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The following is part of the address of the Hon. John Rutledge, of South-Carolina, to his constituents, on resigning his seat in Congress. It will be read with pleasure and profit.


American commerce made it difficult to
pronounce which of them was most inimi-
cal to America, or with which fhe fhould
be first compelled to wage war the chief
difference between them confifted in this,
that the French fuperadded infult to inju-ities to government and to commerce, be-
fore unexperienced, were all refifted.

debts of the ftates, incurred in the general
defence, which faved feveral of them from
bankruptcy; the funding the national debt,
which revived public credit; the e@ablifh-
ment of a national bank, which gave facil-


During the whole courfe of things thus fummarily brought to your recollection, there exifted a marked oppofition to every important meafure which has been stated. The adoption of the federal conftitution was refifted with a violence and to a degree which endangered it. Many vifionary men, who acknowledged the imbecility of the old confederation, were yet affaid to truft any government with the powers delegated by the new conftitution. In general, however, the fma'l ftates had the dif cernment to perceive that it was deeply their intereft to adopt the conftitution; they were weak without it: they would be ftrong with it. Of this they were fenfible, and accepted the inftrument by great majorities in their ftate conventions. The cafe was far different in the great flates, the pride of ftate fovereignty would be humbled by a fuperintending and controling general government. Nor could they brook the equal reprefentation in the Senate of the United States, which made Delaware as important as Virginia, New-Jersey as Pennfylvania, Connecticut as New-York. Many of the eminent men who guided the councils of the great flates were galled at the reduction of their authority, and exci-fairs, and were in unifon with the tone ted a fierce oppofition to the adoption of the inftrument which was to produce thefe effects; nor was it adopted in Virginia, New-York, and Pennfylvania without mighty ftruggles, and by very fmall majorities in the two former. The good which has been obtained by the adoption, is on record. The evils avoided are incalculable.

When the French revolution broke out, and a general war, in Europe, compelled the American Government to decide what conduct it would purfue, Prefident WASHINGTON, whofe penetrating judgment, quickly difcerned the true path of found policy, iffued his proclamation of neutrality, recalling the minds of the citizens to a due attention of the duties of a fair neutrality. This wife measure firmly adhered to, preferved our nation, from rafhly engaging in the war.-No man of fenfe will now deny this. Yet at that time, it was reprehended in the wildeft terms of reproach-an affociation with the deftinies of France was the great object of democratic defires-and the government was flandered, and almost shaken, for daring to negotiate with Great Britain, and to terminate the differences with that nation by treaty. In the progrefs of the war, the French, irritated at the refufal of America to make a common cause with them, committed the moft flagrant violations of treaty, fpoiled our commerce, and rejected with fcorn the folemn embaffies fent to conciliate them. When every effort at negociation failed, and the United States had almost exhaufted the cup of humiliation to the dregs, the national fpirit rofe, and loudly demanded meafures of naval and military preparation, to place the country in a pofture of defence, and to vindicate the national honor and character-The call was obeyed, and Congrefs took measures to equip a navy, to form a provifional army, to fortify the defencelefs leaports, and to purchale arms and ammunition, and they imposed taxes neceffary to support thefe expenditures. They alfo paffed acts by which dangerous frangers lurking in the bofom of the community might be removed; and for the punifliment of feditious perfons.-Thefe acts grew out of the then ffate of public af

This ftate of things demanded the exercife of the greatest caution mixed with firmnefs, by the American government. The difficulties and the varied hoftile appearan ces which threatened our peace; the struggles and the ultimate fuccefs which crowned the labors of the adminiftration of Prefidents WASHINGTON and ADAMS, are known and felt by us all. Our nation alone, of all civilized nations, connected with France and Great Britain by commercial ties, efcaped the ftorm; and by the wif dom of the government enjoyed in troubled

the immenfe advantage of a great neutral commerce, which enriched our people, and extended the national refour


