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cupation of the island, under fuch cir-
prefence of the Minifters of moft of the
As the conduct of the governments of France and Spain have, therefore, in fome inftances directly and in others indirectly, contributed to the changes which have taken place in the Order, and thus deftroyed its means of fupporting its independence, it is to thofe governments, and not to his Majefty, that the non-execution of the tenth article of the treaty of Amiens muft
Such would be the juft conclufion if the tenth article of that treaty were confidered as an arrangement by itfelf. It must be obferved, however, that this article forms. a part only of a treaty of peace, the whole of which is connected together, and the ftipulations of which muft, upon a principle common to all treaties, be conftrie d as having a reference to each other.
His Majefty was induced by the treaty of peace to confent to abandon and to ref tore to the Order of St. John the Island of Malta, on condition of its independence and neutrality. But a further condition which must neceffarily be fuppofed to have had confiderable influence with his majef. ty in inducing him to make fo important a conceffion was the acquiefcence of the French government in an arrangement for the fecurity of the Levant, by the eighth and ninth articles in the treaty, ftipulating the integrity of the Turkish Empire, and the Independence of the Ionian Islands. His Majeftey has however, fince learnt, that the French government have entertained views hoftile to both thefe objects; and that they have even fuggefted the idea of partition of the Turkish Empire. These views must be now manifeft to all the world, from the official publication of the report of Col. Sebaftiani; from the conduct of that officer, and of the other French agents in Egypt, Syria, and Ionian Illands, and from diftinct admiffion of the Firft Conful himself, in his communication with Lord Whitworth. His Mijelly was therefore warranted in confidering it to be the determination of the French government to violate thofe articles of the treaty of peace, which ftipulated for the integrity and independence of the Turkish Empire,
Yet notwithstanding this right fo clear and fo unquestionable, the alternative pre-burgh paper of a moft grofs and opprofented by the French government to his brious libel against his Majefty, and when Majefty, in language the most perempto- difficulties were made re pecting the inferry and menacing, was the Evacuation of tion of it, he availed himfelf of his official Malta, or the Renewal of War. character of Minister of the French.repubIf the views of ambition and aggandize-lic to require the publication of it by order ment which have thus been manifefted by of his government in the Gazette of the the French government fince the conclu Senate of that town. With this requifition fion of the treaty of peace, have in fo very fo made, the Senate of Hamburgh were inparticular a manner attracted the attention particular a manner attracted the attention duced to comply; and thus has the indeof his Majefty, it has been equally impof-pendence of that town been violated, and a fible for him not to feel, and not to notice, free flate made the inftrument, by menace the repeated indignities which have been of the French government, of propagating offered by the government to his crown, thoughout Europe, upon their authority. and to his people. the moft offenfive and unfounded calumnies againft his Majefty and his govern
The report of Col. Sebaftiani contains the moft unwarrantable infinuations, and charges against his Majefty's government, against the officer who commanded his for ces in Egypt, and against the British army. in that quarter. This paper cannot be confidered as the publication of a private individual; it has been avowed, and indeed bears evidence upon the face of it, that it is the official report of an accredited agent, published by the authority of the government to which it was addreffed, who thereby have given it their exprefs fanc
At the very time when his Majesty was demanding fatisfaction and explanation on fome of the points above-mentioned, the French minifter at Hamburgh endeav oured to obtain the infertion in a Ham
This report had been publifhed a very
The conduct of the firft Conful to his
His Majefty might add to this lift of indignities, the requifition which the French government have repeatedly urged, that the laws and conftitution of his country fhould be changed relative to the liberty of the prefs. His Majefly might likewife add the calls which the French government have on feveral occafions made upon him to violate the laws of hofpitality with ref. pect to perfons who had found an afylum within his dominions, and against whole conduct no charges whatever has at any time been fubitantiated. It is impoffible to reflect on thefe different proceedings, and the courfe which the French government' have thought proper to adopt relpecting them without the thorough conviction that they are not the effect of accident; but that they form apart of a fyftem which has been adopted for the purpofe of degrading, vilifying, and infulting his Majefly and his government.
