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ator of the day. Shining talents fhould I prehenfive that he would "appeal to the
people" it his opinion fhould be rejected,
The business was conducted with perle harmony-not a fingle inftance of irregularity or intemperance occured dur ing the exercifes.
July 5th, 1803.
FROM THE EVENING POST.
What a charming thing it is to be consistent !
WHEN the news was firft announced, that Louisiana had been ceded to the United States, Duane in the plenitude of his vain importance, undertook to treat it as an idle ftory, and, without any difficulty, declared that the intelligence had arifen from ignorance, or a delign to mifreprefent the conduct of the government on this fubject. He then proceeds to affign
his reafons for this opinion
"The United States (lays he) ftand in no prefent need of the immenfe countries of Louthana" It would be injurious ;" to our profperity to poffefs Louisiana in full fovereignty at this time, it would diminilh the price of our lands in the confederacy, it would diminifh and difperfe our population. Thefe confiderations could not have efcaped, an adminiftration fo careful of the Union, and well acquain
ted with the interefts of the Western countries."
"The moment Great Britain involves
As foon as we caft our eyes on this agraph, we perceived that Duane had teen fpeculating beyond his knowledge, and would fpeedily repent of his folly. The truth is that this man has fo long con. Gidered himfelt the "organ of the public will" that he holds himfelf entitled to a Full acquaintance with all cabinet fecrets, and of courfe prefumes that no measures can be taken by the Government to which he is not privy. In the prefent inftance, however, it feems that his friends have not feen fit to trust him, and that contrary both to his expectations and judgment they have actually purchafed Louifiana. To what cause this want of confidence be attributed it is not eafy, nor permay haps material, to afcertain. Whether thegid notions of right and wrong as any man administration neglected to confult with living. There can be no doubt, therehim, because they fufpected what his fent timents were upon this point, and feared fore, now, fince it is determined to make to encounter the cogency of his reafoning;ing the coffion of Louisiana a means of increafor whether they thought it would be lefs offenfive to refrain from afking his council, than to take it, and then act in open defiance of it; or whether they were ap
the popularity of our prefent rulers, that Duane will become the most clamorous in praise of what he at firft pronounced ufelefs, injurious, and by all means to be carefully avoided.
Again" about fifty to Post-Masters and agents, for which we expect no compensation." This is false.
Now what are thefe" enlarged views ?"
enlarged views of adminiftration," he by entire filence. That, however, on the would do them a more acceptable service prefent occafion, was impoffible; for it is on all hands conceded to be an important event to our country, and the other trumpeters of Mr. Jefferson's fame, uniformly concur in afcribing its accompithment to his prudence and wifdom. Duane's mifthough it must be confeffed that his pretake was therefore cruelly unfortunate, fent effort to do it away has not been very fuccefsiul. He is a perfevering fellow, however, and is as little troubled with ri
Well done, Holt! Three plump falshoods, in six short lines! Who will wonder, after this, that the democrats are opposed to giving the truth in euidence.
Mitchell & Buel have set up a new paper at Kingston, Ulster county, which they very significantly call the "Plebeian." A queer writer in the Ulster Gazette, says he has been searching Bailey's
and Sheridan's Dictionaries to find out the meaning of the word, and that the first defines it—“ One
of the commonalty, a mean person"—and the other ~" mean persons, belonging to the lower ranks, vulgar, low, common."Mitchell has certainly been more fortunate in the selection of this title than he was when he commenced his "Barometer," alias fog-mill or weather-glass.
Mitchell imagines that we did not "relish the word Proem, which entitled his poetic address in the first number of the Barometer." He has therefore" given a different name to a similar production in the first number of the Plebeian."-Mitchell title of his first-born poetry that we disliked, for that It was not the same proem " by any other name, would be as bad” Of this we are convinced by observing, that " Poet's Congee" (the name given to the Plebeian the production) is in no respect better than the Proem. We give the first couplet as a specimen, and leave the reader to judge.
"The world had long in darkness groan'd,
Alas! poor Tench Coxe!
This war-worn veteran—this revolutionary wbig and modern patriot, it appears, has lately met with another small reward for his services. A Philadelphia paper says,
"Ifrael Whelan, Efq. has refigned the "office of purveyor of public fupplies; "and Tench Cove, Efq, has been ap
pointed by the prefident of the United "States, his fucceffor."
