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fuppofed to be full; vaft emigrations from each of them, and efpecially from the lat ter, have been yearly preffing toward the South and Weft: yet the population of France, which, (as the memorial ftates) is very far from having reached its ultimate term, is much more than treble to theirs.
Liberty of the Press.
In the United States, lands are "fuperabundant," but labourers are few and fcarce. They have not yet attained even to the twentieth part of a full population: therefore any more lands, for the mere purpofe of fettlement and cultivation, they no more need, than they need plantations in the moon. Afide from the confideration that the fettlement of Louifiana or the Floridas, or either of them, might tend to bar off dangerous neighbours and permanently to fecure the navigation of the Miffiffippi, it is questionable whether they would be worth receiving, if they were to be offered to this nation as a gift. If a promife of speedily fettling the bequeathed territory were made a condition in accepting the bequeft, national intereft would imperiously require its rejectinent. The truth of this fentiment will, I truft, be rendered apparent, from arguments and reafons, which will be offered hereafter. CALCULATOR.
A CORRECT HISTORY OF HARRY CROSWELL'S TRIAL.
HE court adjourned until the HE next morning, when the jury having been impanaelled, Mr. Spencer opened the caule on the part of the profecution. It is impoffible for us to give, from the few notes in our poffeffion, his fpeech with mach accuracy. This, however, was the purport of it :-That libellers were a very criminal clafs of offenders. That the government must be protected from their attacks. That the libel then to be tried, was of a very heinous nature; and, if true, was fufficient to confign the name of Thomas Jefferfon to eternal intamy, &c. But, by the direction of the Court, it cer tainly was not a fubject of inquiry whether it was true or falfe. For, whether true or falfe, by the law of this ftate, it was certainly libellous; and he tufted that the jury would how their deteftation of fuch flanders, by a verdict of guilty. That there was a great difference between the liberty and the licentioufnefs of the prefs. The one was a moft invaluable privilege, which he would be the last man to attack; but the other was a growing and intolerable
evil; and that it was high time its deftruc-
"of the federal fong now is that Mr. Jef
"Holt says, the burden of the Federal song is that Mr. Jefferson paid Callender for writing against the late administration. This is wholly false. The
Mr. Spencer then called witneffes to prove that Mr. Crotwell was the publifh-charge is explicitly this :-Jeferson paid Callender for calling Washington a traitor, a robber, and a per er of the paper, called the Walp, from jurer-For calling Adams ahoary-headed incendia. one of which, (to wit, No. 7,) the pref- ry; and for most grossly slandering the private char ent libel was extracted. It was proved acters of men, who he well knew were virtuousthat fome of the papers had been printed at the pres of the defendant-that they
These charges, not a democratic editor has yet dared, cussion."
or ever will dare to meet in an open and manty dis
had been seen in his book-ftore. It was
The evidence on the part of the profecu-ing
The defendant's counfel then proceeded
He contended that the publication was merely a correction of the above falfhood in the Bre-a true statement of what the burden of the federal fong" actually was; and a challenge to an open and man. There was not even a y difcuffion.
charge made by the defendant against the wit-prefident. He fays, the charge made by the federalis, was not as Hoit had repre fented; and he then ftates what that charge really was-to wit that "the charge made by the federalis, is explicitly this," &c.-Now, he afked, if fuch a charge had not been made? Yes-it had rung through every corner of the continent. It had been published at the very feat of govern Callender had published, repeated. ly, that Mr. Jefferfon paid him for writ the Profpect before us." He had published a letter from Mr. Jefferlon to himself, approving of the book, and offers
him fity dollars. He then took up the "Profpe&t before us," and flated that in that book Washington and Adams were charged with the very crimes mentioned in the affidavit. Mr. Spencer objected to the reading of any thing from the Prof pet before us.' The court enforced the obje&tion; and determined that it fheud not be read. Mr. Van Nefs then contend ed, that fufficient appeared to do away ev cry pretence of a malicious intent in the defendant. That the charge had been published in almost every federal paper, could not be denied. And all that the publication in queftion flated, was that fact. Whether the charge was true of faite, the publication did not determine. It merely detected a falfhood in the Bee; and corretted it by flating the nature of the charge. It ftated, that the federalifts charge Jefferion with paying Callender. This was certainly true. It might be found in numerous papers. The defendant him felt bad never made the charge; nor had he declared it true. He was, therefore, not reiponfiole for it. He bad challenged
an open and manly difcuffion" of that charge, which he faid the federalifts had made. And, he contended, that a malicious intent could never be inferred, either from. the correction of the garbled statement in the Bee, or from his challenging a di cuffion of a charge againft the charafter o
Thomas Jefferfon. We regret that it is
Mr. Van Vechten then rofe; and, in a fpeech which, for correctness and brilliancy of ftile, cogency of argument, and perfpicuity of arrangement, we have seldom, if ever, heard equalled, contended for principles fimilar to thofe advanced by Mr. Van Nefs. We fhall be able foon to give his argument to the public we fhall, therefore, refrain from mangling it by an attempted abridgement.