Under all thefe infults and provocations, his Majefty, not without a due fenfe of his dignity, has proceeded with every degree of moderation to obtain fatisfaction and redrefs, while he has neglected no means, confiftent with his honor and the fafety of his dominions, to induce the government of France to concede to him, what is in his judgment, abfolutely neceffary for the future tranquility of Europe. His efforts in this refpect have proved abortive. He has therefore judged it neceffary to order his ambassador to leave Paris.
In having recourfe to this proceeding, it
has been his object to put an end to the fruitlefs difcuffions which have too long fubfifted between the two governments, and to close a period of fufpenfe peculiarly injurious to the fubjects of his Majefty.
But though the provocations which his Majefty has received might entitle him to larger claims than thofe which he has advanced, yet anxious to prevent calamities. which might thus be extended to every part of Europe, he is ftill willing, as far as is confiftent with his own honor, and the interefts of his people, to afford every facility to any juft and honorable arrangement, by which fuch evils may be averted. has, therefore, no difficulty in declaring to all Europe, that notwithflanding all the E changes which have taken plac fince the = treaty of peace, notwithstanding the extenfion of the power of France, in repugnance to the treaty, and to the fpirit of peace itself, his Majefty will not avail himlelf of thefe circumflances, to demand in compenfation all that he is entitled to require, but will be ready to concur, even now, in the arrangement by which fatisfaction shall be given to him, for the indignities which have been offered to his crown and to his people, and fubftantial fecurity afforded against further encroachments on the part of France.
His Majefly has thus diftinctly and unrefervedly ftated the reafons of those proceedings, to which he has found himfelt compelled to refort. He is actuated by no difpofition to interfere in the internal concerns of any other ftate; by no profpe£ts of conqueft and agrandizement; but folely by a fenfe of what is due to the honor of his crown, and the interefts of his people, and by an anxious defire to obftru&t the further progrefs of a fy flem, which if not refifted, may prove fatal to every part of the civilized world.
Hudson, July 12, 1803,
The anniversary of our independence was celebrated in this city on the 4th inft. but not with as much formality as has been usual. The citizens dined in detached mixed companies. General Spencer read the Declaration of Mr. AttorneyIndependence at the Prefbyterian Meeting-houfe, and Mr. Daniel Rodman, one of his clerks, delivered an Oration. On this production we fhall make no comments, as, we are informed, it was prepared at fhort notice.
A large and refpe&table company of Mechanics, of both political fects, partook of an entertainment at Mr. Stocking's Inn. The toafts prepared for the occafion, were calculated to give no offence to either ty; but the manner in which they were received, fufficiently evinced the fpirit
that prevailed at the board. When the "Prefident of the United States," applauding hand was railed-not a whifgiven, no perfon rofe from his feat-no approbation was heard. But when The late Prefident," was toafted, the company rofe, to a man, and hearty cheers. The following toaits were gave three received with great applaufe :
American Farmers May neither drought, dull times, nor infects, deftroy their hopes.
plements of their trade, grow bright with
Navy large enough to protect them.
The Prefs-Free but not licentious. The American Fair-May they nev er become the mothers of bad citizens.
Lord NELSON is appointed to the command of the Mediterranean fleet. Lord KEITH is commiffioned as commander in chief of the fquadron in the North Sea. Admiral SAUMAREZ has been appointed commander of the fhips ftationed off Guernsey and Jerley, to watch the motions of the French, and intercept their fhips in that quarter.
On the 16th May, Admiral Cornwallis, cutter, failed from Torbay on a cruife. with 10 fhips of the line, 3 frigates and a
An erroneous opinion has gone abroad, that in part purchase of Louisiana, we are to pay our merchants for French fpoliations committed during the laft war--not fo; the claims for thefe fpoliations have been formally relinquifhed by treaty. The claims now provided for, are understood to be thofe arifing from purchases made by the French from our citizens of provifions and fupplies for their fleets and armies in the Weft-Indies; indemnification for French bills drawn on Hamburgh and protested, &c. &c. in fhort for all contracts made between authorised agents of France and American citizens. [Ev. Poft.]
HARTFORD, JUNE 22.
By letters received in town we have received intelligence of the murder of capt. William Hilldrup of this place, Capt. Hilldrup failed from this in March left in the fch'r Catharine, the property of Meffrs. Williams and Lawrence bound on a voyage to the Weft Indies. He arrived at thence proceeded to Nevis, where he was Antigua and fold part of his cargo, and
difpofing of the refidue.
