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Park :—the Bayaderes:–Entrance to the London Cemetery, Highgate; and also its Interior, showing the Catacombs :Wharncliffe Viaduct :—and lastly, the large folding-plate representing the Inthronization of our Virgin Queen VICTORIA ; with all the Coronation Regalia, &c. &c. Among the Topographical Delineations, are :—the Font in West Drayton Church :—Canterbury Castle :-Bolton Abbey :-Gateway, West Drayton :

-Romsey Church :the Grand Entrance to the Railway Station at Liverpool, &c. &c.

The Poetical Department is enriched with effusions of no ordinary merit, many of them being the productions of some of our fair Correspondents.

The literature of the volume will be found to comprise sélections from some of the most interesting modern Travels ; together with original Contributions to Natural History; and Anecdotes of:emment Persons, translated from foreign works : the Talës” of Fiction are also worthy of mention; as are the mảny piquant selections from the Public Journals ; articles on the Dramą; the Fine Arts, &c. &c.

To conclude :—we invite a continuance of the patronage of the Public, and the favours of our Correspondents; and the Editor, while he continues to be honoured with such support, feels assured his efforts will meet with renewed

success.

DECEMBER 24, 1338.

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS

ADOLPHUS FREDERICK,

DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, EARL OP TIPPERARY, AND BARON OF CULLODEN ; K.G.; G.C.B.; GRAND Master, AND FIRST PRINCIPAL KNIGHT GRAND CROSS OF THE ORDER OF ST. MICHAEL AND St. George; AND KNIGHT OF THE PRUSSIAN ORDER OF THE Black Eagle ; FieldMARSHAL IN THE ARMY; COLONEL OF THE COLDSTREAM GUARDS ; COLONEL-INCHIEF Of The 60th Foot; COMMISSIONER OF THE ROYAL MILITARY COLLEGE AND ROYAL MILITARY Asylum; CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS,

&c. &c. &c.

Semper rectus, semper idem.

RINCE ADOLPHUS FREDERICK, the seventh son of George the Third, (by wbom he was much beloved,) was born on the 24th February, 1774.' At an early age he was designed for the army, and received his education at the University of Gottingen, with his two brothers, Ernest and Augustus : each being accompanied by a governor, a preceptor, and a gentleman. They were lodged in one house, and had their table fixed at six hundred crowns a-week, including two grand institution-dinners, to which the professors and some students were invited. They were taught German by Professor Meyer; Latin by Heyne; religion by Less, ecclesiastical coun sellor, and morality by Counsellor Feder; for which duties, each received an appointment of one thousand crowns per annum. Having completed his military studies, his Royal Highness had his first commission as ensign at the age of sixteen; and being a master of the German language, after a stay at Gottingen for three years, he visited the court of Prussia, and returned to England in 1793, when he joined the British

forces before Dunkirk, and shortly afterwards returned to England, wearing a coat that exhibited several sabre marks, and a helmet, through which he had been wounded in the eye. In 1794, he attained the rank of colonel; and in the following year was created Duke of Cambridge, and Baron Culloden in Great Britain, and Earl of Tipperary in Ireland; when Parliament granted him a yearly allowance of £12,000, which was subsequently raised to £27,000 per annum. The two parties of Pitt and Fox equally courted him; Mr. Pitt's reserve and austerity disgusted him, and Fox he could not join without displeasing his father, with whom, as we have said, he always was, from his correct conduct, a great favourite ; when Mr. Burke published his celebrated Reflections, he joined the administration.

In 1803, he was placed at the head of an army of 14,000 men, destined for the defence of Hanover; but, finding on his arrival in the Electorate, that its inhabitants evinced but little inclination to aid him, he solicited his recall, having previously published a manifesto to the Hanoverians, calling them to rise in a body, but without effect. He then returned to England, leaving the Hanoverian army under

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the command of General Walmoden, who was soon obliged to capitulate. On bis return, he took bis seat in the House of Peers, and spoke often against the consnlar government of France. On the raising the German Legion, his Higbness was appointed to command it, and was also made Colonel of the Second, or Coldstream regiment of Foot Guards.

The Duke gradually rose to the rank of Field-Marshal; and on the restoration of Hanover, was appointed its Governor-general, which important trust he fulfilled highly to the satisfaction of the Hanoverians, and the King; but the desire for a constitutional government, and loud complaints of the taxation in that country, had now become very apparent; and in the commencement of the year 1831, the Hanoverians followed the Belgian example in getting rid of their burdens. The district of Hartz was in a disturbed state for some time. The disorder was first openly manifested at Gottingen; and on the occasion of the tax on slaughtered cattle being demanded of a citizen, who refused to pay it, a company of infantry was ordered to march to Gottingen.

