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The Rev. W. L. Bowles, the author of a series of sonnets, incomparably the best in the English tongue, and, neither in tenderness nor sweetness, inferior to those of Petrarch, has published a descriptive Poem, of some length, entitled St. Michael's Mount.' In the beginning of this Poem we find an invocation and a simile, so poetically and so sublimely expressed, that I will venture to transfer them to the Port Folio, for the edification of those, who, like myself, some times love to sit up late, in the evening, for the sake of conversing with a Bard.
MOUNTAIN! no pomp of waving woods hast
That deck with varied shade thy hoary brow ;
frown, Than when the Summer suns in pomp go down.
And such is he, who clad in homely weeds,
- то ноРЕ.
AH, woe is me! from day to day
Yet false, and cruel as thou art,
I cannot, dare not, with thee part,
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A CERTAIN novel writer takes an opportunity in one of his volumes, where he abufes the trade of an author, to introduce Job, faying, "O that mine enemy had written a book!" which he affirms to be the bittereft wifh that ever tell from lips. This may, or may not, be his opinion, fays a London wit; but I differ with him as to the imprecation, and think he himself might have equalled, nay improv- New-London, Mr. Green, Printer. Farmington, S. Richards, P. M. Norwich, Mr. Hubbard, ed its feverity, by this flight alteration; Oh! that mine enemy were obliged to read my book! That would indeed have been a job for Job himfelf. [P. Folio.]
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A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE DISADVANTA
LOUISIANA OR THE FLORIDAS.
HAIL SACRED POLITY, BY FREEDOM REAR'D !
HAIL SACRED FREEDOM, WHEN BY LAW RESTRAIN'D !"
ONEY is the finews of war ;" and even in a flate of national peace and fecurity, the wheels of bufinefs can never be made to move with ease and celerity without a conflant application of this magic oil. A fufficient plenty and a due circulation of money, from the centre to the extremities of a country, like blood circulating in the bodies of animals, is the life-fpring to agriculture, manufactures
HUDSON, (NEW-YORK) TUESDAY, AUGUST 30, 1803.
Mr. Livingston, in his memorial, makes upon this fubject fome very pertinent remarks, which are well worthy of notice and confideration. Speaking of France, he fays, "Her foil, climate, and local fituation give her, as a commercial, and ef pecially as a manufacturing nation, great advantages over all the nations of Europe. The Ipirit of invention, the taste and induftry of its inhabitants, place her in the fift rank. But thofe advantages are wonderfully abridged by the want of capitals fufficient to make ufe of them. A riva! nation, greatly inferior in every one of thefe particulars, has by the effect alone
Capitals increase the number of manufactures, by the introduction of machines, by the regular payment of workmen, by the reduction of the intereft of money, and especially by the pofleffion of new
of an immenfe capital, obtained the fupe-channel ;" and that "the expence of fuch
The honourable memorialit proceeds to point out the injurious coníequences diftant countries;" of "multiplying points of "ufing the capitals of the nation in of defence;" and of " fquandering away the capitals they want at home." He flates that notwithstanding the extreme fertility of the Weft-India Ilands, "It is folly to believe that they will yield to France a compenfation for her actual outfets, unless it be after a great many years;" increafe with her colonies." He incidenand that the national expenditures will tally mentions The pains, the expences and lofs of men, which are infeparable from new fettlements, in a marfhy country and a burning climate; the invafions of Indians; the infurrection of flaves," &c. He puts the question, great enough to justify the fettling of a France a fuperfluity of men and money Has new colony ?" He remarks that "tho' fettled for one century, Louifiana has never profpered under the French or Span-fuch as in their full combination, will proleaft will pafs away, before France may if Government ;" that "one century at want poffeffions of that kind;" that its capitals from a much more important fettlement by the French would divert
A concurrence of remarkable incidents,
bably never happen again, poured into
Thefe juft and weighty remarks of the honourable memorialift, while they prove that France would inevitably be impovtling of Louifiana, do alfo apply, even erifhed by diffipating its capitals in the fctwith much greater force, to the United States. It cannot furely be pretended that there is in this country" a fuperfluity of money." It has no mines of gold and filver; and all the money it poffeffes by the labour of its inhabitants. If indeed or that it ever can acquire, has been and must be purchased from foreign countries, there were now a large national capital in the public treafusy, it would be needed at home, for the inftruction of children where fchools at private expence are impracticable, and for a great variety of other useful and neceflary improvements among a young and increafing people: but inflead of poffeffing a clear capital in cafh, this price, in part, of its independence.. nation is loaded with a great debt,-the So lately as fourteen or fifteen years ago, throughout the Union. Lands and alan extreme fcarcity of money was felt moft every fpecies of property tell, in fome places, more than fifty per cent.-Public and private embarraffinent and diftrefs was the confequence; and many families were ruined.