THE termination of the war with GreatBritain left thefe United States in an exhaufted condition. Great debts had been contracted by Congrefs, and by the feveral ftates, and there exifted no means of paying or providing for them; public credit was totally at an end. Individuals were equally exhausted, and equally deftitute of credit. The States without an efficient head, crumbling in their weakness, and urged by the wants and diftreffes of their cit-times, izens, reforted to inftalment and tender laws, to paper money, and other expedients, which aggravated the evils under which they laboured. The moft gloomy apprehenfions began to be entertained for the fate of the country. The eminent men who had planned and effected the revolution were alarmed at this apparent iffue of their toils and fufferings; they felt that there exifted an imperious neceffity to provide a remedy for thefe evils. A convention of the States was called; it was filled with great and virtuous men. They foon difcovered that a national head was wanting; and that nothing fhort of the formation of an efficient general government, could ref tore the country to a found ftate. They therefore formed a conftitution or frame of government, on new principles, combining the advantages of a confederated republic with thofe of a national government. It was adopted in the State Conventions, and went into operation, in 1789, under Prefident WASHINGTON. The firft care of the new government was to provide for the liquidation of the public debt, and the punc tual payment of the intereft of it; to ref tore public credit, and to fecure the found adminiftration of juftice. The fuccefs of the measures then deviled and fince purfu. ed, has been complete; the nation advanced with gigantic fteps from poverty, dif trefs, weakness, and degradation, to wealth, character, and greatnefs. In the mean time a war broke out in Europe. ur precedented in its nature, extent and effects. It was the intereft of the American nation, and the duty of its government, to avoid being drawn into the war, and to enjoy the advantages of its neutral pofition. France defired and Great Britain apprehended that the United States would become a party in the war; and no intrigues were fpared by the former to feduce or to force them into it. Indeed both the belligerents abused their rights and their power, and the enor mous fpoliations committed by both on the

Irritated by defeat, thofe who had oppofed the acceptance of the conftitution, aided by fome others, who, friendly in the firft inftance to that inftrument, had been difappointed in their perfonal expectations, formed a fyftematic oppofition to the adminiftration of it. The affumption of the

of the public mind. The immortal WASHINGTON, at that time retired to Mount Vernon, reflected on thefe meafures with a heart ever alive to the public welfare, and highly approved them, as appears by his letter to Prefident ADAMS, of July 1798. Yet thofe who had uncealingly difapproved every measure of the government, reprobated them as unneceffary, prodigal, and even dangerous to the public liberty.

An oppofition fo fleady, organized, active and virulent could not be withflood. It is wonderful that the federal adminiftration flood its ground fo long as it did.


Nothing but the wifdom of its meafu res, its caution and its vigilance, maintained it. All these ultimately were unavailing againft the continual mifrepresentations and flanders which affailed it. The oppofition by flimulating difcontents, on the impofition of the new taxes rendered neceffary by the circumstances of the times; by infufing diftruft into the minds of the people; and by a thousand arts practifed on their credulity, contrived at length to render the adminiftration unpopular-at the election. of Prefident and Vice-Prefident the fedéral candidates were rejected, and the democratic candidates were elected; a majority was alfo obtained in the houfe of reprefentatives of the United States. It happened by a peculiar co-incidence, that this change of government took place a fhort time pre

vious to the termination of the war in Eu

rope. The federalifts, whofe wifdom hadding age or nation.
at one period faved the United States from
rafhly plunging into that war, were reject-
ed-the democrats, whofe counfel would
have produced that effect, were elevated
to power.

It is of prime importance to remark that the individuals who were chiefly oppofed to the adoption of the conftitution, or dif fatisfied with it, were the perfons generally who have alfo been oppofed to ali great measures, which have been found in practice to be productive of advantages to the United States; and they have bean (with fome exceptions) the perfons whofe activity and violence, contributed chiefly to the change of adminitation and that thofe men now fill the great flations in the general government. It is alfo worthy of

remark that the ableft and most influential men of this defcription, are from the great flates which fo reluctantly came into the union under the conflitution. I mean, Virginia, North-Carolina, Peanfylvania,

It found the difputes with Spain, terminated by the able negociations of Major Pinckney; by which the right to the free navigation of the Miffiflippi was fecured and ftrengthened.

