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READ, more than any other ticle is the staff of human life; and, thro'

the fingular goodness of providence, almoft every country and clime are capable of producing this effential fuftenance of man. Articles of luxury are the peculiar growth of fome particular climates. The grape, the nutmeg, the pine-apple, the orange, and numberlefs other delicacies, require the vivid rays of nearly a tropical fun : but fome or other of the various grains which produce bread, may be made to grow almost every where.

When countries become crowded with people, neceflity urges them to diminish. the limits of their meadows and to turn them to tillage; that fo they may raise the largeft poffible quantities of grains for bread, and of vegetables. In England, hay is comparatively but little ufed. It is accounted too dear a food for cattle.. Wheat, barley, rye and oats, are raifed in the greateft poffible quantities; the kernels whereof, allowing a portion of the coarfeft to their horfes, is ufed for the fuftenance. of man; and their ftraw, together with turnips, carots and fome other vegetables, are food for their cattle during winter.

Monitorial Department.

The country which is fertile in yielding grains for bread, is much better than that, which under a barren furface. contains mines of gold because men can live without the latter, but not without the for


To aid the cause of virtue and religion.


HE Sabbath is one of those falutary institutions, which promote "peace on earth, and good will to men." peace Befides the opportunity which this day affords to kingdom of heaven; it is a moft happy promote our fpiritual progrefs towards the

fource of moral inftruction and social refinement. Every feventh day, there is a folemn paufe from labour and amusement : out temples are opened, and truths, relative to GOD, ourselves, and our fellow-creatures, are impreffed.-Admitting that to thefe affemblies fuch difcourfes only are addreffed as the learned, or those who affect to be learned, cali plain and ordinary; ftili much inftruction is conveyed. A large Even in the cold and dreary regions of proportion of thofe, who fill our churches, Siberia in Ruffia, where peach, plumb, or have few or no other means of gaining recherry, never grow; where the apple-morals and manners of this clafs of citizens ligious or moral knowledge. Are not the tree, tho' affifted by a garden culture, can be made to produce fruit fcarcely bigger than a walnut, the fields are laden with luxuriant crops of wheat. Buck-wheat

feems to have been an indigenous plant of

that country; or in other words, it reproduces itself there and grows fpontane oufly, or without any cultivation. Oth er kinds of wheat, it is faid, reproduce themselves, or grow fpontaneously in the ifland of Sicily.

of great importance? This day affords to the weary an opportunity for cleanliness and decorum, to acquire light and information, and to contemplate their moral flate. Look into fociety; compare those places where fuch inftitutions prevail, with thofe where they are abolished, or growing behold induftry, fobriety, graceful manners, into difufe and contempts in the first; you and patriotifm; in the laft, idleness, intemperance, prodigality, and impatience of every civil and moral restraint.

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A BRIDGE (the first in this ftate) has been thrown over Connecticut River, between Montague and Greenfield. The conftruction of this fplendid piece of architecture, is new in this flate. It is a 120 feet each,built of two courfes or ftretchwooden bridge, confifting of 4 arches of arches of ers of hewn timber, 20 inches deep and 10 wide, placed one above the other fo as to ed together by large iron bolts; each arch break joints, and at fuitable distances bolthas ten courfes of thefe ftretchers, all con


nected by braces of timber: the stretchers are about 24 feet long, and all picked of natural fhape fuited to the intended curve. The whole is fupported by two abutments and three piers, all of stone, which are about 36 feet long, 25 wide, and 5 high, handTomely faced and pointed. The length of the bridge from the extremity of the abutments 620 feet, and 30 wide, the fides of which are fecured by a fubftantial and elegant railing. The plan of this bridge is confidered to be an improvement upon the very wonderful bridge built at Wittingen, in Switzerland, by Mr. Ulrich Grubenhamm, of Tuffen, who alfo built the celebrated bridge over the Rhine, at Schaffhaufen..

This fpirited enterprize, which has coft fetts Turnpike; in which cafe there will eleven thousand dollars, will have an effect on the completion of the 14th Maffachube a good road, the greater part one continued turnpike, from this town, and running nearly a western direction thro' this ftate, Niagara. and the ftate of New-York, to the falls of

The following was published in the Balance, on its first commencement in a folio form; but, as sev en or eight hundred of its present readers, were not subscribers for it at that time, there can be no impropriety in re-publishing an article which may of great public utility.



following is a cheap and easy method of building bridges over ftreams which are obftructed by ice, &c.