coft much in its purchase, fomething in
It is alfo to be confidered that the premifes, for which the nation's money to be given, (New-Orleans excepted) will, for a long time, be productive of heavy charges, without any benefits. If left to remain unfettled, the nation by this bargain will merely "multiply points of defence;" for it will be bound in honour, if not in intereft, to defend any part of its territory, however great might be the expences which fuch defence would coft. If, on the other hand, the nation fhould attempt a Speedy fettlement of its newly acquired poffeffions, (not to mention the lofs that would be fuftained by the emigration of feitlers from its prefent territory, who might be much more ufefully employed at home.) its "capitals would, by fuch an effort, be diverted from a much more important channel ;"" the national expenditures would be increafed," in rearing and fupporting infant govern. ments and "it is foly to believe that those new fettlements would yield to this country a compenfation for her actual outfers, unless it be alter a great many years."
In this view, which the memorial itself has sketched and exhibited, it appears that the vait wilderness, the poffeffion whereof by the United States is contemplated, will
ed; and money is very perceptibly becoming fcarcer. Incidents may foon happen, which might render the fcarcity of money extremely diftreffing, The apparent quantity of money, in this country, is much greater than the real quantity. As the governments of the individual states, as well as that of the Union, poffefs the pow. er of establishing banks, and of multiply. ing them indefinitely, the banking system has already been carried to an unprece dented extent. Bank-paper is not money, but is only the reprefentative of moAdams was indicted for a libel on a Judge (we ney its value and its currency depend believe, Dana) of Massachusetts; and whether he entirely on credit. If only one capital was permitted to justify by giving the truth in evibank fhould fail, it would fhake the cred. dence, or not, we are not informed. Admitting, it of others if the banks generally fhould however, that he was not-the case is by no means ftop their discounts or reduce them nearanalagous to that of Croswell. There is an essenly to the amount of their capitals, a very tial difference between a libel on a judge, and a lidiftreffing fcarcity of money would immediately enfue. The fame would happen, cautiously avoiding to say any thing about giving ing good behavior, and can be removed only by imbel on the president. A judge holds his office dur fhould a fudden and general fhock be giv en to commerce, from whence the national revenues are principally drawn. In combining and weighing all these circumftances, it seems evident that a large additional debt must be productive of very in. jurious confequences to the nation; and that prudence dictates its avoidance, unless there fhould be a certain profpect that the benefits arifing from the purchafed pof feffion will over-balance the evils, which will flow from the lofs of the purchase aristocracy-and none more so, than their restric money. The annual intereft of fuch a debt would be a great and conftant drain of cath from this country; and, paid to a foreign nation, it would go whence it could not return.
The head-men of the democrats have given their
the truth in evidence; while a few luckless wights,
peachment. It can, therefore, answer no good pur-
tions upon the licentiousness of the press; and yet,
not permitted? If the real defence which was set up in the case of Frothingham, could avail any thing. Croswell certainly had much stronger ground for such a defence; for the charge which he repeated, had been previously published in almost every federal paper in the union.