On the acceffion of the prefent adminiftration in March, 1801, it found the nation at peace, but prepared for war.

It found the Indian tribes on our frontiers repreffed and quieted.

It found a small army organifed, and forming the germ of any force which the public exigencies might require.

It found a navy created, which had rendered fubftantial service to the nation.

It found the national debt provided for, and in part reduced.

It found the treafury full, and the public credit high.

It found the differences which had fifted with Great-Britain amicably adjuft. ed, and the northern pofts furrendered up.

It found a people increafing in popula. tion, and a country advancing in profperity, in a manner unexampled in any prece

Such is the country, and fuch is the ftate of things, which the federal adminiftration left to their fucceffois. It is the first with of my heart, and the most ardent prayer of my mind that the democratic alminiftration may fo adminifter this government, that they may deliver to their fucceffors, to fair a country in fuch high profperity.

The adminiflration is almoft avowedly a party government. None but thofe of the dominant fect are admitted to any fhare in public affairs. To be of that fect is the only road to employment and truff, however unworthy the character, or inferior the talents of the claimants. On the other hand, thofe who are out of the pale of that fect, however elevated by character and by fervices, are rigorously excluded from admiflion to fub-the public employ ments. Thus is purfaed a policy calculated to keep alive party fpirit and violent animofities in the community whilft every liberal and concilia

tory fentiment is forgotten. The conftitu. tion itfelf is threatened with great altera. tions, tending to reftrict the powers of the national government, at the expenfe of the fmaller, and for the aggrandifement of the larger tites.

Waat may be the iffue of thefe measures, is not, perpaps, in human wisdom to forefee. Nor is it my defire to alarm your minds with the apprehenfions which difqui

et mine.

Time alone will decide: But it seems to be fettled, that if the fame end is to be obtained, it fhall be by far different means. Already great changes have been made, and more are contemplated. Already the meatures calculated to place the country in a refpectable ftate of preparation to repel hoftility from any quarter, are reversed. The germs of the final army and navy created by their predeceffors, are mutilated. The foundations laid for fecuring a revenue above the reach of cafualities, are broken up. A death blow has the Judiciary of the United States, which been given to the boafted independence of all parties were bound by the ftrongeft ob

and New-York. There are exceptions

doubtless to thefe cafes, but they are not very numerous. How wifely the people

ing the government out of the hands of those who formed it, and nurfed it, and maintained it in its conftitutional energy, in order to place it in the hands of thofe who were opposed to its adoption, and who refitted all the meafures calculated to give it full and free operation, is not for an individual to decide. I fubmit to the will of my country, and none will rejoice more cordially in its profperity under any administration.

of the United States have acted in thus tak-ligations of patriotifm and duty to have 1 That our apprehenfions may be diffipatapproached with awe, and to have treat. ed with veneration, as the only fafe afyl-ed, that our fondeft hopes of the public, um for the citizens in the violent contenwelfare may be realized, and that you, my tions of party, to which republics are pe.friends, may partake largely of the public culiarly expofed. felicity, is the fincere prayer of your o bliged friend, and obedient fervant.



An unavailing refiftance has been made by the members of Congrefs who had long been accuftomod to act on the principles which guided the illustrious ftatesmen who formed the conftitution, and adminiftered it for twelve years, with fo much glory and advantage to the nation. But every effort which has been made, has been treate with fcorn, or rejected with contempt. Nor do I fee any profpe&t that any material change will take place, during the prefent adminiflration. Under thefe circumftances, I do not feel it incumbent on me to rem in a reluctant witnefs of the fteps by which the narrow views of a party adminif tration may render the government imbe cile at home and degraded broad.

