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HE number of inhabitants on

Men, the moft inconfiftent beings, known among all God's works, are ever this globe has been computed at nine hun-there now is, ever has been, and, unlefs quarrelling and fighting for territory; yet dred and fifty millions. According to the human nature should be radically chang eftimate of Mr. William Carey, a gentle-ed, always will be, room enough and much man in England, it is about feven hundred and thirty one millions. Doctor Morfe thinks the laft eftimate confiderably too large; and particularly that the population of all America, including the iflands, which Mr. Carey reckons to be above ninety millions, does not actually exceed twenty millions. If Doctor Morfe's ideas on the subject be correct, the prefent population of the whole world is rather below than abové feven hundred millions. This number of people, vaft as it is, might,|| in a few centuries, proceed from one


From a courfe of obfervations, and particularly from accurate tables of births and deaths, mentioned by Doctor Williams in his history of Vermont, it appears that in the old towns on the fea-fhore, in the flate of Massachusetts, the period of doubling population is about twenty four years.--Now on the fuppofition that all the prefent inhabitants of the world were deftroyed, except one man and one woman, and that new race were to be reared from


years, this new race, at the period
of feven hundred and twenty years from
the prefent date, would amount to the af-
tonishing number of two thousand one
hundred and forty feven million, four
hundred and eighty three thousand, fix
hundred and forty eight !-This is more
than treble the whole probable number of
the prefent population of the world.

more than enough for all. The habitable
world is fuppofed to be about thirty nine
age rate of feventy five perfons to a square
million fquare miles; which, at the aver-
mile, (and this is lefs than half the popu-
lation of Holland and but little more than
half that of France) would make the whole

number of the inhabitants to be two thouf-
and nine hundred and twenty five millions
-a number more than four times as great
as that of the actual inhabitants of the


that pair, doubling in number every twen-rity, attended with the knowledge of agri

PAGE 337

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Though less than feven centuries and an half, in the ratio of New England pop-in ulation, (that is, reckoning twenty four years to be the period of doubling,) would, from one pair, replenish and even overcharge the world with people, yet fuch repulfive, unfriendly, malignant qualities there are in human nature, that, were ties there are in human nature, that, were the world to continue forever, it would never be filled with inhabitants, unless mankind fhould be generally and radically changed and meliorated. Were the chrit.fifippi, into Georgia, and terminates iixty tian religion in its power and genuine pu

that State. Through this range there run miles South of the Northern boundary of

Anfwer. The Alleghany mountains are vaftly preeminent in magnitude and length. This vaft chain of mountains is nine hundred miles in length, and from fixiy to an hundred and fifty and two hundred miles

breadth :-it divides the States into Atlantic and Western, and is called the back bone of the United States.

The chain of the Alleghany commences of the Hudfon river, in plain view and with the Kaats-Kill, in the neighbourhood appearing near from the city of Hudíon : thence it extends South-Wefterly, nearly parallel to the coast of the Atlantic, be tween that, the lakes, and the river Mif

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feveral rivers, "which appear to have broken their way through folid rocks :" other rivers, particularly feveral which empty themfelves into the gulph of Mexico, have their fources in this vaft reiervoir of waters, the Alleghany.

flicks to his man, even though his man hould neglect to stick to principle-is dif. honeft! and ought to be defpiled and a. voided. voided. It behoves every man, therefore, who is in pursuit of truth and information, to attend particularly to every fyl"Bones and fhells, (fays Mr. Evans,)lable that falls from the lips of political preceptors. which efcaped the fate of fof er animal Let him obferve whether fubitances, we find mixed with the old they always fpeak one language-whether materials, and elegantly preferved in the they always talk alike, and tell one straight loofe ftones and rocky bafes of the high-tory-whether they adhere to one unitorm fet of principles--whether their o pinions of any particular measures are the fame under one adminiftration, as under another; or whether, on the contrary, fomething like office-feeking, has not induced them uniformly to condemn one fet of men and uniformly to applaud another fet of men, without regarding their conduct.

eft of thefe hills." Unwilling to credit Mofes's hiftory of the deluge, which Mr. Evans deems too great a miracle to be believed, he attempts to account for the local fituations of thofe bones and thells, by fuppofing that this world was formed. out of the ruins of another !