Frothingham was indicted for a libel on General Hamilton. On the trial, Gen. Hamilton requested the court to permit Frothingham to justify by giving the truth in evidence. Frothingham, however, declined offering any proof of the truth of his charge. It was then proposed, on the part of the people, to prove that the charge against Gen. Hamilton was false. The counsel for Frothingham declared this to be unnecessary and improper, as it was not pretended, on their side, that the publication was true -they admitted it was false. But the defence was of another kind, to wit, that the publication was copied from another paper, &c. This statement is correct; and no person, who values his reputation at half a grain of honey, will have the hardihood to deny it. How, then, can this case be brought to justify the proceedings against Croswell, who offered to prove the truth of his publication, but was
Carlton printer of the Salem (Mass.) Register, was indicted for a libel on Timothy Pickering, Esq. On the trial, he was allowed the privilege of introducing witnesses to prove the truth of his charges. He was unable to prove them, and was consequently convicted.
The above facts, taken in connection with the Sedition Law, prove clearly that the federalists have ever acted upon the principle, that TRUTH TOLD OF AN ELECTIVE OFFICER, GOULD NEVER BE PUNISHED AS A LIBEL.
Equal and exact justice to all men.” In the Supreme Court, on the last day of term, Mr. Attorney-General Spencer moved and obtained a rule against Samuel S. Freer, the publisher of the Ulster Gazette, that he shew cause, by the first day of next term, why an attachment should not issue against him for contempt of court, in publishing cer tain observations respecting the trial of Croswell
We shall not so far depart from the principles and practice of federalism, as to question the propriety of this proceeding Mr. Freer is a federalist; and in common with every other federalist who con ducts with the same independence and uprightness, he has our friendship and regard. We hope, there fore, that he has published nothing that will sub ject him to the rigours of the law. At any rate, he may rest, with perfect safety, on the decision of the Supreme Court-a court, which we are happy to say, has not sacrificed the independence of the judicial bench, to the views of any party. Mr. Freer must be sensible of the necessity of maintain ing the dignity and respectability of our judiciary. The judges of our high courts stand on sacred ground, and ought to be approached with reverence tho'not with timidity or servility. Our political
opponents, no doubt, hold a different opinion. Jacobinism is triumphant, when it has stripped the judicial bench of its dignity. Democracy, not content with the power of controuling two branches of our government, is panting to bend the judiciary to its will. We hope, however, never to see the time, when a judge of our Supreme Court will stoop so low as to place his nose between the thumb and finger of any daring jacobin, or aspiring demagogue.-But, we are wandering from our subject. We began this article, for the purpose of stating a fact concerning our serene and benign Attorney-General. And we would ask, in the first place, if "equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever political sect," does not require, that a democrat should be as much amenable to the law, as a federalist? Or, whether an Attorney-General, when he qualifies for office, solemnly pledges himself to become the public prosecutor of only one political sect? Leaving these questions to be solved by whom they may concern, at leisure, we assert (for we have authority for the assertion) that a gentleman did point out to our most gracious Attorney-General, a few minutes after he had obtained the rule against Mr. Freer, two papers (the Bee and the Citizen) both containing matter equally in contempt of the court, with that published by Mr. Freer. Not the least notice was taken of those papers.-This is a fact of a serious nature. It speaks for itself-and furnishes its own comment. Let the people read and understand.
More of the same.
We admire the zeal and impartiality with which our Attorney-General execures the duties of his office: But, one man can't see and hear every thing. We, therefore, beg leave to ask his highness a question or two, with the view of keeping his vigilance awake.-If it is criminal in federalists to speak evil of dignities, is it not equally so in democrats? Do not the democrats call Vice-President Burr, a “traitor," and Judge Chase, the "American Jefferies?" Have the democrats been indicted for these things? -Suppose our friend "Mark Anthony," of the Bee-office, should take it in his head to apply his comical fable of the lawyer and farmer to this affair. -"Ob the case is altered !"
Mr. Mark-Anthony" Holt, as might have been expected, has undertaken the defence of the "Young Democrat," who recently robbed us of a shilling: and, if any thing can be gathered from his remarks, he actually approves of this democratic mode of "supporting government"-Nay, we might be led so suspect that he would not think hard of serving as the same sort of trick.-The most plausible excuse that he offers for the New-Jersey thief, is, that he (Holt) had once been served just such a trick by a federalist.-We beg Mr. "Anthony's" pardonbut, really, we cannot believe a word of this story.