Permit me, however, before I take my leave of you, to advise you, as you value the welfare of your country and the felicity of your own families, to cherish your attachment to the Conftitution, as the grand cement which binds together these Unite! Staes, and which alone can preferve them from ruin, though all the troubles which foreign hoftility, or domeftic rage and tol iy, may bring upon them. Let the Conftitution and the Union be the great objects of our affections and of our efforts, under all the changes of party, and under the most adverfe circumstances, and we thall ftill be a great, profperous and bapoy people, in fpite of the mifconduct of temporary adminiftrations, the malice of party fpirit, and the bold interpofition of foreig intrigues or arms.


On the 21ft of February, Col. Defpard with fix of his accomplices were exceut ed in London for High Trealon. 1 hey were hung and beheaded, and their heads exhibited to the populace. Three other men concerned in the confpiracy have re ceived a refpite from the king.

Be it our weekly task, To note the passing tidings of the times..


Hudson, April 12, 1803.


The Spanish government has given permiffion for the depofit of provifions in New-Orleans, on paying 6 per cent. duty. This is very kind-fince it is exprefsly ftipulated in our treaty with Spain that the citizens of the United States fhall be mitted to depofit their merchandizes and effects in the port of New-Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the flores.-Perhaps another two millions of fecret fervice money, properly applied, may reftore to us a right, which has been wrefted from us in direct violation of a folemn treaty.


Laft evening (April 4) about forty of the prifoners confined in the State Prifon rofe on the keepers, fecured them, and made their way into the yard, where they collected fome boards, and attempted by placing them against the wall, to climb up and make their efcape; but the centry ob ferved them in time to give the alarm; the bell was rung, the guards affembled, and the prifoners perfifting in their attempt, were fired upon. Several were wounded. One man not concerned in the riot, but drawn by curiofity to a window, was killed on the ipot; and one of the rioters, has fince died of his wounds. It is faid that not more than fix or eight were originally concerned in the plan, who induced the others to join them when it was ripe for execution. Several, however, refufed, and were obliged to defend themselves with their knives from being dragged in to become parties. Ore of the rioters threatened the Keeper's life, but the others interfered in his behalf, and declared no keeper fhould be the leaft injured, their only object being to escape, and not to commit violence on any one.

[Evening Poft.].

The Evening Poft of the 6th inft, contains a particular account of the above affair, furnished by Mr. Pray, the keeper. It mentions the additional circumstance, that feveral beds were fet on fire by the rioters, for the purpose of deftroying the prifon; but they were extinguished by the orderly prifoners.


On Tuesday laft, refulted more favorably to federalifm, than the most fanguine had expected. The increase of federal votes, fince last year, has been confiderable. Mr. GELSTON obtained the fuperviforfhip, laft year, by a majority of only 16 votes, if we mistake not. Confiderable exertions were made on both fides, as the democrats had previously declared in the Bee, that they intended to try their ftrength at the city election, preparatory to the county election. In trying their ftrength they have expofed their weaknefs; while the federal citizens have" convinced the people of the neighboring towns, by an encreafed and refpectable majority, that Hudson is firm in federalism, notwithstanding all the arts of fham-patriots and political mountebanks."

Number of Votes taken 419.

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Federalism continues frong in Maffachusetts. From the returns already received there appears to be a great increase of votes for Gov. Strong. Mr Gerry is, as ufual, his antagonist. The editor of the Egis thus honefly, and without any democratic quibbling, fpeaks of the event :-" The Republicans of Maffachusetts have again been fairly weighed in the balance, and found wanting.-In the prefent election, as in every preceding effort, they have been completely diffanced." &c.

By the lateft returns from N. Hampfhire, we find that Gov. Gilman has a majority over Mr. Langdon of 3431 votes. In the fame towns laft year his majority was much lefs.

The Wreath.



POPULARITY, thou giddy thing!
What grace or profit dost thou bring?
Thou art not honest, thou art not fame;
I cannot call thee by a worthy name.

To say I hate thee were not true;
Contempt is properly thy due;

I cannot love thee and despise thee too.
Thou art no patriot, but the veriest cheat
That ever traffick'd in deceit ;
A state empiric, bellowing loud

Freedom and phrenzy to the mobbing crowd ;
And what car'st thou, if thou can't raise
Illuminations and huzzas

Tho' half the city sunk in one bright blaze!