The Alleghany mountains are next in fize and length to the Andes: there is a probable conjecture that they were orig. inally a part of the Andes; and that the gulph of Mexico which intervenes, had been a part of the continent, and either formed by the continued force of the trade winds, or the land funk by fome terrible convulfion of nature, leaving the iflands called Weft-Indies, which were the mountainous parts of the land, above the furface of the waters.



Messrs. EDITORS,

If a man tells us, during one adminif
tration, that a law which prevents
cious lying is unconflitutional and tyran.
ical; and, during another, that a law
which prevents the telling of truth is juft
and falutary-let us avoid and delpife


You must know, Meffrs. Editors, that my preceptor formerly talked charmingly on the fubje&t of high falaries-indeed, he once went fo far as to tell me, that a rich man, if he was a real patriot, would ferve the people for nothing. But he always infifted upon it, that every public officer in the United States, received at least twice as much as his fervices were worth, He had the patience, about four years ago, to reckon, with a piece of chalk, upon my hearth-ftone, the exact fum which the pref. ident of the United States received for ev. ery day that he was in office; and then, mal-looking round on my family he exclaim. ed, "Sixty-eight dollars and an half a-day, in cash, this man receives, taking Sunday, rain and fhine, all together-more money than a farmer fpends in a whole year; and this (adds he) is not the worst of it-every petty officer in the union receives wages proportionably extravagant."

If a man tells us, at one time, that none but tyrants will deliberate in fe. cret; and, at another, that republicans fhould not be blamed for it-let us avoid and despise him.


OLITICAL preceptors, otherwife called demagogues, like every other evil, may, if properly employed, be made to yield fome advantage. The perfon who intends to receive any benefit from them, fhould pay the ftrictest attention to their precepts. He thould remember minutely all the doctrines and opinions advanced by them at one time, and care. fully compare them with thofe contended for at another. The politician whofe principles and fentiments, at all times, and under all circumftances, are ever found perfectly confiftent-whofe opinions do not vary with every change of adminiftration-who will not applaud when in the majority, what he had condemned while belonging to the minority, who, in short, is the advocate of principles, not of men ; and who has but one language, and that the language of his heart-is honeft. He is entitled to the refpe&t, the esteem, and the fupport of the independent yeomanry. But the fupple, trimming, accommodating, fycophantic demagogue, who changes his character, his conduct and his language, as often as a stage-player-who

If a man clamors vehemently again one adminiftration for taxing the poor, and then extols the next, for reducing the taxes of the rich, without lightening thofe of the poor-let us avoid and defpife


If a man blafts one prefident for appointing tories to office, and praises another, who appoints four times as many -let us avoid and defpife him.

If a man, in the year 1800, curfes a public debt, and in the year 1803, declares a meafure wife which increases our public debt, fifteen millions of dollars-let us avoid and defpife him.

If a man tells us it is wrong for one adminiftration to place money at the dif cretionary difpofal of an officer, and that it is all right for another administration, to put two millions of dollars in the hands of the prefident, to be accounted for "we know not when"-let us avoid and def. pile him.

If a man condemns one prefident for making too many appointments of men of his own political feet, and juftifies another for turning out of office, every man, however capable or faithful, who differs with him in political fentiments-let us avoid and defpife him.

of all public agents, are too high and, in
fact, infufferable; and, on getting into the
majority, and getting into office, remains
filent on that head, and freely pockets one
of those enormous falaries, without mur.
muring-let us-
muring let us-But, hold-this brings
the bufinefs rather too near home.

It a man, while in the minority, and without office, declares that the falaries

The chalk was rubbed from the hearth. ftone the next morning, but the calcula. tion has not been obliterated from my memory to this day. Immediately after Mr. Jefferfon came into the prefident's of fice, I took the liberty to tell my precep tor, that fince he was known to be fuch a

plain, prudent, economical republican, I hoped his first act would be to reduce his falary at least one half,

"Oh, (faid my preceptor) we have no reafon to expe&t that. His falary is 9 more than is neceflary to fupport the dig nity of his office. The federalifts always had the fame; and it would be a hard cat if Mr. Jefferson could not be as well pad as John Adams."


