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ithets equally belong to Labrador and Paraguay and their natives." New-England" New-England" and "New-Englanders" are two uncouth terms applied by certain other writers and fpeakers. In fome parts of Europe, we have been diftinguished as "Anglo-Americans;" and this appellation is in fome refpects worse, and in no refpect better than either of the others.
What are we to do? Are we never to have a geographical diftinction? Is the land to be forever called "United States,' and its people "United-States-men ?" And even then, on a fuppofition that the union fhould ceafe, muft the region it occupies be nameless ?
To fupply this fad deficiency in our geographical and national nomenclature, the following project is refpe&tfully fubmitted to the confideration of our map-makers, engravers, printers, legiflators, and men of letters. The authors of it are citizens
of the United States, and are zealous for their profperity, honour, and reputation. They wish them to poffels a name among the nations of the earth. They lament that hitherto and at prefent the country is deftitute of one.
It is in the power of the people to find
"Mede" and a "Swede."
Let the extent of land ceded to our nation by the treaty of 1783, be diftinguifhed henceforward on charts, globes, and in elementary books by the name of
the etymology of this is obvious and agreeable: it may mean a free-gift; or a ny thing done freely; or the land of free privileges and doings. This is the proper term to be employed in all grave, folemn, and profe compofitions, and in ordinary converfation. It is better adapted than" Albion" is to England.
without reference to any particular state,
If, however, any of the favorites of the Mufes defire a poetical name for this tract of earth, it is eafy to fupply them with one which founds and pronounces to great advantage. Such an one is
which will meet the ear more excellently than Italia, Gallia, Parthia, Hifpania, Germania, or even Britania itself.-America and Columbia will retain their prefent fig. nification, of extending to the whole Wellern hemisphere.
The citizens and inhabitants of the United States when spoken of generally,
And that fuch a perfon being afked in Eu-
answer that he is a FREDONIAN.
"a Turk" and the like.
Again, a monyfyllable name is perfectly eafy to be obtained from the fame root; and to him who thinks the laft word too long or lofty, it will be wholly at his option to call himself
and thereby, we can speak of "a Fredish-
Thus, our nation is in poffeffion of a profaic word for its whole territory, FREDON; a poetical word for the fame, FREDONIA; a grave and fonorous generic title for its people, property, and relations, FREDONIAN; a fhort and colloquial appellation FREDE; and a convenient uni verfal epithet, FREDISH. A language fo rich and copious is fcarcely to be found; and it is hoped our citizens will make the moft of it.
In cafe any of our countrymen should wifh to exprefs himself according to this novel dialect, the following is offered as an example, alluding to a recent fubject of
"It has been a favourite object with a certain clafs of men to involve FREDON
in a war with Spain, France or both of them, about the right of depofit on the Miffiffippi. The outrageous conduct of the Intendant at New-Orleans was indeed very provoking, but the FREDONAN SPIRIT, tho' roufed by juft indignation, was too temperate and magnanimous to rufh immediately to arms. It was thought moft wife and politic for the adminiftration to attempt a negociation in the first inftance, and accordingly, one of the FREDISH fhips was ordered to be got in readiness to carry an envoy extraordinary from America to Europe. Should war become neceffary for the national honour and fecurity, our public enemies will find to their forrow, that the FREDES will make brave foldiers and gallant failors.
fuch numbers as to refemble a shower of
The circumftance of the fhooting stars defcending within a fhort diftance of the ground, is however, a fact highly important to be known; as it has been generally fuppofed, that meteors only proceed in a horizontal direction, and never fly perpendicularly upwards or downwards. Thofe which we particularly remarked, appeared to defcend in an angle of fixty degrees with the horizon; but as the smaller ones were fo numerous, and croffed each other in different directions, it was only poffible to af certain with any precifion, the paths of the largest and most brilliant.
APHORISM.- -Be afraid of him who meets you with friendly afpect, and, in the midst of a flattering falutation, avoids your direct open look.-Lavater.
Be it our weekly task,
To note the passing tidings of the times.
Hudson, May 17, 1803.
The following gentlemen are chosen directors of the Bank of Columbia, for the enfuing year :
Since writing the above, we have been
the Cape of Good-Hope, which place the
"from the fire of heaven.
Stephen Paddock, Prefident-Reuben Folger, Samuel Edmonds, Elisha Wil liams, Benjamin Allen, Samuel B. Webb, James Hyatt, Cotton Gelton, William Ashley, Jacob R. Van Renfelaer, Wil. ham IV. Van Nefs, Daniel Penfield, James Nixon, jun."
