiftra. tion, were employed rather for their ufeful, than fhining talents, introduces the follow. ing remarkable paffage.
Mr. Pitt with his law education, has a notion that the dulleft men are the most faithful fervants. They never difconcert a fcheme by any amendments of their own. They are obfequious and exact. The clock work of government, it feems can never go right unless it has a proper number of leaden weights. Since the profperity of Eng land is now made to confit in its finance, and our minifter is the first accomptant in the kingdom, perhaps to cypher and to comay form the official capacity of every great flatefman." [Ibid.]
IN the courfe of my morning's reading, in the works of one, who underflood the nature of government much better than the philofophical pretenders, or infolent foreigners, in America, I learn, that factions, payable in quarterly advances. in republics, have been, and are full as capable as Monarchs, of the most cruel oppreffons of injuftice. It is but too true, that the love, and even the very idea of genuine liberty is extremely rare. It is but too true, that there are many whole whole fcheme of freedom is made up of pride, perverfenefs, and infolence. They feel themfelves in a flate of thraldom, they imagine that their fouls are cooped and cabined in, unless they have fome man, or fone body of men, dependent on their mercy. [ibid.]
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FOR THE BALANCE.
HUDSON, (NEW-YORK) TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 8, 1803.
OBSERVATIONS ON POPULATION.
HE swift increase of population in this country, from the periods of the original fettlements of feveral parts of it by the Europeans to the prefent day, is a ve ry remarkable incident in the hillory of 5 mankind. In lefs than two centuries, a great and mighty people, furpaffing in numbers fome of the oldeft nations of Europe, and exceeding them all, except one, in quantity of fhipping and extent of commerce, has, like creation, emerged from chaos, or almoft from nothing. Every fea has been traverfed and every clime explored by their fhips, while the defert has been turned by their labours into fruitful fields and opulent cities.
The first effectual fettlement from Europe, within the prefent limits of the U. nited States, was in the year 1607; when Capt. John Smith, whofe character was equally illuftrious for prudence, intrepidity and a most winning addrefs, together | with feveral other leaders, planted a little colony in Virginia. This colony confift ed of no more than one hundred and four perfons; fifty of whom were carried off by difeafes, within the firft five months. In three years after, the colony, which had by immigrations from the parent ftate, increased to five hundred, becoming care.
lefs, indolent and factious, fell a prey to the barbarity of the natives, to the diseases of the climate and to famine; and were reduced to the number of fixty. About twelve years from this period, the Virginia colonifts, to the number of three hundred and forty-nine people, were maffa. creed by the favages in one day. In the year 1624, commiffioners, who had been fent over from England, to examine into the flate of the Virginia colony, reported, "That the people fent to inhabit there were moft of them, by fickness, famine and maffacres of the favages, dead; that those who were living were in neceflity and want, and in continual danger from the favages." A confiderable portion of this miferable remnant were convicts, banifhed for their crimes-men the most corrupt in principles and morals, and enemies to all order. The next fettlements in this country from Europe, were begun by the Dutch, who, in the year 1613, ereated a fort and a trading houfe on the Ipot where Albany is now built; and another fort on the South-Weft point of the ifland, where the city of New-York now ftands. Their right was founded on the difcovery of Capt. Henry Hudion, an Englifhman, who went over to Holland and entered into the fervice of the Dutch ; and failing from Amfterdam in the year 1607, difcovered the river that has been called by his name, and failed up its charnel to the head of navigation.
"The firft effectual fettlements of the English, in New-England, were made by thofe, who, after the reformation, diffe .t ed from the eflablishment of the Epifco. palian church, who fuffered on accoun of their diffent, and fought an affylum from
their fufferings." They were firft diftinguifhed by the name of Puritans. Flceing from religious perfecution in England, they betook themfelves to Holland, where a wife commercial policy had led to a liberal toleration in religious opinions. After fojourning feveral years at Leyden, a little company of thofe religious pilgrims, one hundred and one in num. ber, embarked for the wilds of America, and begun the fettlement of Plymouth in Maffachusetts, in the month of December, 1620. Before the April following, forty four perfons, which was nearly half their number, had died. Their perils were numerous, and their hardfhips were feemingly intolerable; under which they difplayed induftry, fortitude and perfeverance, fuch as have never been furpaffed. As they were the fathers of New-England, fo they laid the foundation of those "Steady habits," for which fome parts of that diftrict have ever fince been diflinguished, and which it is too much the tafhion of the prefent day to mention with ridicule.