AFTER the abutments are built, a centre or mould fhould be formed in the fame manner, as when the arch is to be turned with ftone; cover this centre with seasoned pine boards jointed at the fides and fquared at the ends, and laid lengthwife across the ftream; nail them faft to the centre to keep them in their proper places, and pay them over with tar or pitch, to preferve the work. This being done, add as many layers as the length of the arch requires to render it ftrong, paying each one over as before, and obferving to break joints in each direction as much as poffible. Small nails fhould be used for the first and second layers, after which 10d. nails will be propThe form or curve may be varied to fuit fituation and circumftances, and it will be found upon experiment, that this bridge, though cheap and fimple, will nevertheless be fufficiently ftrong; being compofed of. advantageous way of the grain. The work, an arch of folid timber, laid in the most when finifhed, may be covered with gravel, in the maner of ftone bridges. This method is doubtlefs preferable to that of building with ftone, or even iron, as, from


Mr. Dawfon moved a refolution, that provifion ought to be made by law for ef tablishing a poft road throughout the U. States, and that the furplus of revenue arifing from the poft-office, after defraying the expences of that department, ought to be applied to the fixing and improving the poft roads of the United States.

Friday, December 24.

No bufinefs of importance was done in Congrefs this day. Mr. Van Renffelaer moved a refolution for the appointment of a Committe to bring in a bill for the erection of a monument to the memory of General Herkimer, in conformity to a refolution of Congrefs of the 4th October 1777. The refolution was ordered to lie on the table.

Both houfes adjourned till Monday


Refolved, that the committee of elections be inftructed to enquire whether John P. Van Nefs, elected and returned from the ftate of New-York to ferve in the 7th Congrefs of the United States, has not, by fince accepting a commiffion of Major in the militia of the United States in the District of Columbia, forfeited his right to a feat in this house.

At the requeft. of Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Davis, confented to let the refolution lie till to-morrow. The house then adjourned.

Be it our weekly task,

To note the passing tidings of the times.

Monday, December 27. Mr. Davis rofe and remarked that heit was perfuaded that an honourable member of that houfe, by accepting a commiffion from the prefident, in the militia of the diftrict of Columbia, had forfeited his right The Washington Academy, at Salem, to a feat in the houfe. He faid he had a in this ftate, was deftroyed by fire on the refolution to offer upon the fubject to 18th ult. All the property of those who which he had no motives but a fincere occupied the building, a well-chofen Liconviction that the office is conftitution-brary of about 200 volumes, &c. were ally incompatible with his prefent feat.-burnt with it. The gentleman alluded to is Mr. Van Nefs from New-York. Mr. Davis then moved a refolution, in fubftance as follows:


Hudson, January 11, 1803.

The Balance.

I mitted into the union as the feventeenth
ftate, under the name of " Ohio." In
addition to this we learn by the Portland
ing meafures for having that diftri&t erect-
Gazette, that the people of Maine are tak-
ed into a feparate and independent state, as
the eighteenth in the union. According
to the late cenfus, there are 150,000 in-
habitants in the diflrict.

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The public prints have announced, that the North-Western Territory is to be ad


26th ult, a fire broke out in the Old New-
4 o'clock on the morning of the
Hampfhire Bank, Portsmouth, and, be-
fore it could be extinguifhed, deftroyed a-
bout one hundred of the best buildings in
the place, amongt which were a great
number of Dry-Goods ftores, &c.-The
whole lofs is eftimated at 50,000 dollars,
about 48,000 of which were infured in
Bofton. It is conjectured that the fire was
commenced by fome infernal incendiary.
This would feem almoft incredible, was

not well known that fome of the greatest fires in America, have had the fame origin.

lately deftroyed by fire, with all its con-
An academy in Columbia (S. C.) was


On the 22d ult. the "Sons of the Pilgrims" at Bofton celebrated the 181ft anniverfary of the landing of The Fathers at Plymouth. The company confifted of 101 gentlemen (the number that arrived in the first fhips) among whom were the Licut. Governor of Maffachusetts, Gen.. Lincoln, Col. Pickering, &c. &c,-The following are among the toas drank on the occafion :

"New-England-Here may republicanifm ever be at home-Democracy an


Such a Navy as will make Peace fecure, and War glorious."