(TO BE CONCLUDED NEXT WEEK.)
sent it, you alone are guilty of being, in the eye of
TO C. HOLT.
"Mark Anthony" says that "Cato" had set a gull-trap to catch him. (Yes, reader, a gull-trap to catch Holt!)-and then he boasts that the gull was too cunning to be caught!
Some of the minor democrats make themselves very merry, and indulge in the most ridiculous exultation, on account of the death of Callender. A gang of house-breakers, would not discover more joy, on hearing of the death of a surly and watchful mastiff. But do not these striplings know, that every word which they utter concerning Callender, is worse than a dagger to their masters? Do they that it is possible for the people to forget suppose who and what Callender was? Do they think that To get rid of the charge of knavery, you are at any body will believe that he was a federalist? Did length compelled to acknowledge yourself a very he not uniformly, and to the last, declare himself to great dunce. You pretend that you declined publishbe a democratic republican; and did not his writing the production of "Cate," because it contained ings prove him so? Tho' his "Recorder" contain. Libellous matter, which would subject you to indicted many charges against certain leading democrats, ment. If you really believed this, your manner of did it not also in almost every number, abuse the fed. treating the piece, discovers your gross stupidity and eralists? Was not Callender the author of a slanignorance. If you did not believe it, your total disderous tale against Judge Chase, which Holt pubregard for truth is equally apparent. With knavery, lished as a fact a short time since? Did not Callentherefore, on one side, and folly on the other, you der write the "Prospect ;" and was not that book may make your choice. Let us suppose, for a mopublished for the avowed purpose of promoting Mr. ment, that you actually believed the piece in quesJefferson's election, and the cause of democracy? tion contained slander, abuse and libels on the presiWas not that book written, in part, at the house dent, and that the fear of prosecution prevented of one the greatest democrats in Virginia Was your publishing it. It should be premised, that ev- not Callender rewarded, countenanced, encouraged, ery person who aids, or in any way abets the publi-supported, patronized, and protected by the democation of a libel is equally amenable to the law, with crats? The democrats have often declared Callenthe writer or printer. When a piece so slanderous, der to be a man of talents; and a leading man of so abusive, so libellous fell into your hands, what the party in Philadelphia has sworn that he was a The federalists have ought to have been your treatment of it? When the man of good moral character. neither declared the one, nor sworn the other.foulest charges against a president whom you affect to adore, were sent to you for publication, what They have never approved, by reward or by, friend. ought you to have done with them? Was it not your ly and familiar letters, the attacks of Callender on duty, as an honest man and a good patriot, to supWashington or Adams. They pitied his follies and press them-to commit them to the flames, and to misfortunes; and if he was really, as the democrats inform the author that you could never give publicity have declared and sworn, a man of talents and good to such vile trash? Was not this the only method moral character, it is to be regretted that he did not that could protect you from prosecution? Certainly. meet a better fate in the world. But did you do this? No. On the contrary, you lent your aid-you took uncommon pains to propagate the abominable calumnies of which you com. plain. When the piece was in your possession, it was in your power to suppress or publish it-to throw it into the fire, or to send it into the world. You chose the latter. You durst not print it yourself; but rather than lose such an opportunity to slander, abuse, and libel the president, you took extraordinary care to send the picce to a press which issues almost twice as many papers as your own. You even went so far as to alter, with your own hand, several parts of the piece, particularly the address and signature. Therefore, if the piece was so slanderous, abusive and libellous as you repre
THE VOICE OF THE PEOPLE;
At the last presidential election, Col. Burr re-
Despising a3.] Aaron Burr, Vice-President. like federal calumny and intriguing friendship, has uniformly advocated the rights and dignity of man.
4] The Vice-President. May our government never be deprived of the talents of a Burr.
5.] Aaron Burr, Vice-President-rendered immortal by his undeviating patriotism," &c.