A letter from a gentleman in Bordeaux, received at Charleston, dated in May, fays; "I fhould not be at all furprised to fee ing up all the young men under 28 years bad times in France. They are now takof age for the army, which has occafioned a revolt, as I learn yesterday, within a few miles of Bordeaux; a party of military by the name of Gens Daimes, emLouis D'Or, thefe young men fired upon ployed by the government to take fuch youths, for each of which they receive a them, at a place called Byle, on which there was blood fhed-the fame thing has happened at Paris."
An error of some consequence occured in the communication of " PUER," relating to a remarkable instance of petrifaction, in the county of Schoharie, which was published in the 26th Number of the Balance. The word "brimstone" was inserted instead of Limestone, in the 27th line of the communication. Such printers as have copied the piece, will oblige us by noting the error.
"WASHINGTON," is under consideration.
The proceedings on the Anniversary of our Independence, at Livingston Ville, in this state, and at Lee, in Massachusetts, are necessarily postponed until our next.
FROM THE PORT FOLIO.
HEN virtue beaming from the star of truth,
Thy reason veil'd-thy manly graces fled;
IT was not till the year 1679, that the important act of Habeas Corpus was paffed in England. By this act it was prohibited to fend any one to a prifon beyond fea. No Judge, under fevere penalties, muft refuse to any prifoner a writ of habeas corpus, by which the gaoler was directed to produce in court the body of the prifoner (whence the writ has its name,) and to certify the caufe of his detainer and imprisonment. If the gaol lie within 201 miles of the judge, the writ must be obey. ed in three days; and fo proportionably for greater diftances: every prifoner muft be indicted the firft term after his commitment, and brought to trial in the fub
And dissipation op'd its thorny wild.
When the dark storm was low'ring 'round thy fequent term. And no man after being
enlarged by order of court, can be re-
Alas! how sad the gloomy prospect seem'd, How faint the star that on life's morning gleam'd; How dim the lustre which adorn'd thy youth, When science lur'd thee by the voice of truthWhen Heav'ns pure law thy liberal spirit sway'd, And peace, with ample recompence repaid.
Could'st thou (my friend) in wisdom's mirror
Where false enjoyment differs from the true;
The contrast plac'd-alas! how dark and drear,
Reverse the scene-diffuse thy light afar,
WHEN the Earl of Effex, one of the moft polite and accomplished nobleman. in England, who was too a chief favorite. of queen Elizabeth, had happened to speak a little impertinent and faucily to her, the in her anger, befides fcourging him with her tongue, gave him a violent box on the
A YOUNG man, more noted for vanity than for talents, was boafting that his advantages had been fuperior to thofe of other literary men, as he had received his education at two univerfities, Cambridge and New-Haven; when a fhrewd old gentleman in the company remarked, that it reminded him of a calf he had feen, which had fucked two cows. "And what was the confequence ?" faid the conceited young man. "The confequence was, replied the old gentleman, that he grew to be a very great calf."
DR. JOHN THOMAS, afterward bifhop of Salisbury, had been chaplain to the British factory at Hamburgh, when one of the factory happening to die at a neighbouring village, the clergyman of the village refufed leave to bury him in the church yard; objecting that he had been
a Calvinist, and that none were buried in his church yard but Lutherans.
Dr. Thomas reafoned with him in vain: at length he told him the following ftory, which had the defired effect.
"When I was a curate in London, faid the Doctor, as I was burying a corple, a woman pulled me by the fleeve and faid to me with much concern and earnestnefs,
Pray top the fervice; why, dear fir, this man, you know, died of the fmall pox, and they are burying him close by the fide of my poor hufband, who never had it."
Previous to the period aforefaid, people were liable to be fent to diftant prilons by the civil authority of England; and to be detained in prifon a long time, and even during life, without ever being bro't to trial: they were alfo liable after a reg- To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and fifty cents, ular difcharge to be recommitted, at pleaf-payable in quarterly advances. ure, for the fame offence.
TERMS OF THE BALANCE.
A CITY of Germany once had recourse to arms, and was thrown into the utmoft confufion, upon the trifling dif pute," Whether the Lord's prayer, in Latin, begun with pater nofter or nofter pater."