It I remember right (faid 1) twenty five thousand dollars a year, is fixty eight dollars and a half a day.

Some prefling bufinefs called my precep tor away; and I had no opportunity to fpeak with him, until after he had obtained a very lucrative office for himfelt. My preceptor is rich; yet I cannot learn that he has offered to ferve the people for noth ing: Nay, I am credibly informed that he receives as high a falary as his extravaga predeceffor; and that he has never once been heard to complain of its being t high.I earnestly beg my fellow.t mers to think of these things, at fome mo ment when they are wholly free from prej. udice or partiality towards either panty. A PLOUGHMAN, At his Def.



THE tyranny of an ufurper fucceeding to all the confusions and horrors of de. mocracy, is fo far from being extraordina ry, that to all who are verfed in the history of human nature, it is known to be an inevitable confequence; and grofs adulation aud fulfome flattery is the proper tribute of democratic flaves to the tyrant they crouch to. The democracy, which fucceeded the overthrow of the throne in England, was followed by the rigorous defpotifm of Cromwell. He had his grofs adulators as well as Bonaparte. But his praises were fung by Milton and Waller, not by a Bishop of Amiens; in fine verse and found manly fenfe, not in fenfelefs hyperbole. Neither did a woman come in for any share of it, as is the cafe with the Lady Confulefs. The extravagance of French hyperbole has long been a fubject of laughter. "You may din it in the ocean, Monfieur," faid the Parifian Peruquier of his wig, to Yorick. An experiment impoffible to be tried, as they were then many leagues from the ocean; whereas, if he had propofed a pail of water, there was one juft at hand to try periment. Juft in this light we may view the gafconades of the French about their Conful getting over to England, and their bafe adulation of him. It is aftonishing that minds fo bright- from nature, and fo highly enlightened by ftudy as many of the French are, do not revolt from fuch bafe fycophantic nonfenfe, from panegyric, fo extravagant that it would render the ob. ject upon which it is bestowed ridiculous, if it had before been refpectable. We

the ex

venture to affert that the adulation to which the Firft Conful has liftened without wincing, or breaking, as he ought to do, the head of the adulator, is, in many inflances which we could enumerate, worfe than any of those felected by the great authors of "The Art of Sinking in Poetry," for fulfome extravagance. Even that famous one of the lion--

"He roar'd so loud and looked so wond'rous grim,
"His very shadow durst not follow him."
Is nothing to them.

tion to duft, and effected that change by
the most deliberate cold-blooded murder
of more than three million of their fellow
citizens. And we now see the very peo-
ple who tore to pieces every one that fo
much as mentioned the word King, and
who rent the air with fhouts of "vive la
liberty"-" vive la republique," now pay
homage to a rigorous defpot, and flatter
him in the language of idolatry. This is as
it fhould be-this is the regular round
which the mill of democracy goes-and
this-God avert the omen-his may yet,
we fear, be the fate of America.


A paragraph in the Political Barometer a Democratic paper printed at Poughkeepfie, New-York, contains an error or a falfhood too grofs to be pafled over in filence. fchool taxes in this ftate at 5 cents on a After eftimating the town, ftate, fociety and dollar, it adds, "Thus a man poffeffing a landed eftate or other taxable property to the amount of one thousand dollars, pays, on the lowest computation, a tax of fifty dollars a year!" According to this ftatement, a gentleman, retiring from business, with a fortune of 30,000 dollars, the annual income of which is 1800 dollars, would enjoy but the trifling fum of 300 dollars per of the Barometer for regarding Federalifm annum. We cannot condemn the readers with horror, and loading its followers with the most odious epithets, if they believe fuch are "the bleffings of Federal state governments;" but what fhall we think of well informed men, who impose upon the public falfhood like this?

The Editors of the Barometer are in. formed, that in Connecticut, the annual value of rateable estate is the ratio of taxation. Six per cent. on money at interest and the value of plate, and on the mean value of each particular defcription of land, is entered on the lifts; by these fums our taxes are proportioned. Hence a man poffeffing rateable eftate to the amount of one thousand dollars, is fubject to three dollars taxes.