The captain of the schooner Factor, from Aux-Cayes, informs that when he left that quarter every plantation in the plain had been burnt by the negroes. A few days before the veffel failed, an attack was made on the French troops fhut up in AuxCayes; but the affailants were feverely repulfed. Two hundred men arrived there from Tiberon on the 2d April, and 500 more on the day following. Aux-Cayes was furrounded on all fides by the infur
Extract of a letter from our correfpondent
at Cape Francois, dated April 5.
and devoured them. A few days fince, a number of the brigand officers came to the outer pofts of this town with a flag of truce; the officers of the town went to meet them and invited them to dinner, but the arrange. ments they have concluded on are kept fe. cret it is reported, however, that the bri gands offer to return to their masters, provided they are affured that they will be re. ceived as hirelings, not as flaves.
"A French ship arrived off this port, and after learning the ftate of the market proceeded with her cargo for Port-auPrince, but was taken in the Bire by bri. gands, the captain and crew maflacred, and the fhip burnt to the water's edge.
"General Rochambeau has removed his
headquarters to port-au-prince, where he intends to gather all his troops, and march by land to the port; it is faid he will begin in July.
"The inhabitants feem to be cheerful, and every thing wears a more favorable af pect. Trade begins to flourish and I am in hopes, in a fhort time, every thing will be more tranquil." Ibid.
OF AFFAIRS IN EUROPE. Several gentlemen from Newburyport, fince the date of the last paper, printed in that place, inform, that the intelligence brought by Capt. Rutheford, inflead of announcing the actual declaration of War between France and England, goes no far. ther than that he was informed, the British would have 70 fail of the line in readiness, in cafe of actual war. They likewife add that the veifel fpoken had been out 36, in ftead of 33, days.
Pofitive teftimony of War is yet but fly. ing report. The Cabinet of St. Jame's is ftill clofed, and Minifters are extremely re ferved on this interesting queftion. Th fituation of either country, and particularly the political arrangements made, and about to be put in execution, between France & Spain, are by no means of a pacific ten. dency and we may venture to predict, that a permanent eftablifhed Peace is yet diftant. The detention of Malta, contrary to the ftipulation of Amiens, is faid to be the oftenfible object of contention; but the policy of the British Cabinet, has undoubtedly a fpeculation under confultation far more important to them, and fill mere alarming to the ambitious projects of the First Conful, than the fimple question rei pecting that Ifland. The ceflion of Louhana by Spain to France, is a fubject by no means indifferent to the British Gov. ernment; and however it may be confidered, as it refpects the United States, we may reft affured that they will not paffively fubmit that fo extenfively a territory fhould fall into the hands of their imperious rival; and that their American provinces fhould be fo immediately under the control of the same nation, from whose pol
feffion they were formerly wreed by the fuperior energy of the British arins. The poffeffion of Louifiana, by the French, is certainly a fubject of ferious confequence to the English fettlements at Quebec and Novafcotia; and Bonaparte may have occafion to obtain the confent of England as well as Spain, before he can take quiet poffeffion. [Bofton Gazette.]
A late letter from a refpectable mercantile house in London, contains the following obfervations on the prefent ftate of political affairs between the Governments of France and England: "A meffage was fent on Sunday to Bonaparte with the ultimatum of our Court, which is believed to be, that in confequence of the frequent infraction of the Treaty of Amiens, by the French in Switzerland, and their annexing Piedmont and Parma to France, we teli authorised and determined to retain Malta, and to infift that New-Orleans and Louifia. na fhall be restored to Spain, or given up to the United States of America fo that the navigation of the Miffiflippi fhall on no account be left in the power of France." Ibid.
The following curious article, (fays the Gazette of the United States) forms a ve ry appropriate comment on Don Marquis's hand-kiffing note to our Secretary of State.
From the PHILADELPHIA GAZETTE.
In the name of the French Republic, L'AUSSAT, Colonial Prefect,
The hearts of all Frenchmen were foften
ed by the fpectacle. They never let it flip their remembrance. They then exclaimed, with pride, and have never fince ceafed to repeat, that the blood of France runs in your veins.
As foon as they had regained their digni.ty and their glory, by the revolution and a train of prodigious triumphs, they turned towards you their affectionate attention. You conflituted a part of their first negociation. They wished your retroceffion to accompany and fignalize their first peace.
magnanimous and juft, was new or impoffible-who, to the talent of achieving the moft fplendid victories, united the more extraordinary one of combining and fecuring to them the moft happy confequences: who, by the afcendancy of his mind commanded at once terror from his enemies and
TO THE LOUISIANIANS. Your separation from France marks one of the moft fhameful epochs of her annals, under an enfeebled and corrupt government, after an ignominious war, and a dif graceful peace. To that cowardly and unnatural aban-flight: donment, you prefented the contraft of heroic love, fidelity and courage.