Now reigns the moon of Democracy, when
Y friend Providus is a profperous husbandman. His crops of grain and hay are plentiful: his cattle are in heart, and his cows afford him butter and cheese in abundance. Some who live near him, on farms as large and of nearly the fame quality, buy half their bread corn, are deftitute of hay every fpring, and, from the fame number of cows, have fcarcely milk for their families. They wonder what is the matter. They say to Providus," there is a peculiar bleffing on "No, fays he, there your husbandry." is no greater bleffing fent to me, than to you. The only difference is, I am always ready to receive and improve it.The fun fhines as warmly and the rain falls as liberally on your farms, as on mine; but they will do you no good, if you fow no feed in feafon, or make no fence till the crop be deftroyed, I prepare my fields well-fow them feasonably -fence them effectually-gather my grain when it is ripe-houfe it before the rains have ruined it-threfh it before the rats have eaten half of it-and what I mean to The grand object that will then appear fpare, I fell, when I have a good market. was feen each morning with raptures of deI never fo confume my old ftores, as to reap my grain before it is ripe, or run fo light, and with fentiments of pureft devomuch in debt for rum or any thing else, as tion, by the happy pair in Paradife. It was of old, and fill is, worshipped every to thresh for my creditors, when I should be preparing for another crop. I cut my morning by the children of the Eaft. It has been the theme of poets ever fince grafs when it is in its proper ftate, and propoition my flock to my fodder. I never poetry began; and all true philofophers, deftroy my grain or mowing grafs by both pagan and chriftian, have made it a feeding them down in the fpring. I keep fubject of their profound and pleafing my cat'e well--and my oxen are ftrong, contemplation: yet half its grandeur and beauty has never been either Jung or faid. and my cows yield me plenty of milk. My wife in her department ufes the The exhibition, it is expected, will be fame economy: What cannot be imme-attended with a variety of peculiarly pleal. diately applied to human ufe, the applies ing circumftances. It will be preceded to fome other ufe, which ultimately turns by a charming concert of vocal mufic, to the benefit of the family. She cuts from a large number of excellent chorifher pork in the barrel with attention, fo ters in the neighbourhood. An unfeen that one third of it is not reduced to mor- hand will diffufe a fragrance through the fels and feraps, and thrown by for foap air, exhilerating the fenfes and gladening greafe. Her dairy fhe attends with care, the heart. The fky will be diverfified and her cheese is not half deftroyed by with the most pleafing tints" one maggots. When the makes her bread, boundlefs blufh" will diffufe the fhe does not let it fland, until it is too four geous geous "chambers" of the Eaft; while the to be caten-or leave it in the oven till it tops of the furrounding mountains and
In a speedy fucceffion to these grateful preparatory fcenes, the magnificent Show will appear emerging gradually from be. low the Eastern horizon. At first you will fee a rim, as it were, of Curnished gold, which enlarges till a vaft golden orb difplays itself in fearless majefty. No tongue, no pen, no pencil, can do juftice impar-profeffes a fingle particle of genuine fen. to its beauty and grandeur: no one that timent, can behold it without emotions of pleasure and admiration.
To aid the cause of virtue and religion.
FOR THE BALANCE.
A MAGNIFICENT MORNING SHOW,
Falsely luxurious, will not man awake ;
hills and the roofs of houfes will appear fo beautifully gilded, as would be far beyond the art of the finest painter to imitate.
O the young ladies and young gentlemen of Hudfon, public notice hereby given, by one who wishes to blend utility with amufeinent, that on the 23d inftant precifely at 42 minutes after 4 o'clock, (fhould the weather prove fair and favourable,) there will be exhibited on the high grounds adjacent to this city, a moft fublime and fplendid Show.
This fuperb Show is to be feen gratis. Nothing will be demanded for the fight, but fentiments of due respect toward the Great Architect and Exhibitor.
FROM THE MEDICAL REPOSITORY,
[PUBLISHED AT NEW-YORK]
NEW NATIONAL DISTINCTIONS.
PROPOSAL to the American literati, and to all the citizens of the United States, to employ the following names and epithets for the country and nation to which they belong; which, at the distance of 27 years from the declaration, and of 20 years from the acknowledgement of their independ ence, are to this day deftitute of proper geographical and political denominations, whereby they may be aptly diftinguished from the other regions and people of the earth:
FREDON, the aggregate noun for the whole territory of the United States.