Thefe were the fmall and feeble beginnings of a nation, which now rumbers five millions of people. Hai a prophet foretold this event, he would have been loaded with fcorn. as an impoftor. So litle did the wifeft men, of paft ages, comprehend the ratio of increase in the population of th's country, that even Dr. Franklin bazarded a conjeclure, perl ans thirty years ag of mare, that the American coloes, in the pace of one century, might as populous as England, the parent flate!
(TO BE CONTINUED.)
The Prefident of the United States of America, and the firft Conful of the French Republic, in the name of the French people having by a treaty of this date terminated all difficulties relative to Louisiana, and established on a solid foundation the friendship which unites the two nations, and being defirous, in compliance with the fecond and fitth articles of the convention of the 8th Vendemaire, ninth year of the French Republic (30th Sept. 1800) to fecure the payment of the fums due by France to the citizens of the United States have refpectively nominated as plenipotentiaries, that is to say the Prefident of the U. States of America, by and with the advice and confent of their Senate, Robert R. Livingfton, minifter plenipotentiary, and James Monroe, minifter plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary of the faid flates, near the gov ernment of the French Republic; and the First Conful, in the name of the French people, the citizen Francis Barbe Marbois, minifter of the public treafury who, after having exchanged their full powers, have agreed to the following articles.
Article I. The debts due by France to the citizens of the United States, contracted before the 8th of Vendemaire, ninth year of the French Republic (30th Sept. 1800) fhall be paid according to the following regulations, with intereft at fix per cent. to commence from the period when the accounts and vouchers were prefented to the French government.
Article II. The debts provided for by the preceding articles are thofe whofe refult is comprifed in the conje&tural note annexed to the prefent convention, and which, with the intereft, cannot exceed the fum of twenty million of Francs. The claims comprifed in the faid note which fall within the exceptions of the following articles, fhall not be admitted to the benefit of this provifion.
Article III. The principal and intereft of the faid debts fhall be discharged by the United States, by orders drawn by their minifter plenipotentiary on their treasury these orders fhall be payable ixty days after the exchange of ratifications of the treaty and the conventions firmed this day, and after poffeffion fhall
be given of Louifiana by the commiffa- |
ber, 1800) the debtor fhall be entitled to an order on the treafury of the United States in the manner prefcribed by the third article.
Article IV. It is exprefsly agreed, that the preceeding articles fhall comprehend no debts but fuch as are due to citizens of the United States, who have been and are yet creditors of France, for fupplies for embargoes and prizes made at fea, in which the appeal has been properly lodg. ed within the time mentioned in the faid convention, 8h Vendemaire ninth year (30th September, 1800.)
Article V. The preceeding articles fhall apply only, firft, to captures of which the council of prizes fhall have ordered reftitution, it being well understood that the claimant cannot have recouse to the United States otherwife than he migh have had to the government of the French Republic, and only in cafe of infufficiency of the captors; 2d, the debts men. tioned in the faid fifth article of the convention contracted before the 8th Vendemaire, an. 9. (30th September, 1800) the payment of which has been heretofore claimed of the actual government of France, and for which the creditors have a right to the protection of the United States; the faid 5th article does not com prehend prizes whofe condemnation has been or fhall be confirmed; it is the exprefs intention of the contracting parties not to extend the benefit of the prefent convention to reclamations of American citizens, who fhall have established houses of commerce in France, England or other countries than the United States, ir partnership with foreigners, and who by that reafon and the nature of their commerce ought to be regarded as domiciliated in the places where fuch houfes exist. All agreements and bargains concerning merchandize which fhall not be the property of American citizens, are equally excepted from the benefit of the faid covention, faving, however, to fuch perfons their claims in like manner as it this treaty had not been made.