The time was not yet arrived. It was neceffary that A MAN fhould appear, to whom nothing which is natural, great,
confidence from his allies who, by his penetrating genius, difcriminated the true interefts of his country, and, by an irrefiftable will, gave operation to thofe interefts: -who, in fine, was born to replace France on her own bafis, to eftablifh her in the whole extent of her limits, and to erase all the blemishes of her hiftory.
This man, Louifianians, prefides over our deftinies. From this moment he is the pledge of your happinefs. To fecure this, in this fortunate foil, it is only necessary to affift the prodigality of nature. This is the defign of the French government.
To cultivate peace and friendship with all your neighbours; to protect your commerce, encourage your agriculture, people your deferts; fofter induftry, refpect property, cuftoms and opinions; pay reverence to religion; to honour virtue; to fe. cure to the laws their fovereignty, and to conect them only as the light of experi ence may dictate; to introduce permanent order and economy in all the branches of the public adminiftration; to unite fill clofer the ties which the fame origin, the fame morals, the fame difpofitions have created between this colony and the mother country; thefe, Louifianians, are the honourable objects of the miffion of your captain general Victor, your colonial prefect and your chief judge. Thefe, they are happy to fay, are the motives with which they come to mix with you.
The reputation of the Captain Genera! has doublefs even here preceded him. Companions in arms with the First Conful, he diftinguifhed himself, from the commencement of the campaign of the famous armies of Italy. In lefs brilliant days, he aftonished Suwarrow by precipitating his He was in fine, one of the lieuten. ants of Bonaparte, at the battle of Marengo! Surrounded with thefe titles, the illuftrious pledge of his fame, he comes to you, Louifianians, with a lively defire of rendering himself dear to you, by the exer cifes of all the virtues, the cares, and induf. try, which devolve on the chief of a hap py people. His ardour for your prosperity, the uprightness of his intentions, the a greeablenefs and affability of his addrefs and manners, which are even ornaments to his military laurels, will fecure to him your affection and confidence. He brings with him a part of those troops who have made the earth tremble, even to these remote fhores. Batavia, fince the peace, has admired their good conduct and excellent difcipline. You may like her admire and esteem them.
In fhort Louifianians, you will find in your Chief Judge, genius, impartiality, and difintereilednefs. He comes to you already known by the fame of his talents, by his fufferings and misfortunes.
Under every circumftance you will have reafon to rejoice at having become French, you will daily feel more and more the value of that, fplendid title, the object of the envy of the whole globe.
We know, nevertheless, Louifianians, and will not diffimulate it, that during thirty years, Spain, by the temperance of a generous and mild government, has endeav oured to make you forget the grievous fault of an unworthy agent of this noble nation --She is our clofe and faithful friend : It will not be us who will inftigate you to repay her mildnefs with ingratitude. We will endeavor, by acts of munificence, to emulate the policy of the Chief he had giv en you. Your attachment for the French Republic, our common country; your gratitude to thofe who protect you, and the daily fight of your growing profperity, are the objects which we fhall aim at; with a zeal and affiduity, which only can be limited by the fulfilment of all our duties and all our wifhes.
New Orleans, the 11th year of the French Republie. L'AUSSATT.
By the Colonial Prefect, The officer of administration, acting as Secretary. DAUGERCT.
In this city, Sunday evening last, Capt. REUBEN MORE to Miss HEPZA HUZZEY, both of Hudson.
At Reading, Connecticut, Rev. BETHEL JUDD, rector of Christ church, in this city, to Miss MARGARET HERON, daughter of William Heron, Esq. of that place.
On Friday last, by the oversetting of a small skiff on Hudson's river, PHILIP MURPHEY, a young man belonging to this city.
The communication, under the signature of "PARVUS HOxo," is, for cogent reasons, inadissible.
[From the first Volume of the Gazette of the United States, which a friend has obligingly loaned us, we copy the following extract :-]
THE ORIGIN OF LAWS.
THRICE happy age, the youthful Poet cries,
Ere laws arose, ere tyrants bade them rise ;
No wars, no tumults vext each still domain,
Mistaken youth! each nation first was rude, Each man a chearless son of solitude,
To whom no joys of social life were known,
When Commerce, rising from the bed of ease,
Like some vast flood, unbounded, fierce, and strong,
His nature leads ungovern'd men along ;
Mr. LEDYARD, a native of Connecticut, who traversed some of the moft dreary regions of Ruffia, in a letter to Doctor Ledyard of Long-Ifland, wrote as fol. lows.
You have no idea of the exceffive cold in the region of Siberia. By experiments that I made at Yakutfk, I found on the 19th of November the mercury in my thermometer froze. In December I found by repeated obfervations, that two ounces of clear quickfilver openly expofed, froze hard in fifteen minutes. 1 obferved that in these fevere frofts, the air was condensed, as is with you in a thick fog-the atmosphere is frozen-refpiration is fatiguing &c. It is a happy law of nature, that in fuch intenfe cold there is feldom wind-when there is, it is danany gerous to be abroad.