FREDONIA, a noun of the fame import, for rhetorical and poetical ufe.
FREDONIAN, a fonorous name for "a citizen of the United States."
FREDE, a fhort and colloquial name for a citizen of the United States." FREDISH, an adjective to denote the rela tions and concerns of the United States.
Example. "FREDON is probably better fupplied with the materials of her own hil tory than Britain, France, or any country of the whole world; and the reafon is obvious; for the attention of the FREDONI ANS was much sooner dire&ted, after their fettlement, to the collection and preferva tion of their facts and records, than that of the Dutch and Irifh. Hence it will hap pen that the events of FREDISH hiftory wi!! be more minutely known and better under
flood than thofe of Ruffian, Turkish or A-
None but rich individuals can undertake
And in like manner notice will be taken of the affociation of FREDONIA with Macedonia and Caledonia, as a word equally potent and melodious in found."
dertake long voyages, returns from which
ON THE QUESTION, WHETHER IT BE AD-
"Presented to the French Government by Mr. Liv. INGSTON the American Minister at Paris."
TRANSLATED BY MR. NANCREDE,
THIS queftion prefents itself in two points of view ;-Firft, in the relation of commerce and manufactures :-Secondly, in those of the pofitive or relative force of France.
by the regular payment of workmen, by
Colonies do not excite intereft for their own fake, but only as refpećts the influ ence they may have on a nation; and as one man alone is more useful by remain. ing at home, than two by removing at a dif tance, a wife nation does not seek to colonize until he has a fuperabundance of population, which the cannot ufefully employ in any other way.
nothing by the indepedence of America. Her immenté capitals have created a monied dependance, which, in a commercial relation, replaced the fupremacy fhe had loft in the government. The increase of capital in America, trees it in fome degree from that dependancy, and by furnishing her with the means of extending her commerce, and even to offer capitals to other nations, which know how to calculate the value of the markets which fhe offers to manufactures and to the luxury of Europe.
It will be readily granted, that Colonies. beyond the feas, add nothing to the force of a nation, thefe are, on the contrary, weak points, which are guarded at a very great expenfe, both in men and money; efpecially if they be in hot and unhealthy
The queftion, therefore, is reduced to this, Has France a fuperfluity of men and money great enough to justify the fettling of a new colony?
Those which France already poffeffes in the Weft-Indies and at Cayenne, are more than fufficient for her wants, and even the wants of all Europe, if they were cultivated fo as to produce all they are capable of. But how are they to be cultivated? Experience has proved that the inhabitants of hot climates never work from want: Force alone cannot fupply the two great fpurs to labor in northern climates, hunger and cold, which nature
placed in thofe fevere climates. Hence flavery alone can fertilize thofe colonics, and flaves cannot be procured but at a great expence.
The Spanish part of Hifpaniola was almoft uncultivated for want of flaves. It is now poffeffed by France; and, to ren der it of advantage, it will be neceffary to lay out immenfe capital in flaves, in buildings, and in improvements of uncultivated lands. Others will be neceffary to make up for the loffes of the French part of that, not to mention the other Islands. Where are thofe capitals to be found? Men who travel into diftant and unhealthy climates are feldom wealthy.-Thofe riches muft therefore be found in France, or in fome country that has a fuperfluity of capital. If they are found in France, it can only be to a certain degree at the expence of internal manufacturers. It may, however, appear advantageous, in a national point of view, to encourage the ufe of the riches of France for that object; confidering the extreme fertility of the French Weft-Indies, and their prefent fituation of culture, thofe funds will foon
Hence when a foreign veffel, elpecially
In England, on the contrary, he will find all forts of goods, in one hour, from one manufacture, the reputation of which would fuffer, if the whole fupply were not of the fame quality with the fample. This confideration will ever induce a foreigner to apply to an English, in preference to a French merchant, for a purchase of goods of the fame kind. Hence cargoes are fold in France, and the proceeds carried to England, there to be fold for articles. factures were rich enough to anfwer every which France might fupply, if her manudemand, in a fhort time, without compel
great number of manufactures.