A patriot no; for thou dost hold in hate
The very peace and welfare of the state;
When anarchy assaults the Sovereign's throne,
Then is thy day, the night thy own;
Then is the triumph, when the foe
Levels some dark insidious blow,
Or strong rebellion lays thy country low.

Thou can'st affect humility, to hide

Some deep device of monstrous pride; Conscience and charity pretend, For compassing some private end; And in a canting conventicle note

Long scripture passages canst quote When persecution rankles in thy throat.

Thou hast no sense of nature at thy heart, No ear for science, and no eye for art, Yet confidently dost thou decide at once

This man a wit, and that a dunce; And (strange to tell) howe'er unjust, We take thy dictates upon trust, For if the world will be deceiv'd, it must.

In truth and justice thou hast no delight, Virtue thou dost not know by sight; But, as the chymist by his skill,

From dross and dregs a spirit can distill,

So from the prisons, or the stews, Bullies, blasphemers, cheats, or jews Shall turn to heroes, if they serve thy views.

Thou dost but make a ladder of the mob,
Whereby to climb into some courtly job,

There safe reposing, warm and snug,
Thou answer'st with a patient shrug
Miscreants, begone; who cares for you,
Ye base born brawling, clamozous crew?
You've serv'd my turn, and, vagabonds, adieu.


The fchool of Medicine at Paris has publifhed, in its tranfa&tions, fome interefting obfervations of citizen DelerauDefontaines, phyfician at St. German, on a living infect which was found in the fubftance of the liver of a man who died at the age of thirty three, of a diforder in the flomach and bowels. It is a worm belonging to a genus hitherto unknown it is about the fize of a full grown filkworm, and of a brownish red. The body moves by means of rings, regularly articulated, each articulation being marked with a white point furmounted by a hair of a firm texture, and extremely acute. The head of the infect is armed with a fpecies of horn, and the lower extremity of the body is terminated in a manner fimilar to that of a lobfter.

SUCH is the remarkable economy of Providence, that the moft powerful antidotes are always found in the neighbourhood of the most defperate poifons.

Father Du Tetre tells us, (as St. Pierre writes,) that he one day found, in the Inland of Guadaloupe, at the foot of a tree, a creeping plant, the ftem of which presents the figure of a ferpent; around which there was a number of ferpents lying dead. He communicated this difcovery to a med ical man, who by means of it performed many wonderful cures, by employing it in the cafes of perfons bitten by thofe dangerous reptiles. This plant grows in the Eaft Indies, and is called fnake-wood."


AMONG the ancient Affyrians, it was, it is faid, a ufual cuftom to affemble together every year, all the girls who were marriageable; when the public cryer put them up to fale, one after another. The moft amiable and attracting were first fet up at public vendue, and were bought off by the rich at a high price; and the money that accrued from the fales was divided among the girls whofe perfons were dif agreeable; and men in deftitute circumflances, or poffeffing but fmall property, took the last mentioned clafs of girls, together with their portions.

Such is the prevailing avarice of the prefent day, that an attempt to promote matrimony by reviving this old Affyrian cuftom would prove ineffectual; for it is prefumed that the rich would fooner take the ugly girls with fortunes, than to give money for fuch as are amiable.

A GENTLEMAN having appointed to meet his friend on particular bufinefs, went to the house and knocked at the door,

which was opened by a fervant girl-He informed her he wanted her mafter. "He is gone out Sir," fays the girl. "Then your mistress will do," faid the gentleman, "She," faid the girl," is gone out too.” "My bufinefs is of confequence," returned he, " is your mafter's fon at home?" -"No, Sir," returned the girl, "he is gone out."-"That's unlucky indeed," replied he, "but perhaps it may not be long before they return; I will step in and fit by the fire."-" Oh, Sir," faid the girl, "the fire is gone out too." Upon which the gentleman bade her inform her mafter that," he did not expect to be received fo coolly."