The first act of insubordination was performed by Doctors Eggeling and Seidinsticker, who, at the head of a party of followers, marched to the Townball, and demanded of the Senate the dismissal of an obnoxious commissary of police, who had rendered himself very unpopular. This demand was no sooner granted, than the malcontentents, emboldened, perhaps, by the disagreeable commissary's discharge, proceeded to organize a burgherguard to take possession of the gates of the town, and lastly of the government, substituting for the ancient Senate, a Communal Council of their own number. This burgher-guard consisted of two thousand inhabitants, and five hundred students. All the people wore tri-coloured cockades-lilac, green, and red; and the two doctors determined to lay before the king the grievances of the country, and the necessity of convoking an assembly of the States, the members of which were to be freely chosen from among all classes of the people. It is impossible to enlogize the conduct of his Royal Highness too much on this trying occasion; he soon suppressed the threatened insurrection, by the mildest but most decisive measures; assuring the people their desire for a constitutional government should be laid before the king; and so prompt was his Royal Highness in fultilling his promise, that towards the latter end of the same month, he, in the name of the king, issued two proclamations to the people of Gottingen and the students, conceived in a spirit of much moderation and good sense; but the course of the public schools were siispended; and the Hanoverian students ordered, and the foreign students requested, to go home until the colleges were again opened. In this procla. mation the numerous kindnesses of the king to the city were forcibly, but not ostentatiously, set forth ; and the absurdity, as well as the ingratitude, of the revolt was demonstrated. The grievances of the people the Prince declares himself ready to investigate and redress. In a short time the unhappy discontents were fortunately appeased, after much contention among the democratic party and the aristocracy. It has indeed been well observed, one asserts that the democratic party are by nature, or inherently, worse or more depraved than the aristocratic, he is prejudiced on the side of a constitutional monarchy; if he maintains that the aristocracy, or its partisans, are more selfish and corrupt than the democracy, he is prepossessed in favour of republican institutions. The true and rational opinion is, that both parties are composed of men, and embrace the usual proportion of the virtues, vices, corruptions, and excellencies of our nature. The vehement declaimers who maintai, on the one hand, that the higher ranks are horse-leeches who feed on the blood of the people, and defend abuses because they are to profit by them; or represent the lower orders, on the other, as a race of vulgar brutes, who are utterly incapable of taking any beneficial interest in public affairs, and aim only at bloodshed, confusion, and revolution, in order that they may enrich themselves the general scramble, are mere party men, whose opinions are contradicted alike by principle and experience, and unworthy to direct the thoughts of the rational portion of mankind. In every aristocratic society there are doubtless many corrupt and selfish individuals, and num

“ If any

MEMOIR OF THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE.

vii bers who value institutions only as they conduce to their personal advantage ; but there are also many great and good men, who are animated by a sincere desire for the public good, and adorn their elevated stations by the purity of their virtues, and the lustre of their talents. In every democratic society there are unquestionably many violent, rapacious, and egotistical leaders, and multitudes who blindly follow their dictates, or indifferent to, if they did perceive, the dangers with which such conduct is attended; but there are also inany generous and ardent spirits, who have, from sincere conviction, embraced the popular side, and are ready to submit to any privation in the prosecution of what they deem the general welfare.

But all this, notwithstanding, nothing is more certain, or more andeniably established by experience, than that in every old society, democratic institutions are attended with the utmost danger, and that the evils they ensure are of so acute and overwhelming a kind, as invariably to lead in a few years to the overthrow of so monstrous a regime, and the rule of force, either by the sway of patronage and corruption, or the bloody hand of arbitrary power."

In March, 1831, his Majesty, King William, appointed his brother, the Duke of Cambridge, Viceroy of Hanover, he not having been officially acknowledged Viceroy since the death of George IV. The Prince immediately published a proclamation, promising to listen to and relieve all the just complaints of the people over whom he presided. In fact, nothing could exceed the regard the people had for the Duke, finding him at all times tenacious of his honour; this being his never-ceasing study; for, when a man is prepossessed with a high notion of his rank and character, he will naturally endeavour to act up to it, and will scorn to do a base or vicious action, which might sink him below that figure which he makes in his own imagination.

A royal decree, dated Windsor Castle, May 11, 1832, declared, that bis Majesty, as King of Hanover, had a right to make laws for the regulation of that kingdom, independent of the sanction of the States, and declaring also, that the States were to be composed of two Chambers, and their proceedings to be published. Many of the officers of state to be accessible to the nobility only; and all officers to be subject to removal by government: on this decree was based the Constitution of 1833.