Though very confiderable, the popula tion of France is very far from having reached the term which renders colonies neceflary: Her foil, climate, and local fit-ling the purchafer to have recourfe to a uation give her, as a commercial, and efpecially as a manufacturing nation, great advantages over all the nations of Europe. The fpirit of invention, the taste and induf try of its inhabitants, place her in the first rank. But thofe advantages are wonderfully abridged by the want of capitals fufficient to make use of them. A rival nation, greatly inferior in every one of these particulars, has, by the effect alone of an immense capital, obtained the fuperiority, ||yond doubt, that capitals open new chan-yield a profit. But as long as money will not only in commerce, but also in manufactures; and thefe advantages, by increaf-chants whofe capital is fmall, than to connels; for nothing is more natural for mer- command fo high an intereft; fo long as the interior of the Republic hall offer ing the national fortune, furnish it with the tent themfelves with acting the part of Bro- monied men a louce of fpeculation, and means of maintaining that very fuperiori.hers or Commiffion-Merchants; to thofe property fhall lie in fo tew hands, it will be Capitals increase the number of many- who can fupply them with goods on cred difficult to induce the majority of them to factories, by the introduction of machines, it; and forthis, very reafon, England loft difpollefs themfelves of this capital to fend
This inconveniency can only be removed by increafing the capitals of manufactures. It would be too great a deviation from my fubje&t, to point out the means of obtaining those capitals; but it is evident, that they must be confiderably leffened by the forming of a Navy, at the expenfe of manufactures, or by using the capitals of the nation in diftant countries. It is be
it at a diflance, and run the risk of the in- || tegrity of their agents, and all those whom recent examples have taught them to dread.
Foreign coin was formerly introduced into France through the United Provences: but the prefent ftate of the Batavia Colonies, and the loffes they have fuftained by the war, leave but little hope, that much may be used in the reftoring of French Colonies.
probably hereafter will be able to difpofe || ing of forefts requires too great outsets for in a long feries of years. any one but the owner of the land.
Who then will cultivate Louisiana with flaves? Who is the citizen willing to bef tow large capitals upon fo precarious a property with a prospect of à difiant re
But if to all this, we add the immenfe poffeffions in Guyanna, her productions, and the capitals neceffary to carry the whole of it to its full value; if we add the fettlemeats neceflary to be made in India, if the defign be to bring into the ports of France that variety of articles which invite exchanges, and give commerce its due activity, we fhall find that one century at leaft will pass away before France may want poffeffions of that kind.
But as France has, like other countries, but a confined capital, the only queftion is, where fhall this capital be placed? fhall it be here? in the Weft Indies? at Cayen. ne? in India, or at Louifiana? For it is obvious that what will be placed in one of thofe fettlements will be at the expente of another; it is equally fo, that the national exper ditures will increafe with her colonies; and that, in cafe of war, the points of attack and defence will be multiplied in the fame ratio..
The United States poffefs confiderable capitals in money, and productions neceffary to the reftoration of the Ilands. No great credit, in money, will probably be given to the planters; but with fuitable encouragements, there is no doubt they will be able to obtain thofe productions which muft, were it not for that circum ftance, be paid for in cafh, and the commercial fpeculations of the United States will extend to the French Islands, when the public and private credit of France ihall have been restored, and when experience hall have convinced the people how unwife it is to establish a revenue upon foreign trade, while it is in fact collected from their own citizens. At Hifpaniola, a duty of 20 per cent. is paid upon articles introduced by ftrangers.-This duty is in fact paid by ftrangers, and it happens that fraud, and the bad adminiflration of Cuftom-Houfes, is, as ufual, a fource of vexation for foreign merchants. But it is the planter who fu nifhes the money, for this tax is always added to the price, and even an interest is advanced upon it as a compenfation for the vexations which the captains experience in their commerce. What then is the effect of that operation, if not to take from the planter one-fourth part of the money which he had fo much difficulty to get from France? Or otherwife to ftop, by that means, partly the reeftablishment of the capitals which alone can render the Islands finally productive? I fay finally, for it is folly to believe that that they will yield to France a compenfation for her actual outfets, unless it be after a great many years. I will even fay, that unless the ports of Hifpaniola are open to every veffel loaded with articles of neceffity, unless the inhabitants have the zight of buying cheap and felling dear, by encouraging the rivalry between the fellers and purchafers, unlefs every fort of vexation is removed, and ftrangers receive every poffible fecurity for their capitals in the Inlands, ages will pafs away before Hifpaniola will ceafe draining France of its riches and frength without offering her any equivalent return.