The prating dunce, who scribbles nonsense, falshoods and bad grammar for the Utica Gazette, at the salary of sixty-dollars per annum, is solicited to have mercy on us as well as on his readers. It is certainly ungenerous in him, (blessed as he is with the most transcendant talents, and fattening on such an enormous salary,) to bear down, with unrelenting fury, the humble editors of the Balance. Strange, that a large salary or income, will so soon puff a man up with pride! What shall we do to obtain the favor of this implacable.editor? Alas! alas! What shall we do?
The late removal of Edward Livingston, Esq. from the office of Attorney of the United States for the district of New York, excites considerable curiosity; and many ask (besides our "Mark Anthony)”—What has he done? We hope he was not appointed to office without giving satisfactory answers to the questions, "Is he honest? Is he capable," &c. We hope an officer of Mr. Jefferson's appointing, has shewn no “anti-revolutionary" disposition. But perhaps Mr. Livingston is a Burrite; and that, in the eye of some people, is worse than to be a federalist.
A neat quarto paper, entitled "THE HIVE," has lately been established at Northampton, Massachusetts, by Mr. THOMAS M. POMROY. It is to be devoted to Literature and Politics; and, as it bears every mark of Federalism, we sincerely wish
From Deane's NEW-ENGLAND FARMER.
HEN the cider-cheele has been preffed till it will run no longer, remove the pomace into the trough, at evening, and throw a fufficient quantity of hot water upon it; let it lie all night, and in the morning, make a new cheele of it, and prefs out the liquor. If the pomace were ground over again, the Ciderkin would be the ftronger.
But the best way of managing Ciderkin is, to take it directly from the preís, give it a heating, or a gentle boiling, and take off the fcum. This greatly prevents fermentation, and prepares it for long keeping. In the hotteft part of the tollowing fummer, it will be one of the pleafanteft liquors, that can be procured from any country and it might make a very good export to the Weft-Indies; there being no danger of the bursting of the bottles, as there is when Cider has a stronger body."
616 F Novels and Romances very few are worth the trouble of reading: fome of them, perhaps, do contain a few good morals; but they are not worth the finding, when fo much rubbish is intermixed. Their moral parts, indeed, are like fmall diamonds among mountains of dirt and trafh, which, after you have found them, are too inconfiderable to answer the pains of coming at; yet, ridiculous as the le fiftitious tales generally are, they are fo artfully managed as to excite an idle curi
ofity to fee the conclufion, by which means
"The chance is perhaps a thousand to one against the probability of the fmalle!! degree of advantage from reading fuch degree of advantage from reading fuch
as well as that very are to found, from which much injury may not be received."
From the LONDON STAR.
ANECDOTES OF BONAPARTE.
figns to each other, but none had courage
One Lady had appeared in an elegant Indian muflin, which was admired by ev. ery body. Bonaparte entering, obferved, with a fneer, that it was a very good morn ing drefs. On Court day all must appear in fumptuous filks, fatins, embroidery, jewels, &c. Gentlemen wear the bag, chapeau de bras, and fword.
A Gentleman received notice that he muft hold hinfelf in readiness to depart on a fecret miffion: but being for feveral rea fons very averse to fuch an office, he wifhed, but knew not how, to decline it. A Lady who was daily at Court, under. deliver a letter to her hufband on the fubtook to prevail on Madam Bonaparte to ject. The Gentleman wrote his letter of
thanks and of refufal, in the most submis five terms. This letter his friend gave to the Conful's Lady, as agreed, begging her to deliver it when he could find her hufband in good humour. But having mentioned this ftep to a General in the immediate confidence of Bonaparte ; "What have you done, Madam?" faid he,
You know not what an imperious Maf ter we have got to deal with. If your friend retufes any one poft that is offered him, he is undone forever. Take my advice; lofe no time to fee Madam Bona. parte, and beg her to return you the let ter, if not too late." The Lady accor dingly did wait on Madam, who received her very graciously. I know what you want, faid the; "Here is your letter 2 gain. I could have delivered it, but I know the General too well; and I was fure, that on fecond thoughts, you would approve of my condu&t.'
FOR the following anecdotes we are indebted to a Gentleman, lately from Paris, and who had good opportunities of afcer. taining their truth. Our readers may rely on their authenticity.