PROPOSALS have been iffued by Meffrs. GILBERT & DEAN, Bofton, for POEMS, by Sufanna Rowfon, Precep publifhing a collection of ORIGINAL trefs of the Young Ladies Academy, Newtown, Mafs. Price of the volume, neatly bound and lettered, One Dollar.
To Country Subscribers, who receive their papers at the office Two Dollars, payable as above.
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A handsome title-page, with an Index or Table of Contents, will be given with the last number
of each volume.
Advertisements inserted in a conspicuous and handsome manner, in the Advertiser which accom. panies the Balance.
Complete files of the first volume, which bare been reserved in good order for binding, are for sale -Price of the volume, bound, Two Dollars and fif ty cents-unbound, Two Dollars. The whole may be sent, stitched or in bundles, to any post-office in the state, for 52 cents postage; or to any post-of fice in the union for 78 cents.
SAMPSON, CHITTENDEN & CROSWELL,
WHERE PRINTING IN GENERAL IS EXECUTED
66 HAIL SACRED POLITY, BY FREEDOM REAR'D !
Hither the products of your closet-labors bring,
FOR THE BALANCE.
HUDSON, (New-York) TUESDAY, JULY 19, 1803.
political difquifitions. The treafures of
leaders of the commonwealth, who com-
and political experience—perhaps, in a
HE political current, in England, that had long run with violence toward liberty, having at laft fwept away every oppofing mound, an unchecked, uncontrouled democracy was established on the ruins of the throne. All power was lodged in the houfe of commons, who were the immediate reprefentatives of the people. There was no royal velo to arreft their patriotic exertions: there were no Lords temporal or fpiritual to inhibit or controul their measures. The baubles of ariftocracy, Jiars, garters, mitres, lie fcattered beneath their feet.
The English made the experiment of a Zemocratic republic, under fingular ad. vantages;--by their infular fituation, they were disjoined from the rest of the world;ity the luxury and debauchery of modern days had not infected them they were a plain fober people, no wife corrupted generally in their morals and habits. An en. thufiaftic love of liberty was rooted in their breafts, and interwoven with every fibre of their hearts; in her facred cause they had manifefted a noble contempt of dangers and of death :-nor were they unilluminated with the rays of fcience.-A long fruggle between prerogatives and privileges had familiarifed their minds to
The commonwealth commencing under fuch favourable circumftances, feemed to promife a long duration to the existence of the equal rights of the people :-yet it proved to be an ill-jointed fabric-a fyfproved to be an ill-jointed fabric-a fyftem of confufion and horrible tyranny ; and the people, the fport of faction and
|| intrigue, equally flattered and befooled, "depreffed by the memory of paft misfortunes, by the profpect of future difafters," were glad, in a very fhort time, to exchange the iron yoke of their own reprefentations for that of a military defpot, the daring Cromwell.
When there is a confolidation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers, this mighty engine is even more terrible in the hands of many, than it is in the
hands of an individual; becaufe the in
famy of iniquitous meafures being divided among numbers, the individual fhare that attaches to each, feems thereby to be fo diminished that he can easily furmount all fense of fhame; and befides, the greater the numbers concerned jointly in the abufe of power, the more fecure are they, from refponfibility, and with the more facility each one may parry any criminations against himself, and fix them upon others. A popular affembly holding the reins of government with powers unlimited and uncontrouled, muft be better than commonly frail men, if they fhould refrain, for a long time, from playing into one an others' hands, and from fwindling and cheating the public, with all the cunning and dexterity of gamblers. Some might ftand aloof at firft;-a few might preferve their integrity throughout but the illufions of a felfifh fpirit would not fail to blind, and the profits of the game to allure and engage a very refpectable majority. Inftances there have been not a few of men, who, as politicians, and who kept in countenance by a multitude of accomplices and coadjutors, have unblufhingly concurred in knavish projects and meafures relating to the public, fuch as they
would have difdained to have been guilty judged to be heart-malignants their doom