"Federal Principles-May they never have better enemies, nor worfe friends." May those who rofe to power by af ferting every thing but the truth, hear nothing elfe while they retain it."

"Such Liberty as will make government ftable, and fuch a government as will make liberty immortal.'

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"Our fifter Virginia-When fhe changes the three fifths of her Ethiopean skin, we will refpect her as the head of our white family."

"The remnant of our Military ForceMay thole who affected to dread the rule of an army, never fucceed in their scheme to rule by a mob."

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confirmed to me by a particular friend, juil "It is now univerfally believed, and is arrived from France, that he is going to take immediate poffeffion of Louifiana. Prefect; Jean Job Ayme, Commiffaire de Mons, L' Auffat, is appointed Colonial Juftice, and Gen. Victor goes out with 4000 troops.


L' Auffat had taken leave, and had an interview with Mr. Livington, our minifter, on the occafion."

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At Savannah, (Geo.) on the 16th ult. the Rev. PETER THACHER, Doctor of Divinity, and Pastor of the Church in Brattle-Street, Boston, aged 50 years.


At Easton, (Mass.) JOSIAH WINSLOW, aged 25, and- HOWARD, aged 19, were suffceated in their bed on the night of the 17th ult. by the vapour of burning charcoal.

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likewife. Lord Holland's fecond fon Charles Fox, and lord Chatham's fecond fon Willam Pitt, are now rivals and antagonists.-Fox has as great or greater parts than his father, with much better elocution, and equal power of reafoning. Mr. Pitt has not the dazzling commanding eloquence of his father, but argues much better. Perhaps there is not on record an inftance of two ftatesmen who were rivals, being fucceeded in equal rivalry by their fons-certainly not with fo many concurrent circumstances.

[London Paper.]

"MADAME," faid a Gentleman to a Lady of fashion at Brighton, on seeing the portrait of a youth who died for love of her, fufpended from her neck, "I am concerned to fee my old friend hung in chains at the place of his execution." Ibid.


IN Dr. GREGORY'S charming little work, "A Father's Legacy to his Daughter," is an obfervation well worth the prefent attention of the fashionable fair :"The finest bofom in nature (fays he) is not fo fine as that which imagination forms." It is needless to make the appli cation. Ibid.

A MAN was, a few days ago, convicted at the feffions of ftealing a rope. This feems to be an article which thieves ought to avoid fealing, as they may come honeftly by it at laft! Ibid.

IT is a curious fact that the gentleman who now acts the King upon the French tage, rofe from being afcene fhifter.



To City Subscribers, Two Dollars and fifty cents, payable in quarterly advances.

To Country Subscribers, who receive their papers at the office, Two Dollars, payable as above. To those who receive them by the mail, Two Dollars, exclusive of postage, payable in advance.

A handsome title-page, with an Index or Table of Contents, will be given with the last number of each volume.

Advertisements inserted in a conspicuous and handsome manner, in the Advertiser which accompanies, and circulates as extensively as the Balance.

Complete files of the first volume, which have been reserved in good order for binding, are for sale -Price of the volume, bound, Two Dollars and fifty cents-unbound, Two Dollars. The whole may be sent, st thed or in bundles, to any post-office in the state, for 52 cents postage; or to any post-office in the anion for 78 cents.


Warren-Surce", hudao ➡



Driginal Elays.

Hither the products of your closet-labors bring,
Enrich our columns, and instruct mankind.







No. III.



HE paffion for duelling, which, in inftances not a few, feems probably to have been firft awakened in the minds of boys by the aforementioned Chefterfieldian leffon, that they had learned at school, is afterwards cherished and confirmed by the general courfe of their reading. No books, during the laft twenty years, have been fo much in the hands of American youth of both fexes, as novels and romances.* This foup-meagre, in the prefent ftate of things, is the principal intellectual food of juvenile minds and their prepoffeffions in favour of duelling is the neceffary confequence. An extravagant love-the minds of thousands with an ambition