The Conful is in general way old and
Conful took one of his Generals apart and
declaration, afferting upon his honour, that
One day on a hunting party, Bonaparte, offended at fome trifling circumftance, firuck with his whip at one of the guards de chaffee, who, by the bye, are generally the fame that were employed in the days of Royalty-the chafleur very properly refented the infult, faying in a tone of reproach: " Jamaisle ci de vant ne m'a traite comme cela," and clapping fpurs to his horfe, contemptuoufly rode paft the Conful. It is added, that the latter cool-ing foon after, rode up to the man and a=pologized. For the latter part I cannot
The Conful is fo gloomy and diftrufful, that every one of his household dreads and hates him; while at Malmaifon aone of the guards or fervants could pafs or repafs within the houfe, without tickets; and Madam Bonaparte, who is good natured and obliging, was applied to for thofe cards. But often the fentinels difputed her authority. She is treated moft defpotically, and never interferes in politics, but the domef tics would go through fire and water for her.
FROM THE CHARLESTON COURIER..
SPEAKING of the Defpotifm, by a great mifnomer called Government, which fucceeded the revolution of France, BURKE gives the following animated, fub. limely horrible defcription: "From out "of the tomb of the murdered monarchy "of France, has arisen a vaft, tremen"dous, unformed fpectre, in a far more terriffic guife than any which ever yet had overpowered the imagination, and "fubdued the fortitude of man. Going "ftrait forward to its end, unappalled by peril, unchecked by remorfe, defpifing "all common maxims and all common
ing fhort of crippling it for ever can fave
FROM THE AMERICAN MUSEUM.
means, that hideous phantom overpow-
Sheep's back, fpread it on a horfe or cow;
BEST METHOD TO PRESERVE SHEEP SKINS.
fun is very detrimental to it) till convenient to fend it to a tanner. This practice will render theep-fkins of four times the value they now are, and fave thousands of pounds to the country in a fhort time.
IN Bethlehem, a Moravian fettlement, in the State of Pennfylvania, there is at the lower part of the town a machine, of fimple conftruction, which raises the water, from a fpring, into a refervior, to the height of one hundred feet; whence it is conducted by pipes into the feveral ftreets of the town.
COTTON MILLS IN ENGLAND.
IN a flatement published in the year 1788, it is declared that there were then one hundred and forty-three cotton-mills in operation in Great-Britain; nearly two thirds of which had been erected within the last five years that befides thefe, there were above twenty thousand five hundred
hand-mills, for fpinning the fhute for the that from the year 1781, to the year 1787, twifled yarn, ípun by the water-mills: including the spinning of cotton and sheep's wool, had increased as a quantity more than four double: that, in the laft mentioned year (1787) twenty two million and fix thousand pounds were fpun; which yielded, to the labourers and owners of the mills and factories, the immenfe profit of five million two hundred and feventy thoufand pounds fterling.
SEVERAL gentlemen being difpofed to encourage the Science of NATURAL HISTORY, efpecially Botany and Mineralogy, have deen devifing means how beft TANNED Sheep-Skins are in great Garden at Cambridge has been frequently to carry faid defign into effect. A Botanic demand, for a variety of ufes; out for talked of. The idea originated with Mr. want of proper attention in taking off the Waterhoufe who mentioned the plan in a wool, the fkin is many times fo far injur-letter to Sir Jofeph Banks, Prefident of the as fcarcely to be worth dreffing. The Royal Society of England, to Dr. Lettfom, following method will be found beneficial: and to the celebrated Botanift, Mr. Curtis, -As foon as the fkin is taken off the in the year feventeen hundred and eighty feven. Sir Jofeph Banks was urgent that it fhould commence, and offered Dr. Waterhouse aid in the bufinefs. This would doubtlefs have been obtained, had not Dr. Lettfom turned Dr. W's atten
FROM THE BOSTON CENTINEL
NATURAL HISTORY LECTURES.
tions from the Botanic into the channel of
tropical plants, but my advice is to com. "mence your career with Minerals. I "fhould be glad to hear that you have col"lected only a few flints to commence fo "important a department of National Hif"tory and Medicine. If you begin with a
little, begin, and it will multiply. The "greatest object was once in embryo. I "would advife a few gentlemen among you to unite in a fociety to promote a Natural Hiftory. I fuch a fociety were formed, I would fubfcribe ten guineas a year to it, and more if you wish it. You "want, I tear, energy. Your treasures hid in the earth are invaluable. Your "vegetable kingdom as ample and intereft"ting. Let me know that you have bold"ly entered thefe receffes of curiofity, "wealth and pleafure, and draw on me "for my quota."