It is not true, as asserted in the Bee, that the fed. eralists now quote the opinions of Madison and Wortman," as orthodox doctrine and standard authority." They quote those writings to shew the vast difference between democratic profession and Gractice-to shew what those men could write one
year, and how they can act the next-to shew that
defigning and intending to defame the
Holt, has been good enough to inform his readers
"Mark Anthony," sometimes called Charles that twenty feparate and clinet fetts of
"To fupport this indi&men on behalf of the government of the United States, it must be proved to the jury-firft, that the traverier did write, print, utter, or publish, or did caufe or procure to be
"Corrector's" truth, is like Tom Paine's religion printed or publifhed, a falje and fcandal
-neither here nor there, nor any where else. But
ous writing againft the Prefident of the
The Bee has renewed one of Callender's old sto. ries about Judge Chase. We thought that Callender would again be quoted by the democrats as good authority, as soon as it was out of his power to injure them.
[OMITTED LAST WEEK.]
The democrats have often condemned Judge Chase for what they were pleased to term his ty rannical, arbitrary and oppressive conduct under the Sedition Law. He has been represented as a ferocious, persecuting, merciless monster, who employed his judicial power in harrassing and destroying democratic printers. On accouut of his conduct in the case of Callender, he has been particularly censured; and the doctrines and opinions which he advanced in that case, have been pronounced cruel and unjust A friend has put into our hands a report of the trial of Callender (for writing and publishing the Prospect") from which we make the following
"Mr. Hay, counsel for Callender [the same Geo. Hay, whose club law and common law lately bore so heavily on the same Callender] in the course of his argument, laid down this position, that petit juries have an unquestionable right to decide the law as well as the fact in all cases, and that the court had no right to controul their verdict.' Judge Chase observed that he admittted that the petit jury had a right to decide the LAW as well as the FACT in all criminal cases (and in this class he included prosecutions for libels) and consequently to give a general verdict of guilt or acquittal, and that the court had no right to refuse or controul such a verdict." The following are some of the most prominent positions in Judge Chase's observations :
"The indictment charges that the trav erfer on the aft day of February 1800,
If these three facts fhall be estab. lifhed to the fatisfaction of the jury, they must find the traverser guilty, generally unless he can prove to them the truth of the matter contained in the publication in which cafe the ftatute on which the traverser is indicted excufes him. If all the twenty fetts of words ftated in the indictment as charged against the traverfer shall not be proved against him; or if he can prove that any of them are true, the jury will acquit him of fuch of them as fhall not be established against him, and fuch of them as he can prove to be true and they will find him guilty of the refidue.
"Thefe enquiries on behalf of the government of the United States, and on the part of the traverfer, are proper for and within the jurifdiction and the terms of the oath of the petit jury, who have been sworn" that they will well and truly try the iffue joined between the United States and the traverler at the bar, and a true verdict give according to their evi
As we proceed in the history of the trial of the junior editor, our readers will be enabled to disco♦er the striking contrast between the above senti. ments, and those advanced by Mr. Chief Justice Lewis, particularly on the following points:
1st. The right of the petit jury to judge both of law and fact.
2nd. The right of the court to controul the verdict. 3rd. The right of proving the truth of the charges. 4th. The right of the jury to judge of the malice of the publication.
5th. The same right to judge of the intent, &c.
FOR THE BALANCE.
ON THE CULTURE OF SILK.
No where, in the United States, has this kind of culture received fo much attention, as by fome of the enterprizing people of Connecticut. I remember to have seen an account, nearly thirty years ago, of a young lady, the daughter of an opulent farmer in Connecticut, who was married in a filk gown, that the spun, wove, and made up, with her own hands; and which was the production of filk worms, which the had tended and fed with mulberry-leaves.