Here then is a fchool for nations, if

they will but take a leffon from it. Dem-true
ocracy, fweet democracy, what bleflings
are thine! A ferocious band of democrats
have exchanged the reign of the most
mild, excellent, and beneficent monarch
that ever governed that country—a mon-
arch whofe whole reign was one continued
tiffue of voluntary conceffion and benefit
to the people, for the very worst defpo.
tifm that ever ground down a proftrate na-

If Meffrs. Mitchell and Buel were guil-
ty only of mistake, it is hoped they will
confult fatisfactory fources of information
ftatement of the facts.
on this point, and give to their readers a


OUR public councils are too often turned into the most mifchievous cabals where the confideration is not how the nation's bufinefs fhall be carried on, but how thofe, who ought to carry it on fhall circumvent each other. Port Folio.]

Balance Closet.


It is astonishing that the editor of the Centinel of Freedom, cannot remember the old saying the more be stirs" &c. and cease chattering about the villainous trick of his " Young Democrat." He treats the affair very lightly, because it was only a shilling that his crony drew from my pocket. In the name of wonder, has the editor of the Centinel, such mistaken notions of morality and honesty, as to suppose that the wickedness and baseness of the transaction, is to be measured by the amount of the money pilfered? For shame, Pennington! do you not know, that on the score of principle, the fellow who would steal a cent, is as criminal as one who would steal thousands For my part, I should view them, and the advocate of either of them, precisely alike. But what is to be expected from an editor who will deny his own words, as you have done? You insinuated, and pretended to believe, that the "Young Democrat's" letter was a federal trick, and that I had forged it-nay, you said you was confident that no republican wrote it; and now you have the impudence to declare that "Croswell lies," when he says this.Shame, shame on such a paltry knave!


We have the following Anecdote from high allthority. From such authority, in fact, that it would be a sin to doubt its correctness. In plain English, his honor Judge Lewis relates it with the utmost good humor; and who would not open his cars to hear, and his eyes to read what Judge Lewis re


When Foot, district Attorney, was pleading in the last Circuit Court, at Claverack, in his usual hesitating, blundering manner, he observed, "I have an idea"- "Have you ? (interrupted a gentleman of the Bar in a half whisper) You ought to take good care of it, for I suspect it is the first you was ever blessed with."

A shrewd old gentleman, on hearing of the late appointment of Captain Holt, observed, that he had often heard of King-Bees, but never before saw a Captain-Bee.

A poor starveling democratic print, has adopted the following lines, for a motto:

"In Faith and Hope the world will disagree, "But ali Mankind's concern is CHARITY."

The Newark Gazette presents its readers with the following contrast :




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defence of our liberty, our laws and ou religion, we are expofed to the dangers and calamities of war, and threatened with in vafion by a fierce and haughty foe, whe would fwallow us up quick, fo wrathfully he is difpleafed at us: For that we alone among the nations are found to with ftand his violent and urjuft ambition. Vouch fafe, we beseech Thee, thine efpecial blef fing and protection to our moft gracious Sovereign Lord, King George. Go forth with his fleets and armies; and let thy mighty arm be with his chiefs and captains, as it was of old with thy fervants, Judas, Jonathan, and Simon, (1ft of Maccabees. chap. 2 and 5,) when they valiantly with ftood the wicked tyrants of their times, the enemies of thy truth, and the oppreffors of thy people. Direct his councils, profperfame all his meafures for the welfare of this kingdom, and the preférvation of our church, and of our civil conflitution. And let no internal divifion, nor any other fins and provocations of this nation, obftru&t his defigns for the public good, nor bring down thy judgments upon us. But fpare thy people, O Lord, fpare them; and by thy grace unite us in a fpirit of of bedience to thy law, zeal for thy truth and loyalty to thine annointed fervant, whom thy good providence has fet over us, that we may evermore rejoice in thy falvation, through thy Son, Jefus Chrift our Lord




2nd. The fpirits thus diftilled, will all be what is called Alcohol, or double rec

ified fpirits, or in other words, will be rem an hundred to an hundred and twen y five per cent. above common prool; fo hat the expence of tranfportation will be efs than one half of that of common proof


This kind of fpirit, in addition to its be. ing of the moft pleafant and agreeable fla. kinds of gums, which is of the utmost cor, will alfo anfwer for diffolving all confequence in many branches of buli. nefs.