"There are no wells at Yakutfk; for it is found by experiment that the water freezes at fixty feet deep. People of these regions are therefore obliged to ufe ice and fnow. They have alfo ice windowsglafs is of no ufe to the few who have it ; the difference in the flate of the air, with in and without, is fo great, that the glass is covered on the infide with feveral inches of froft, and in that fituation it is lefs luminous than ice. The timber of the houfes fplits and opens with loud cracksthe rivers thunder, and open with broad fiffures-all nature groans beneath the rigorous winter."
ORIGIN OF THE ORDER OF THE CARTER.
IN the year 1849, the Countess of Salifbury a miftrefs of Edward III. happened at a court-ball to drop her garter; and the King taking it up, exclaimed, "Honi foit qui male penfe" evil to him that evil thinks." In memorial of this trivial event, he inflituted the order of the garter, and gave the foregoing words as the motto of the order. It is the moft dignified order in England. Only twenty-five perfons befides the King were originally admitted; and the number has never been increafed.
IN the 7th century, when an hired af faffin made a defperate attempt at Edwin, King of England, Lilla, one of his courtiers, feeing no other way to fave the life of his prince, fprung between him and the affaffin's dagger; which he received in his own vitals, and inftantly expired.
[The following anecdote is humbly fubmitted to the confideration of those credulous and well-meaning democrats, who have been talked into a belief that their taxes are lightened.]
Hely Hutchinfon, late provoft of Trinity College, and father of Dublin, on his firt introduction into the Irifh parliament, de. livered a fpeech of confiderable length on the rapid increase of the profperity of Ire land. Counsellor Caftello, a member of the fame parliament, liftened with great attention to the young orator's flowery dec. lamation; and when he had done, the coun. fellor got up, and expreffed the fatisfaction he felt on hearing that his native country was in fuch a flourishing ftate." When,' added he," that youthful fenator got up to fpeak, I had three halfpence in my pocket, and I am fure they must be three guineas now!-Let me fee." On which he put his hand into his pocket, pulled them out, and, having looked at them for a moment, exclaimed, "Oh, by my 1, they are half-pence ftill!"
FRANCIS, King of France, having been defeated in battle and taken prif oner, in the year 1525, wrote a letter to his queen, which contained only thefe few words," Madam, all is loft, except our honour."
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[CONTINUED FROM OUR LAST.]
RAVELLERS tell us of fome favage tribes in warm climates, who have no knowledge of the ufe of fire; but dread it and flee from it, in the fuppofition that it is a creature of a fpiteful nature, that will bite and deftroy them. However frange this may appear, it is not altogether improbable. If a number of children male and female fhould be left on fome warm ifland, the fpontaneous productions of whofe luxuriant foil fhould feed and fupport them, and fhould there grow up and propagate the fpecies, fecluded from the rest of mankind; in the event of fire, kindled in their fight by lightning, or, as it fometimes happens, from the intenfity of the rays of the fun, they would' gaze upon it with pleafing wonder; they would approach and touch the beautiful flame; -when the inftant pain from the burn would cause then to retreat with confiernation and difmay, Long would they remember the venomous bite of this strange ferpent; they would tell the frightful tale to their children; and feveral generations might pafs away, before any one of them would obtain any knowledge of the ule of fire, or even venture to enkindle it.
HUDSON, (NEW-YORK) TUESDAY, MAY 24, 1803.
The ancient fable of Promotheus, that generation from Adam, feveral centuries generation from Adam, feveral centuries
he ftole fire from heaven, might probably || must have paffed away before mankind at-
Though the world is almoft fix thoufand years old, every age is ftill making fome addition to the flock of human knowledge, refpecting the mechanical ules of fire.The wifeft men of antiquity, a Socrates, a Pythagoras, or even a Solomon, could no wife have imagined the astonishing effects, which are produced by a single spark of fire, in the inftances of its application to gun powder and much lefs the poffibility of diverting the courfes and fhielding men from the fatal effects of lightning; which has been evinced by the difcoveries of the American Promotheus, Doctor Franklin.
Vulcan, a deity of no in confiderable notoriety among the ancient Greeks and Romans, and who is reprefented in the pagan mythology, as labouring in fire and forging thunderbolts for Jove, obtained
The various kinds of feam-machines are alfo of modern invention. The irrefiftible force arifing from the expansion of confined air; and the power of fire to
his title to godfhip, by inftructing fome ig-produce fuch expansion, either fuddenly
Gun-powder was invented by Roger Bacon, an English Friar, in the year 1280. Sixty years after its invention, it was first suggested as useful in war, by Swartz, a munk of Colɔgne,