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No. III.





NE of the brilliant gems in your character is a fingular verfatility of mind, bending with peculiar eafe and felicity to the changes of times and circumflances and to the interefts of party. A fhort time only has elapfed fince you were a zealous and a doughty champion for the uncontrouled freedom of the prefs.When Washington was accufed of embezzling the public money, and was denounced as the fource of the misfortunes of our country;" as the man who had "given currency to political iniquity and had legalifed corruption ;" who had


cankered the principles of republicanifm in an enlightened people, and carried his defigns, against the public liberty fo far as to put in jeopardy its very existence :" When Adams was called a hoary headed traitor," and was charged with the murder of Jonathan Robbins: When Jay, than whom a purer patriot does not live, was overwhelmed with torrents of the moft malignant flander, and was denounced as a mifcreant who had facrificed the interefts of his country for British gold: When Pickering was charged of robbing the pub-fo lic treafury of millions of dollars: When Wolcott was accufed of burning the war office to hide the villainy of the officers:When almost every federal man, whofe flation, talents and luftre of character, rendered him confpicuous, was affailed with


the most venomous calumnies from the
preffes of hireling foreigners;—your
zeal against the abufe of public men and
measures was dormant. Who ever heard
you exclaim that the preffes were, at those
periods, licentious? Did they not receive
your warm approbation and applaufe ?—
Did you not fnuff the fcent of murdered
reputations, with ineffable delight ?- ?———
The prefs was then, in your opinion, the

bulwark of our national freedom: it was
the holy ark, which you deemed too fa-
cred to be touched. But mark your boaft-pafs.
ed confiftency! The federal adminiftra-
tion has been demolished by the batteries.
of infernal calumny; Mr. Jefferson has
fuccceded to the chair of ftate; and him
you would inveft with the fame privileges
of facred inviolability which are allowed
to the monarch of Great-Britain. Truth
itfelf, uttered against an elective officer,
the executive of this republican nation, is,
forfooth a libel nay, it has been confi.
dently and loudly afferted that "the great-
er the truth, the greater is the libel."-
From the dark tomb of antiquity has late-
ly emerged the long exploded monkish
doctrine of paeve obedience: an attempt
is making to deify this haggard fpectre ;
and you yourself (a hater of priests) are
offering to minifter, as high priest, be-
fore her altar.


Your political machine of European conftruction has, however, been put in furions a motion that it has already recoiled forceably upon the hand that held it ;

"As some musquets so contrive it, As oft to miss the mark they drive at, And though well aim'd at duck or plover, Bear wide and kick their owners over."

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Some men have been able to crush the liberties of a nation at a fingle blow.-"When Bonaparte, fays D'Ivernois, had fuppreffed eighty newspapers, he affirmed that now the liberty of the prefs had fucceeded to its licentioufnefs." Perhaps you also may have cherished the idea that the true liberty of the prefs, in this country, is the liberty of printing and publifhing exclufively on your own fide yet it would require confiderable art and management for you to bring matters to this You have not the arm of a Bonaparte; and fhould therefore have remembered the advice of Voltaire, "Strike, but hide your hand." But, forgetting to temper your zeal, you have alarmed the public without effecting your purpose.The principle that you have aimed to eltablifh would, if eftablifhed, be a deathblow to public liberty; it would be more calamitous to this nation than an earthquake that should fwallow up towns and cities. Was it your averfion to George the third that caufed you to reject the modern cuftom and ufage of Britain, in cafes of libels, and to explore the annals of antiquity? Or do you not well know that any civil officer who fhould have urged in England, ten years ago, the fame flavifh principle which you have lately urged in this republican country, would have been overwhelmed with public indignation ?-Hume has with great propriety remarked, "The English ought to be cautious of appealing to the practice of their ancestors, or regarding the maxims of uncultivated ages as certain rules for their prefent conduct." And ftill more dangerous, and infinitely more ab furd it is for our nation to recur to the an

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