This advice was accompanied with a box of Minerals to begin with, which have been "encreafed fince in number and value, fo that the Cabinet of Minerals at Cambridge is thought by judges to be worth a thousand pounds fterling. Thus the introduction of Mineralogy fufpended for a time the ardor of the original purpofes of a Botanic Gar den. Dr. W's printed circular letter on the fubject of Mines and Minerals together with his lectures, have diffufed as great a portion of knowledge on that fubject through the State as the time and the circumftances would allow of.
quoted. "If you begin with a little, begin, and it will multiply. The greatest obwas once in embryo."
The course of Lectures will occupy the month of September.
Bofton, July 25, 1803.
The important introduction of VACIN. ATION engroffed, as the public well know, Dr. W's attention full four years. He has had the great happinefs of feeing the perfect triumph of that bufinefs and is now at liefure to attend to the no lefs favorite employ, Natural Hiftory. It has therefore been thought advifable, by the friends. of this important branch of human learning, that Dr. Waterhouse give a compendious courfe of lectures on that fubject, in Bofton, that the public may be better able to judge of what has already been done at Cambridge, and what is further intended to be done. Dr. W. has acceded to the propofal, and has offered to give the prof. its arifing from fuch a courfe to the purpofe of purchafing Books on Natural Hiftory as the firft ftep towards founding a Library for the ufe of ftudents at Cambridge, on that ufeful department of Science. The Dr. is encouraged to attempt the talk by the fentiments of that good man already
Be it our weekly task, To note the passing tidings of the times.
Hudson, September 6, 1803.
It appears from a publication in the Aurora, that there are no less than fifteen applicants for the office of Sheriff of the city and county of Philadelphia.-This beats York-ftate!
The Treasurer of the United States, in compliance with the law which required his late proclamation relative to the Copper Coins of this country, has ftated, "that more than fifty thousand dollars, in cents and half cents have been paid into the treafury." Believing that it would be latisfactory to our readers to have a flatement of the number which have been coined we have been induced to afcertain their a mount, and have now the pleature of ftating, that upwards of fifteen millions of Cents (equal to one hundred and fifty thousand dollars) have been iffued from the Mint of the United States, and are now in circulation.
[Poulfon's Philad. Pap.]
The expedition against England it is ftated is to be commanded by Bonaparte, Moreau, and Bournonville. It is to confit of 500,000 men in 5 divifions, of which it is calculated 200,000 will be de. ftroyed in the attempt, and the remaining 300,000 will be a force fufficient to conquer the ifland. However wild and impracticable this may appear to fome, it feems Great-Britain is not without her fears, for on the 12th July the Lord May. or of London brought in a Bill for railing an additional military force for the city.
Robert Aftictt, late affiftant to the prin cipal Cashier of the Bank of England, had his trial on the 8th for embezzling property belonging to the Bank to the amount of £200,000, fterling, and was acquitted without examining the witneffes, on the ground that the Exchequer Bills alledged to have been stolen had not been formally figned the authorities confifuted in the aft by which they were iffued. by which they were iffued. He was, how
ever, remanded to prifon for a civil debt. due to the Bank of upwards of £100,000. [Evening Poft.]
Extract of a letter from Gibraltar, dat. ed the 18th June, 1803.
Captain Efcamiche (a native of this place in the Portuguese fervice) went off Algiers a few days ago in a 74, manned in Lifbon with about 300 volunteers and his four fons, to endeavor to retake the 44 gun frigate, captured laft lummer; clofe to laid port he fell in with a 44 gun frigate, a brig and a zebec, when it fell calm, which g h gave an opportunity for boats coming to their af fiftance from Algiers, and towing them in. to port. The zebec he captured, took 100 and odd men out, and then funk the vellel. He chafed the others fo clofe in as to ex. change fhot with the Mole batteries.-He is now here on his way to Lifbon."
"On board the zebec, captured by capt. Efcamiche, there were 12 Neapoli tans, who they were carrying to flavery."
"I am forry to inform you, that your Bills on the French Government are not accepted, and probably will not be paid when due. In confequence of its being difcovered that many Bills had been drawn at St. Domingo (particularly to the order of A. Lindo) for which they fay nothing has been furnished, the payment of them has been fufpended. My friends at Paris, to whom I fent your Bills to procure pay ment, informs me that the French gov ernment requires almost endiefs formalities for the Bills drawn at St Domingo. The bearers of them muft produce a authentic copy of the contract for the goods or fupplies furnished, for which the Bills were given, and a certificate of its execu tion to annex them to the Bills. They advise those in whole favour the Bills are drawn, to lend with the contract and cer tificate a power of attorney in blank. You may have the contract (le marche) but un der exifling circumstances you will not, L fear, readily obtain a certificate of its exc