It will alfo operate equally advantageous in diftilling Rye, Cider, and Whiskey made in this way, will be but little inferior to the beft Holland Gin. It will alfo work off at least double the quantity in the

time, that may be done by the com mon fills of equal fize, as it needs but once running through to make the whole double rectified fpirits as above mentioned,

It is a well known fact among diffillers, be the fpirit when reduced by pure water; that the higher the proof, the better will and that the boiling or running over of the fediment and aquaous particles, is what renders the fpiiit impure and unwhole


This ftill confifts of a number of heads or caps, fo conftructed as to prevent any thing running over but the pure (pirit it felf Hence the reafon of its purity and fweetnefs. Its fimplicity is alfo fuch as to render it lefs expenfive than old or com. mon fills.

Thefe and many other advantages refult from this new discovery.



Mellis. ELIAS GLOVER and LEMUEI J. KILBORN, have obtained from the gov ernment of the United States, a Patent for diftilling, on a conftruétion entirely different from any thing hitherto known or uf ed in any part of the world, and which is likely to prove of great utility to the public-fome of the advantages of which will appear from the following ftate-years, been used as a fynonymous term

I AM delighted with the following fneer, by Mr. Jenyns, at an expreflion perhaps the most abufed of any in cur language-Liberty is a phraie of van s fignification, having, within thefe w

ment :

for blafphemy, bawdry, treafon, libels, ftrong beer, and cider.

[Port Folio.]

I AM afraid there is too much truth in

1ft. That the worst kind of American manufactured rum, or other bad fpirits, may by running through this new invented ftill, be rendered perfectly pleasant and agreeable; of a flavor and quality not in ferior to any of the best St. Croix or other imported rum; and perfectly free from all that fiery and difagreeable tafte that renders American manufactured rum interi

the enfuing remark, though it rehfhes of all the acerbity of Rochfoucault and Mande ville. Such is the nature of mankind, that it, in their general firuggle for wealth and will infallibly make ufe of force. If they power, they cannot fucced by art, they

or to any the best foreign diftilled fpirits, and which frequently proves very injuri-be not indulged in fome ingenious, learn

ous to health.

ed, and legal methods of politely preying on each other, they will quickly have re courfe to fire and fword. [Ibid.]

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per of the 16th of Auguft was prefented, || cordingly David Allen, Efq. of this vil-
and the names of the authors of the pie- lage, was indicted as the author of “Truth,"
ces therein contained demanded. He re- (a moft unfortunate fignature in these
que fted leave of abfence for half an hour; times) James Dole Efq. of Troy, the
when he promised to return, and give them author of “ Diomedes," for a libel on the
an answer. The object of this delay was diftrict-attorney:-The editor of this pap-
to have an opportunity to confer with one er. for a libel on Morgan Lewis, Efq.
of the authors, who was in town. This chief juftice of the ftate of New-York.
was at firft granted by the foreman ; but -Foot, diftri&t-attorney, and public
almoft immediately objected to by one of profecutor, who commenced the attack
the jurors. A difpute enfued among yet prefented the editor ot this paper for
themselves. The editor then requested publishing Diomedes' reply, was alfo in-
the voice of the board; but was told, that dicted as the author of feveral pieces pab.
if one objected, he could not be permitted lifhed in the Farmer's Regifter, figned
to withdraw. He was, however, directed "D. A."" A Rod," and "Caftigator:"
to leave the room while the jury conferred And the editor of the Regifler, for a libel
on the fubje&t; but not to go out of the on the character of the author of Diomedes.
houfe. The conftable attending was or-
dered to confine him to an adjoining room,
and to permit no perfon to speak to him.
He was foon recalled, and informed that
he must answer the questions, or be im-
prifoned. He again remonftrated; ftated
the delicacy of his fituation; expreffed
his doubts of their authority to imprifon,
but admitted his ignorance of the extent
of their power; and complained of the
peremptorinefs of their proceedings. He
was then informed, that he might again
withdraw into a room, and reflect on the
fubje&t alone. He replied, that if they
would not permit him to leave the house,
he had no wish to leave the room. The
jury, however, again differing, he was
once more fent out, and the conftable di-
rected to confine him as before. The dif-
trict-attorney was then fent for, and went
into the room: When he left it, the edit-
or was again recalled--informed that the
questions must be immediately anfwered,
and again reminded of the confequences.
The names of the authors were then given
up. Fruitful as is the fubject, we forbear
commenting on the proceedings, as their
legality will probably be determined by
the fupreme court in an action for talle