Article VI. And that the different queftions which may arife under the preceeding article may be fairly inveftigated, the minifters plenipotentiary of the United States fhall name three perfons, who fhall act from the prefent and provifionally, and who fhall have full power to examine, without removing the documents, all, the accounts, of the different claims, already liquidated by the bureaus eftablifhed for this purpofe by the French Republic, and to afcertain whether they belong to the claffes defignated by the prefent convention and the principles established in it, or if they are not in one of its exceptions and on their certificate, declaring that the debt is due to an American citizen, or his reprefentative, and that it exifted before the 8th Vendemaire, 9th year (30th Septem-tember, 1800) not being comprited in this
Article XII. In cafe of claims for debts contracted by the government of France with citizens of the United States fince the 8th Vendemiare, ninth year, (30th Sep
Article VII. The fame agents fhall likewife have power, without removing the documents, to examine the claims which are prepared for verification, and to certify thofe which ought to be admitted by uniting the neceffary qualifications, and not being comprifed in the exceptions contained in the present convention.
Article VIII. The fame agent shall like. wife examine the claims which are not prepared for liquidation, and certify in writing thofe which in their judgment ought to be admitted to liquidation.
Article IX. In proportion as the debts mentioned in thefe articles fhall be admit ted, they fhall be difcharged with intereft at fix per cent. by the treafury of the U. nited States.
Article X. And that no debt which fhall not have the qualifications above mentioned, and that no unjust and exorbi tant demand may be admitted, the commercial agent of the United States at Par is, or fuch other agent as the minister plenipotentiary of the United States fhall think proper to nominate, fhall aflit at the operations of the bureaus, and co-operate in the examinations of the claims; and if this agent fhall be of opinion that any debt is not completely proved, or it e fhall judge that it is not comprifed in the principles of the fifth article above mentioned, and if not with ftanding his opinion, the bureaus established by the French Government fhould think that it ought to be liquidated, he fhall tranfmit his obfervations to the board established by the United States, who, without remov. ing documents, fhall make a complete ex. amination of the debt and vouchers which fupport it, and report the refult to the minifter of the United States. The minifter of the United States fhall tranfmit his obfervations, in all fuch cafes, to the minifter of the treafury of the French Republic, on whofe report the French government fhall decide definitively in every cafe.
The rejection of any claim fhall have no other effect than to exempt the United States from the payment of it, the French government referving to itfell the right to decide definitively on fuch claim fo far as it concerns itfelf.
Article XI. Every neceffary decifion fhall be made in the course of a year, to commence from the exchange of ratifica tions, and no reclamations fhall be admit ted afterwards.
convention, may be purfued, and the I not hesitate to exprefs our doubts of their payment demanded in the fame manner as if it had not been made.
Article XIII. The prefent convention Thall be ratified in good and due form, and the ratifications fhall be exchanged in fix months from the date of the fignatures of the minifters plenipotentiary, or fooner if poffible.
IN FAITH OF WHICH, the refpec. tive Minifters Plenipotentiaries have fign. ed the above articles both in the French and English languages, declaring nevertheless that the prefent treaty has been originally agreed on and written in the French language; to which they have hereunto affixed their feals.
DONE at Paris, the tenth of Floreal, eleventh year of the French Republic, 30th April, 1803.
BARBE MARBOIS.. ROB. R. LIVINGSTON. JAS. MONROE.
FROM THE EVENING POST.