Among the further incentives to duelling peculiar to this country, I am conftrained to mention with pointed difapprobation the recent practice of publishing, in news-papers, the various particulars of fuch bloody affrays. It is exceedingly to be lamented, that men of high official rank, instead of fetting their faces against duelling, are fometimes feen to encourage and patronize it by their own example: which is rendered much more generally pernicious by the extenfive publicity that is commonly given it. Whenever a duel is fought by men of high rank, it is circumftantially and pompously detailed in the public papers. The whole nation is invited, as it were to behold the magnificent fpectacle, and to yield a tribute of applaufe. The politenefs, the coolness, the unfhaken intrepidity of the parties are depicted in fuch a manner as tends to fire depicted in such a manner as tends to fire

to difplay themfelves in this field of hon


adventure and a duel are the most common ingredients in thefe kinds of compofitions. The hero of the novel vindicates his miftrefs's honour; and his own title to the rank of a gentleman, by a prompt and



* It appears from a British annual Register, that novel-reading, unless sometimes to amuse a vacant hour, is despised and discarded in England, by the more intelligent part even of the female sex.Since the appearance of several elegant historians in the English language, novels have happily given place to real history, biography and travels.

dexterous ufe of his fword.
He never
fails to call out" the man that appears
defignedly to affront him; and even tho'
the author fhould interfperfe in his work
a few expreffions of cenfure on the cuf
tom of duelling, the delineation of his
principal characters, and his general scope,
tend to recommend it.

In my next, I fhall attempt to point out fome remedies to the prevailing and alarming evil, that has been under confideration.



APHORISM.-Can he love truth who can take a knave to his bosom ?—Lavater.

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HE rapid increase of this country, as well in numbers as in wealth and ftrength, is very aftonishing, and has rarely had a parrallel fince inen began to multiply upon the earth. The population of the Hebrews in the land of Egypt has been for more than three thousand years, a conflant theme of admiratiou. Within the compass of four centuries, they multiplied from frwasty five fouls to fix hundred thoufand grown men and if we compute the women and children to be in proportion to the men, as five to one, their whole number that left Egypt was three millions and fix hundred thousand.

The increase of population in this country has been fill greater than that of the Hebrews in Egypt. In lefs than two centuries, and from very fmall beginnings, we have grown to the vast number of between five and fix millions. The last ten years have increased our numbers twelve hundred thoufand. According to this ratio, that is, computing four millions (which was nearly the number of the inhabitants of this country, ten years ago,) to produce an increase of twelve hundred thoufand, in ten years, the whole number of the inhabitants of the United States, in half a century, (if my hafty computation is correct) will amount to but little fhort of twenty millions and, at the clofe of the prefent century, it will amount to between seventy and eighty millions.

Indeed it is not to be expected that the increase of population in this country will

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THE fubje&t of Louifiana continues to be more and more interesting to all claffes of American citizens. Since our laft number, it has been obferved to us that probably nothing at this time would be more gratifying to our readers than a concife history of the difcovery and fettlement or that country. We have therefore made a rapid and concife compilation for that purpose, chiefly taken from French writers. In 1512 Juan Ponce de Leon, who had acquired confiderable reputation by the conqueft el Porto Rico, fed out three hips for a voyage of difcovery. The principle motive which prompted him to this undertaking, is faid to have been the hope of difcovering a certain fountain, reported by the natives of Porto Rico to be fituated in one of the Lucayo-Iflands pof. felled of the wonderful power of rejuvenefcence. He touched at the Lucayos and Bahama Ifles, but after tafting of all the fountains within his reach, he met with none that could renew the vigour of youth. He foon after difcovered Florida, but was prevented by the natives from landing to find the object of his romantic fearch. He

returned to Porto Rico, and there died.

numerous hardships and difficulties, with
his army arrived at the fea in 1544.

adventurers learned from the natives, that there was a great river to the west, called filippi, and which, wherever it might empby fome Michaffipt, and by others Mifty itfelf, did not run to the north or to the eaft. From this information it was concluded that this river either flowed fouth and emptied itself into the Gulf of Mexico, or, taking a western direction was dischar

of the remarkable adventures and extenfive
An obfcure and unfatisfactory account
difcoveries of Ferdinand de Soto, may be
found in a Hiftory of Florida, compiled by
William Roberts, or in the Spanish of
Garclaffo dele Vega. This proved a bar-
ren enterprife to the Spaniards, who ac-
quired by it no more than the empty fameged into the South Sea.
of being the firft difcoverers of the river
Miffiffippi. Though extending their dif
coveries & conquefts on the neighbouring
coafts, which are wafhed by the Mexican
fea, yet they did not even approach the
mouth of that mighty river, or purfue the
path opened by the adventurous fpirit" of

De Soto.