The commonwealth-parliament did not merely grafp, in their utmoft extent, thofe dangerous powers and prerogatives, the claims and attempted exercife whereof, by Charles, was the occafion of his precipita-preyed tion from a flippery throne to the bloody fcaffold; but they alfo affumed and exercifed other powers and prerogatives entirely new. They fhackled the prefs, and repreffed all free enquiry: they exercised the flar-chamber authority of licencing books; and impofed heavy fines and other penalties on the authors and venders of fuch publications as cenfured their own meafures. Vaft fums of public money they divided among themfelves. A violent noify zeal was made the principal qualification for advancement to office : confe
quently public offices, in moft inftances, were filled with artful knaves, who watched for opportunities to prey upon the public. The fequeftered eftates of the king, the nobility and the royalifts, which were nearly one half of the lands and rents of the kingdom, were embezzled, and went to enrich unprincipled individuals of the prevailing party. Party fpirit beftrided even the venerable feat of judgment. The judges were dependant ;-they were the creatures and tools of parliament; and their verdicts and decifions were so warped and fhaped as to accord with the will of their masters. Hence the very fountain of juflice was fo poifoned, that the political characters of the parties, in a judicial trial, had more weight with the bench than the merits of their refpective causes. Parliament committees were vefted with unlimited judicial and executive powers; and they impofed heavy fines, committed people to prifon, and inflicted corporal punishments, without any remedy, ac
cording to their pleafure, or as caprice, prejudice or revenge happened to dictate. Party names were craftily ufed as means of fixing odium on the fairest characters, and were made an engine of judicial oppreffion, The predominant party called themfelves the well-affected; and they gave to their opponents the opprobrious name of malignants. And fuch was the venom as well as blindness of party-prejudice, that merely the name malignant was enough to blaft the fairest fame, and to damn the best caufe. This odious name, to anfwer political purpofes, was often bestowed on those who leaft deferved it -on republicans as well as royalists. In vain did fufpeétel perfons bar the door of their lips and paflively fubmit to all the meafures of their republican rulers: the parliament gave their committees inquif itorial powers to examine into heart-ma lignancy; and however innocent or laudable were their overt acts, if they were
Thus the people who aforetime had been chaflifed with whips, were now chaftiled with fcorpions. In exchange for the oppreffions of royalty they were upon by fwarms of cunning fharpers and hungry fpeculators; moft of whom had emerged from obfcurity-and fome from the loweft condition of life.
It is a fact very little honourable to human nature, that there never was in England a government more hateful and more hated than that of the firft parliament of the commonwealth : a parliament that had affected to trample down all tyranny, and to spread abroad the of lib. ertya parliament too, in which there
was a number of members of inflexible in
tegrity, who in vain oppofed their voices
The following toafts were then drank, under the discharge of Gen. Shays' muf quetry.
1. The People.-May they no longer be employed as tools for babbling elec
JONATHAN MEEKER, Chairman. WILLIAM THOMAS, Clerk. Accordingly, on the 4th inft. a company of between four and five hundred, met at Livingfton-Ville, and walked in proceffion from the turnpike freet, to a bower prepared for the occafion, headed by a company of volunteers, commanded by Gen. Daniel Shays. After an introduction by prayer, an oration was delivered by Amos Eaton, Efq. giving a con cife view of the hiftory and tranfactions of our prefent adminiftration..
2. The conftitution of the United States.-May the murderous wounds it has received from theoretical diffe&ters, obtain a timely cure by experienced fur. geons.
3. The memory of GEORGE WASHING.
4. The Prefident of the United States. Reverence and refpect for the office, tho' it be holden even by-Thomas Jef. ferfon.
5. Aaron Burr, vice-prefident of the United States. Democracy can now do without him; therefore let him be narra. tived and fuppreffed.
Livingston-Ville, Schoharie courty, 28th June, 1803.
6. George Clinton, governor of the ftate of New-York. An old ftatefman never dies more honorably than after his first retirement.
7. Jeremiah Van Renffelaer-as prefi dent of the bank of Albany.
8. American Farmers.
9. Thofe worthy ftatefmen and real pat riots, who are laid afide to make room for the felf ftyled.
10. Alexander Hamilton, and the Con
11. John Jay, Efq. May the bickerings of a malignant party never alienate our esteem from diftinguished merit.
12. American Fair, and the judicial department. May they ever remain pure and uncorrupted; that the one may tem other check our political extravagancies. per our rafhnefs in common life, and the
13. The Agricultural fociety. May it' ftill fucceed in every kind of improve ment, but in raifing L'Homedieu calves.