We were informed a few days fince that the Marquis de Cafa Yrujo had depofited in the office of state a formal protest againft the Treaty of Louifiana, warning the United States againft accepting the furrender of that territory from the French. At that time we had publifhed an extract of a letter from Cadiz, ftating that a fudden change in politics had arifen, in consequence of the conduct of Bonaparte, towards Spain, in the fale of Louisiana to the United States, and that she had remonftrated to the First Conful upon this head with a vigor and energy that was not to be expected from a government generally fupposed to be fubfervient to the will of France. A few days after, we faw it rid iculed and contradicted by the editor of the Aurora, as not having the leaft foundation in truth. Now this fame fellow is the firft to come forward and confirm what but a few days before he had over and over given the lie to. Read the following :
There have been many rumours in cir. culation for a week paft refpecting the condufiSpain meant to purfue in regard to the ceffion of Louifiana to the United States--all however tended to create a belief that she was unfriendly to the measure ; though we had formed an opinion, we hef itated to exprefs it, until the appearance of the letter from Cadiz. The part of that letter molt interefting to the people of this country was the affertion that Spain meant to remonftrate againft our taking effective fteps in the Louisiana treaty--knowing:
1t. That the treaty between France and Spain, by which the latter ceded Loufiana to the former, had been actually and formally ratified. 2d. That the Spanish king's order for delivering that country to the authorised French agent, had been tranfmitted to the Spanish officers at New-Orleans. We conceived it ridiculous to fuppofe that Spain fhould afterwards pretend to dictate to France what the fhould do with territory bonafide her own property. Notwithstanding, however, the evident abfurdity of fuch a ftep, we find by our advices from Washington that the Spanish minifter did remonftrate to our government against the ratification of the treaty with France. So far, therefore, we were mistaken in our notice of the letter from Cadiz. That part of the letter which ftrongly infinuates an intention on the part of Great Britain to interfere against the United States, according to the letters from Washington deferves no credit what
That condition was, that France fhould procure the King of Euria to be recog nized as fuch by all the powers of Europe.
In expreffing thefe doubts it will be recollected, we ftated our reafons for withholding our own affent and for cautioning others not to make up their minds on the fubject; and we believe, that with the knowledge then poffeffed there were few who did not confider the idea of oppofition by Spain to our acquiring Louifiana as ridiculous in the extreme. Our rictures were offered folely on a difpaffion.te view of former and prefent circumauces; information from the feat of government Such, we are informed, is the fubftance could alone determine the juftice of them, of the remonftrance to our governmentand having received that information we and as fuch we must pronounce it a very haften to lay it before our readers, as well frivolous pretext for preventing the accomfor a correction of the opinion s we hazard-plifhment of a meafure in which Spain. ed as to prevent the affan being reprefent. had no voice, nor any right to interfere. ed in a more alarming light than facts war- The grievance complained of had arifen out of unforfeen events in Europe—the war between France and England was an effectual bar to the recognition of the King of Etruria by the latter, but that the United States fhould fuffer on that account would indeed be a phenomenon in politics which no man would be inclined to witnefs who has a refpect for our dignity and flanding as an independent nation.
We are further informed, that the remonftrance from the Spanish minister had been tranfmitted by the Prefident to the Senate fome time previous to the ratification of the treaty with France it appears to have had no weight with that body, in preventing the ratification of the treaty, nor can it be confidered by any one as meriting any more than ordinary notice.
We regret that we have not yet received details of the proceedings at Washington, the facts, however, we are poffeffed of, we beleieve to comprize the principal points of intereft to the reader. They
the United States, against the ratification of the treaty with France, by which we were to become poffeffed of Louifiana."
The only reafon afligned by the Spanish minifler for this step, fo far as we are ad. vifed, was that the principal condition of the treary of St. Ildephonio, on which Spain ceded Louisiana, &c. to France, had not been complied with by the latter power.