It is therefore, evident, that if France had no other poffeffion beyond the feas, except her iflands, it might eafily place all the capital of which the now can, and
It may be asked, why does it not happen. in the fouthern States? It is aufwered, first, because none are foutherly enough to be wholly free from the colds of winter, which render favage life very difficult to men, born in hot climates; and fecondly, because the southern States are moftly furrounded by the sea, and by mountains, the whole population of which is white, and which cut off the communication between the flaves and the vast forests of the interior parts.
But let us fuppofe all thefe difficulties overcome, what commercial advantages can France derive from the fettlement of this colony? The productions of Louilia. na being the fame with thofe of the WeftIndies, no advantage is to be reaped, for the Iflands, being well cultivated, will fuffice for the wants of France, and even all E. rope. The introdution of thofe from Louifiana, would only leffen the price without adding any thing to the value, and France would be obliged, to prevent the ruin of thofe who had employed their funds in the colonies, to imitate the Dutch, who deftroy their fpices and teas, when the quantity of thefe commodities ja Europe is large enough to caufe a depe ciation of their value.
Able ftatefimen have questioned whether colonies were useful to a country fituated like France; but my defign is not to examine this theory. France has colo. nies; he has invited her citizens to go and carry their riches to them; honor requires that the keep and protect them; but The is under no obligation to create new ones to multiply points of defence; to fquander away the capitals fhe wants at home and abroad. How could the poffeffion of Louisiana be useful to her? In the fit place, its cultivation is to be carried on, as in all warm countries, by flaves; the capitals fpent in buying them, or the faves themfelves, would have been carried to the Ilands, if this new channel had not
opened. This rivalry will raife the price of flaves for the planters, and may thus much retard the feulement.
On their arrival at Louisiana, the flaves will be employed in the barren pccupation of felling the large forefts with which this immenfe country is covered, a labor but little fuited to Blaves, for it requires being long accustomed to the axe, and force and activity are feldom found in flaves. They must be clothed, fed and maintained during whole years before any profit can be derived from them. What I am about to relate may ferve to determine that period. In the Northern and Middle States of America, the ufual term of a quit-rent leafe in the new lands is ten years free from rent, and after this the leffee pays 12 bush- I fhall prefume further to lay down, els of wheat for every hundred acres for- however paradoxical it may feem, that it is ever. It is, therefore, obvious, that the not advantageous for France to fupply herfirst ten years are confidered as a time of felf with lumber, even if he could procure expenfe, during which term the owner re- it from. Louifiana. I have two reasons to quires no payment. But in the Southern offer What lumber the northern States States, new lands cannot even be given out fupply her colonies with is paid for in mo on thofe terms, because the white planter laffes and fome rum. The first article fets higher value on his labor, and the clear-cofts the planter nothing, for, were it not
The productions of Louifans, which do not grow in the Well-Indies, are only lumber, and perhaps rice; but it is certain that thofe productions, confidering the unfalubrious climate, will not cover the difficulties of procuring them in a hot and
outfets, or, at leaft, will not yield the fame profits, as would be procured by railing them in the Iflands, in procuring the fame or other and more valuable articles.
The proof of this is found in the United States. It is not from Georgia nor SouthCarolina, that the Weft-Indies are fuppli ed with lumber, but chiefly from the Northern States, where forefts are more scarce and more valuable than in the South. The caufe of this is, that the fupplying of lumber, the mills neceffary to prepare them for fale, all the fe are the work of free hands, which are fatisfied with a moderate price.
for that, this would be an ufelefs produc tion of his fugar, and the fecond is but a very moderate expenfe for diftillation. If it were confumed in America, molaffes would be thrown away as ufclefs, and this was the cafe when America was à British colony, becaufe French commerce does not offer any other market for that com. modity. [TO BE CONTINUED]
Be it our weekly task,
Hudson, July 19, 1803.
PROCEEDINGS ON CROSWELL'S INDICTMENT.