When it was proposed to grant his Royal Highness the allowance of £12,000 a-year, George III., as a proof of his worthiness, said, in speaking of him, “ that he had not committed his first fault!" and the whole tenour of bis conduct verifies the truth of his royal father's assertion; for, we think it impossible a more correct, conscientioris man can exist, than his Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge-semper rectus, semper idem.

His Royal Highness was married at Cassel, on the 7th of May, 1818, to Her Serene Highness Princess Augusta-Wilhelmina-Louisa, third daughter of the Landgrave Frederick of Hesse Cassel; she was born on the 25th of July, 1797; and was again married, June 1, 1818, at Buckingham House, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, according to the ritual of the Church of England.

The Duke returned to Hanover shortly afterwards, and remained there till the death of King William, when the Duke of Cumberland becoming King of Hanover, his Royal Highness surrendered his trust to his brother; when, on the King's arrival in his dominions, the assembly of the States voted an address to the Duke of Cambridge, expressing their most profound regret, that his departure was occasioned by the death of another King, who, following the exalted example of his illustrious father, George III., had made the happiness of his subjects the sole object of his life ; a King who, under the visible protection of the Almighty, had, by wise laws, improved the condition, and promoted the welfare of the country; and, by his royal goodness and activity, led the people from a time of distress to happiness and prosperity. The assembly, at the same time, expressed the utmost gratitude to His Royal Highness the Duke of Cambridge, for the manner in which he had conducted the government for so long a period; during which, his Royal High

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ness had been found equally ready, in public and private life, to afford

every assistance where it was required.

On the evening of the 4th of July, 1837, His Royal Highness left Hanover. Before his departure, he ordered the following farewell address to be published:

At the moment of separation, I cannot leave this country without addressing to its beloved inhabitants a word of adieu. In my early youth, I often resided in this native land of my forefathers, and many delightful recollections are connected with that long by-gone period. I have now lived near twenty years among you; and, placed by the honoured confidence of the King, my deceased brother, at the head of the government of this kingdom, I reflect with gratitude on the able assistance which the royal ministry and all the authorities have afforded me, and the zeal with which they have sustained and promoted my wishes and efforts for the welfare of His Majesty's subjects. From the inhabitants of this country, and this city, I have received numerous proofs of the most cordial confidence, and the sincerest love and attachment. The grateful recollection of those proofs will be always dear to me, and no time, no distance, can ever obliterate them from my heart. Painful to me is the separation from this city, where my children first beheld the light of Heaven, where I have spent so many happy hours, and where I have maintained friendly relations with so many whom I love and esteem. But, however far I may be removed, I shall ever feel a lively interest in the happiness of this country. May the Almighty give to the government of his present Majesty, my illustrious and beloved brother, a blessed reign. May the country advance in prosperity ; may the protecting hand of Providence guard it from all misfortune; and may complete domestic happiness and household prosperity be enjoyed by all its inhabitants. In this, the inmost wish of my heart, my consort and my children most earnestly participate. They, too, love their country and this city; they, too, separate from them with feelings of the deepest emotion; and never will they forget the numerous proofs of love and attachment which they have obtained. And now, dearly beloved people of this kingdom, I bid you all an affectionate adieu, and leave you in the hope, that you also will hereafter think with affection on me.''

« ADOLPHUS.” Hanover, July 4, 1837.

His Royal Highness returned to England; and having landed at the Tower Stairs September 6th following, arrived safe at Cambridge House, Piccadilly,

the same day. The Duke of Cambridge, by his royal consort, has issue three children :

Prince George-William-Frederick-Charles, G.C.B., born at Hanover, on the 26th of March, 1819; now abroad, completing his military education.

Princess Augusta - Caroline-Charlotte-Elizabeth - Mary. Sophia-Louisa; born at Hanover, on the 19th July, 1822.

Princess Mary.

• This amiable youth is remarkable for his candid and open disposition. Playing one day alone with the young Count L- in the principal drawing-room of the palace, they heedlessly upsit and des. troyed a very costly piece of bijouterie, which the Duchess had expressly charged them neither to touch nor approach. On her return, her Royal Highness discovered the accident, and demanded how it happened. “I," said Prince George, stepping boldly forward, “I did it, mamma," On being subsequently asked why he had taken the entire blame on himself, when his companion was equally implicated, he replied, " Because I was the eldest, and ought to be punished most; and because," he added, " I looked nL-'s face, and thought he was abont to deny it, and say what was not true.

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