Very few live according to their own choice: al. most every one is placed in his present condition,
The minifter of the king of Spain delivered a remonftrance to the government of ¡ by causes beyond his foresight and controul.
perfons engaged to take the foundings of the feveral waters, and to run the lines and levels across, have already nearly completed the uppermolt line of the route, extending from Frenchtown upon Elk River, to Chriftiana creek and New Caflle, fo that a choice of excellent fituations prefent themselves the highest ground on this route is afcertained to be 78 feet above the level of the tide, at about which height the fummit level of the canal may be run for fome diftance across the middle ground to defcend by locks at each and an ample fupply of water may be had for this pur-thing to do, but their means were fmall. You have houfes builded, wells digged, pofe at a fufficient elevation and near to the gardens planted, orchards and trees of va Canal, from the waters of Chriftiana or rious fruits prepared to your hands. They White Clay Creek, or Elk River, and the were under great difadvantages for schoolCanal itfelt be cut without obftructions publifh-trom ftone, deep digging, or any expening five work; the whole diftance will not be more than about 13 miles.
|| fared hardly; but you are generally dref, fed with elegance, and have not only the conveniences, but many of the delicacies of life. They were compaffed with a wildernefs, with wild beafts and favage men. But you dwell amidst cultivated and pleasant fields, orchards and gardens, and have nothing to fear from either. In their times the ways were unoccupied: A folitary path, through a dreary fwamp or wood, led to their humble cottages. But your roads are broad and fmooth, and your houfes large and elegant. They had every
their children, not only on account of their low circumftances, but of their dif tance from each other, and of the danger of children's travelling fo far through groves and fwamps; but you have diftinguifhing advantages to get wisdom your. felves and to fchool your children. Your advantages, in thefe refpects, are much greater now than they were at the time of fettlement with you. There was then my but one school houfe within the limits of the parish. Now you have eight fchool. diftricts, and the jame number of school. houfes, generally commodious and well
Addreffed to the Secretary of the Agricul-
AVING had repeated affurances and teveral proofs of the advantageous culture of Tartary oats, I have made trial of one acre. I fowed laft fpring five and a half, and I have reaped The land fixty five meafured bufhels. was in very bad order: and I could not drefs it as it ought to have been done, as I was just come to the farm, and could procure but very little dung. I confider oat ftraw a great advantage, because cattle are very fond of it, and often prefer it to hay. The talk of thefe oats is very tall, and of fubflance enough to fupport a heavy top, many of which I have counted, and on one talk have had 146 kernels. The ufual quantity of oats railed in thefe parts on one acre, is from twenty-five to thirty bufhels. I fowed five bufhels and a half; but four are quite fufficient.
If you will pleafe to lay this before the Society, 1 fhall efteem it a favour. They will judge of the propricty of recommending this fort of oats or not.
I am, very respectully,
Your moft humble fervant,
WILLIAM ERVING, ESQ.
Secretary to the Agricultural Society. ដឹងនិង គិតបើ
CHESAPEAK AND DELAWARE CANAL.
PREPARATIONS continue to made for the commercement of a canal
from the Chesapeak to the Delaware. The
JOHN BAPTIST AVEILHE, of Charlef ton S. C. has obtained a patent for a machine for boring holes in rocks under water, to the depth of 10 or more feet, or in any other fituation, and blowing and com"With the la. pletely removing them. "With the labour of two men it will execute more in one day than 50 men without it. The men are not compelled to go into the water, and therefore it can be ufed in winter as well as fummer."
The above perfon has alfo invented a Horizontal Windmill, adapted to the grinding of grain, &c. &c.
FOR THE BALANCE.
FROM A DISTANT SUBSCRIBER.
ANY and various are the duties incumbent on females-each day brings with it new fcenes, and of confe quence new opportunities of doing good. Shall woman, because he has a more fleader frame, lefs bodily ftrength, and nerves of a more delicate texture than the oppo fite fex, conclude to fet herfell down a useless member of fociety? No.-Rather let these confiderations ftimulate her to augment her value, by adding to the pow ers of her mind. What has the to fear, who has ever maintained an unblemished character ?-Confcious of her own inno. cence and integrity, the may proceed with undaunted fteps, in the paths of piety and rectitude. Let her not fail to fiftain the feeble minded, and the tender hearted; recall the wandering, and confirm the wa vering. Let her not be afhamed to encour age virtue, nor afraid, with decent and becoming boldness, to look vice out of