Laft week the indictment against Harry Crofwell for publishing the annexed paragraph, was tried at the Circuit Court held at Claverack. On Monday, the queflion whether the truth could be given in evidence as a juftification, was decided in the negative by Chief Juftice Lewis. On Tuesday the caufe was advocated by Mr. Attorney-General Spencer, and his Foot -and very ably defended by Mr. Van Vechten, of Albany. and Mr. Van Nefs of this city. Judge Lewis, in his charge, confined the jury to very narrow limits. He ftated, that the only enquiry for them to make, was, whether Crofwell was the publifher of the paragraph, and whether the inuendoes were truly fet forth. The jury retired about feven o'clock on Tuef day evening, and returned a verdict of GUILTY, at eight the next morning. As the whole tranfaction is to come before the Supreme Court in Auguit next, we deem it improper to enlarge on the fubject at prefent. A fair and correct ftatement willly be laid before the public in 'due feafon.
The following is the paragraph which gave rife to the indiament:
The Executive have received official Plenipotentiary and Extraordinary of the information that a Treaty was figned on United States and the Minifter Pienipotenthe goth of April, between the Minifters tiary of the French government, by which United States and the Minifler Pienipotenthe United States have obtained the full right to and fovereignty over New-Orleans, and the whole of Louisiana, as Spain poffelfed' the fame.
There is a letter in town from a nobleman of the first rank and moft honorable veracity in England, which fays a negoc ation of the moft inportant nature was late
carried on between Bonaparte and Louis propofed to his Moft Chriftian Majefty, the XVIII. King of France, through the medium of the King of Pruffia. Bonaparte
"Holt fays, the burden of the Federal "fong is that Mr. Jefferfon paid Callen-France, Bonaparte would on his part make that if he would for him and his heirs re"der for writing againft the late admin. nounce all right and title to the crown of "iftration. This is wholly falfe. The tian Majefty." To this overture, Louis charge is explicitly this-Jefferfon XVIII. replied with the temperate dignity moft ample provifion for his moit Chrif paid Callender for calling Washington becoming a Monarch, that it Monfieur "a traitor, a robber, and a perjurer-Bonaparte would return to his allegiance, "For calling Adams a hoary headed in- and affift in the reftoration of his lawful cendiary; and for moft grofsly fan-fovereign to the throne of France, all that "that it Monfieur who he well knew were virtuous.majefty would moit aniply reward him." "These charges, not a democratic editor has paffed fhould be forgotten-and his "has yet dared, or ever will dare to meet "in an open and manly difcuffion.' The other indictment is to be tried at the next circuit.
dering the private characters of men,
It is likely from his overture of the Corfican Conful, that he feels fomething like an equity of redemption, fubfifting in the Bourbon. family against his own title to the fovereignty of France. [Dublin pap.]
The Ship Diana, Capt. Hunter, arriv
NEW YORK GAZETTE, July 14.
Laft evening we received the following from our Philadelphia correfpondent.
per of the 26th ult. containing the official "I have juft received a Barbadoes paaccount of the conqueft of St. Lucia by the British forces under the command of Lt. killed, wounded and miffing, 138 men, of Gen. Grinfield, in which the British loft in whom four were field officers. The place was defended with great fpirit and obftinacy. BRIDGE-TOWN, (BARR) JUNE 26. difpatches from Lt. Gen. Grinfield, anAt 8 o'clock this morning arrived the nouncing the important Conqueft of that fchr. Suppiy, exprefs, from St. Lucia, with ifland, which is communicated from the Lt. Gen. in a letter to his Excellency the Rt. Hon. Lord Seaforth, from which the fol
"St. Lucia, 22d June, 1803. and taken in the moft handfome manner "I am fure it will give your Lordthip within twelve hours after the landing.pleasure to hear that St. Lucia eft a nous, We laft night drove in the enemy's Out Pofts and took the Town of Caftries.-I then offered the Commandant a capitulation, which he refufed as a foldier and man of honour. This morning at four the affault began, and before five we were they have added Luftre." in poffeffion of Morne Fortune. Our lois in officers, wounded, particularly of rank, has been great, but I hope many if not all will be restored to a fervice, to which
In this county, about 6 o'clock on Wednesday
pinions existed; and the culy condition of cure was,
ERRATA. In a part of the impression of this week's Balance, the following errors escaped, which the reader is desired to correct :---page 228, col. 2d, for "diffuse," read suffuse; col. 3d, for "Curnished," read burnished, for fearless" read peerless, for professes" read possesses.