HE hardened monfler, who is in the habitual practice of corrupting fe male innocence, is no better than a mur derer. The victims of his feductive arts frequently fuffer fhame and wretchedness worfe than death; while a wound, that can never be healed, is inflicted on the hearts of their nearest relations. To ma ny a loft girl, and to the family whereto fhe belonged, it would have been compar
EVERAL attempts have been made, in this extenfive country, to raise filk. It has been attempted, in the Southern States, where the climate seems moft favourable to this kind of production; but the attempts have not been purfuedatively a mercy if fhe had died, while un. debauched, by the hand of an affaffin. Aud as the murderer, fo the feducer, has fometimes been vifited in a fingularly awful manner by the hand of Heaven.
there with perfeverance, or on a large fcale; the abundance and richness of their lands probably affording more profitable employments for their flaves, than the culture of filk.
The death of Lord Lyttleton was a remarkable inftance of the interpofition of Divine Providence, in the punishment of a most notorious debauchee and feducer.
Mr. Nathaniel Afpinwall, of New-Haven, has diftinguished himfelt, much more than any other man in this country, by endeavours at railing filk. He planted many mulberry trees, at New-Haven; alfo a nurfery of them at Philadelphia, and another at Princetown, in New-Jersey: how far his laudable endeavours have proved fuccefsful, I am not able to fay.
The Chinese cultivate filk with fuch cafe and abundance, that they reckon it among the cheapeft of their cloathing. In France, the Southernmost parts of which are in the 424 degree of North latitude, as well as in Spain, Portugal and Italy, which lie further South, filk is railed in great plenty.
There can be no doubt but the foil and • climate of much of the United States are favourable for the production of this va!uable article: but while there fhall continue to be a fuperfluity of land, and a fcarcity of labourers, many useful branches of cultivation will be neglected.
Perhaps, fome centuries hence, mulberry-trces will be as plenty in this country, as apple-trees; and the women will be ieen cloathed in filk, of their own raif. ing and manufacture.
Lord Lyttleton, the elder, was diftinguifhed for learning, tafte and piety. His lady was among the most excellent and amiable of her fex. Their lon, the heir to the family-eftate and title, breaking thro' the reftraints of a virtuous education, and fpurning the counfels of the beft of parents, was remarkable for the atheifm and lewdness of his character, and as a deftroyer of female virtue.
ley-Park, met them at the place of their landing; and they all came up together to his Lordship's feat, in Hill-Street, Berkley-Square, London, where they contin ued till November.
"On the 26th of that month, about two in the morning, Lord Lyttleton was awakened by fomething like the fluttering of a bird among the curtains of his bed, which fuddenly efcaped, and the figure of a wo man of majestic afpect (the very figure of the mother of the young ladies, as declared by his Lordfhip,) ade her appearance, and told him to prepare for his departure for another world, for that within three days, he fhould be with her in the state of the dead. This moft extraordinary occur. rence making a deep impreflion on the mind of Lord Lyttleton, he, early in the morning communicated it to the Ladies, who ridiculed what appeared to them the effect of an heated imagination; and to divert his gloom, propofed a vifit to Epfon, where his Lordfhip had a feat that he won from Lord Foley. Here they spent the night, and the following day returned to Hill-ftreet, where a party was invited to meet them. Not all the jocularity exerted on the occafion could diffipate the anxiety of his Lordship, though he affected to treat the circumftance with contempt; and exclaimed, upon retiring, "If I live over to night, I fhall jockey the ghoft."
Near Hagley-Park, in Worcestershire,
"The young ladies accompanied his Lordfhip to his room, to notice fome paintings, and prefently retired; when, before they were undreffed, a fervant ran haftily to their door demanding admittance, and declared that his Lordfhip was dying, Before the ladies could reach his room his Lordfhip was fpecchlefs, and on their entry expired in great agonies. What ren.
the circumflance ftill more remarka bie is, that the next poft brought the young ladies an account of their mother's death, who departed precifely at the time when Lord Lyttleton faw the vifion."
In the month of September, foon after their elopement from their mother's house, the fecond daughter accompanied his Lordfhip to Ireland ;-and, on their return, the other two, who had remained at Hag.
This extraordinary narrative is more fully and circumitantially given, in a late London paper; and is confidently decier
ed to be authentic.
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