In 1539, Ferdinand de Soto, who had ferved under Pizarro, and had been invefted with the government of Cuba, failed from the Havanna with a confiderable force, and landing on the coaft of Florida, traverfed moft of the rivers which fall into the Gulf of Mexico. In 1541, he croffed the Miffiffippi river, and proceeded weft. ward: after various difcoveries he died in 1542, leaving the command to Lewis Mafcofo. This officer attempted to travel by land, fouthweft to Mexico, but meeting many obftacles relinquifhed the enterprize. He came at length to one of the great rivers, difcovered by De Soto, and after

Conceiving the advantages that might refult from the navigation of this river, M. Talon, determined before his return to France, to afcertain a point of fo much importance. He accordingly dispatched Father Marquetta, a jefuit, who had trav elled as a miffionary through Canada, and a citizen of Quebec named Jolyet, on this enterprize.

From the fouth-weft bay of lake Mich

It was in the reign of Lewis 14th, fo fertile in great men and magnificent ichemes of ambition, and under the direc-igan they failed up the river Des Ranards, tion of that able minifter of the marine, almoft to its fource, then quitting this Colbert, that a new activity was given to river, after fome days march, they embarthe commerce and naval enterprize of ked on the river Ouisconfing, and continFrance. Had the plans formed during the uing their courfe weft, they found themreign of that monarch and which were felves on the 17th June 1673, entering the Miffiffippi, in about 42 2 degrees purfued by his fucceffors been as fortunate as they were great and fplendid, France north latitude. Yielding to the current, would, at this time, have been in a conthey paffed down this great river to the dition to control the deftiny of the two. 33d degree of latitude, the country of the Akanfas, but finding their provifions fail, hemifpheres. and their numbers to few to encounter the perils of unknown regions, they refolved to return, not however without having been firft fatisfied that the river emptied itfelf into the Gulf of Mexico-Father Mar

No nation has equalled her in the wifdom of her fyftem of colonization. Her min. ifters, aided by the powerful and fagacious fociety of Jefuits, found no difficulty in uniting the moft diftant and favage nations in friendly intercourfe with her tiers,quette ftayed among the Miamis, and Joland the active zeal of the miffionary, serv. yet returned to Quebec. ed to rivet the chains of fubje&tion which were prepared to bind all the wandering tribes of North America, to the goveinment of France.

Thefe fchemes are not forgotten, and a man is now in the place of the Bourbons, who, if he had equal refources, would be capable of executing plans, of equal magnitude and importance.

The fpirit of colonization, which had been for many years relaxed, began to revive at the clofe of the 16th century. From 1598 to 1670, various voyages were profecuted to that part of North America now called Nova Scotia, and the fettlements of Acadia and Quebec were made, which laid the foundation of the fubfequent power of the French in Canada. The power of the French in Canada. The country was called New. France and a new commercial company was formed, under the direction of the Cardinal de Richlieu and others, for carrying on the trade and managing its internal concerns.

New-France had been increafing in population and ftrength for many years, when in 1670, under the goverment of the Count de Frontenac, and the intendance of M. Talon, fome Frenchmen undertook to make difcoveries to the weftward. Thefe

The death of the former in 1675, and the departure of M. Talon for France, prevented any further profecution of the difcovery for a time.

Robert Cavelier Sieur de la Salle educated in the College of the Jefuits, was a man of bold and enterprifing character. He conceived the project of penetrating to Japan or China by a north or wefterly courfe ftom Canada, and though deftitute of all the means requifite for fo great an undertaking, his mind was deeply occupied with this defign, when the return of Jolyet to Montreal with the account of the difcovery of the Mifliflippi, engaged his attention. He then went to France where he was received with great favour by the chief perfons of the Court, who patronised his fcheme.-On his return to Quebec, he began his voyage, with Chevalier de Tonti, to whom he confided the care of erecting a fort at Niagara, which he had marked out.

In 1682 he defcended the river Illinois, and in February of the fame year entered the Miffiflippi, and arrived at its mouth on the 9th of April.

Having taken poffeffion, in the name of Louis 14th, of this important territory, and

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