WE had fincerely hoped, that it might never fall to our lot to mention a repetition of the difgraceful attempt lately made, in a neighbouring county, to destroy the liberty of the prefs. But the proceedings at a court of general feffions of the peace, held at Troy, in this county, laft week impofe on us the painful task.-Whatever has been the cafe in other counties, fince the commencement of the reign of the party at prefent in power, juftice compels us to fay, that the grand-juries of this county had been hitherto judiciously felected. Care appeared to have been taken to compofe them of nearly an equal number of each political fe&t. All honeft men approved of this meafure; for knaves only could be diffatisfied therewith. The confequences were falutary; party perfecu. tion, except in one inftance, was unknown. Certain democrats, however, expreffed their diffatisfaction; and the fheriff was even threatened, unless more pliant grand juries were fummoned.


We have now witneffed the reverse of the picture. The grand-jury which met laft week, was compofed of but three federalifts, and twenty democrats, a large majority of whom were of the most decided flamp. The wishes of the party were therefore gratified; and the goodly work of perfecution commenced. But altho' from their own vulnerable fituation, and the direction which the bufinefs took, the event, perhaps, did not equal their expectations: yet, fo far as refpe&ts their favorite object, the deftruction of the liberty of the prels, we think they have no realon to complain.

On Monday afternoon or Tuesday morning, the Lanfingburgh Gazettes, of the 16th and 231 of Auguft were prefented to the grand jury by the diffrict attorney; the former containing one of the numbers of " Truth," with the fift number of "Diomedes," (faid to be a libel on the faid attorney!) the latter containing certain editorial remarks on the doctrine of "Truth a libel," and a copy of the article on which a rule was granted against Mr. Freer, editor of the Uller Gazette, which had been read in the fupreme court of this ítate, and was published merely as a part of their proceedings. The object of this prefentment, we understand, was, that feparate bills fhould be found against the editor for each of thefe publications. The grand-jury, however, tho't proper to iffue their fubpoena, directing him to ap. pear before them. On his entering the room, and taking the ufual oath, the pa

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The following are the words in the article copied from the Ulfter Gazette, on which the indictment against the editor of this paper is founded :


"The judge, on the trial, refufed Mr. Crofwell the priviledge of producing his witnefles;" (thefe are the words mentioned in the indictment, but the following complete the fentence)" declared that he would not fuffer them, were they prefent, to prove the truth of what Crofwell had written; exprefsly charged the jury, that it was immaterial whether the libel was true or not; that it was not for them to confider whether the words amounted to fuch a libel as ought to be punished; that whether the motives of the defendant were good or bad, was wholly out of the queftion; that if the jury was fatisfied that Crofwell was the publifher, and that the inuendoes were properly proved, they muil pronounce a verdict of guilty."

It feems, however, that on Thurfday afternoon, the gand-jury were either not fatisfied with the fubje&t-matter, of our indictment, or wifhed to add another to their lift. They fent a very polite letter to the editor, requefting him to fend them at file of his papers publifhed during the month of May laft; or in other words, to furnish them with the means of criminating himfelf! Perhaps we put a wrong but certainly the moft natural conftruction, on this application. It is, however, unneceflary to state, that it was not complied with. Yet altho' for the conduct of the grand-jury, we might poffibly conclude, that a majority of them were foolish enough to believe that we might inadvertently lend them the papers afked for; ftill we are not a little furprized at obferving their letter, except the fignature of the foreman, to be the hand writing of Albert Pawling the papers, 'tis true, contain nothing which would criminate the editor. This circumftance, however, does not remove the charge of meanness from the tranfaction.

We are told that the grand-jury boaft much of their impartiality. We shall on

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