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althɔugh, (being an imperfect and fallible creature,) this liberty exposes him to mistake and is perpetually leading 14 him into error; yet by patience, perseverance, and industry, and by long experience, he at last achieves what angels may, perhaps, behold with admiration. A bird's nest, is indeed, a perfect and beautiful structure ; yet the nest of a swallow of the nineteenth century, is not at all more commodious, or elegant, than those that were built amid the rafters of Noah's ark. But if we compare, (I will not say “Adam's bower, for that was doubtless in the finest style of na

ture's own architecture,) but if we compare the wigwam of the * North American Indian, with the temples and palaces of an15 cient Greece and Rome, we then shall see to what men's mistakes, rectified and improved upon, conduct him. Animals can provide for their wants, and for those of their offspring, with the utmost adroitness; and just so much, and no more, did their antediluvian ancestry: while man, after having provided for his first necessities, emerging gradually from the savage state, begins to cultivate poetry and music, proceeds to the knowledge of arts and sciences, unknown and unthought of by his rude forefathers, till, (in humble imi

tation of the works of God himself,) he gives exquisite 16 construction to the rudest materials which nature has lest for his use; supplying those artificial wants and wishes, for which it was beneath her dignity to provide; and while his hand thus executes all that is ingenious and beautiful, his thought glances at all that is magnificent and sublime.

LESSON LIII.

Manufacture of a Pin.ANONYMOUS. 1 THERE is an article employed in dress, which is at once

so necessary and so beautiful, that the highest lady in the land uses it, and yet so cheap, that the poorest peasant's wife is enabled to procure it. The quality of the article is as perfect as art can make it; and yet, from the enormous quantities consumed by the great mass of the people, it is made so.cheap that the poor can purchase the best kind, as well as the rich. It is an article of universal use. United with machinery, many hundreds, and even thousands, are employed in making it. But if the machinery were to ? stop, and the article were made by human hands alone, it would become so dear, that the richest only could afford to use it; and it would become, at the same time, so rough in iis appearance, that those very rich would be ashamed of using it. The article we mean is a pin.

Machinery of all kinds is difficult to be described by words. It is not necessary for us to describe the machinery used in pin-making, to make you comprehend its effects. A pin is made of brass. You have seen how metal is obtained from ore by machinery, and, therefore, 3 we will not go over that ground. But suppose the most se

skilful workman has a lump of brass ready by his side, to make into pins with common tools --with a hammer and with a file. He beats it upon an anvil, till it becomes . nearly thin enough for his purpose. A very fine hammer, .. and a very fine touch, must he have, to produce a pin of any sort,—even a large corking-pin! But the pin made by machinery is a perfect cylinder. To make a metal, or even a wooden cylinder, of considerable size, with files and polishing, is an operation so difficult, that it is never 4 aitempted; but with a lathe and a sliding-rest, it is done

every hour, by a great many workmen. How much more difficult would it be to make a perfect cylinder, the size of a pin! A pin hammered out by hand would present a number of rough edges that would tear the clothes, as well as hold them together. It would not be much more useful or ornamental than the skewer of bone, with which the woman of the Sandwich Islands fastens her mats. But the wire of which a pin is made, acquires a perfectly cylin

drical form by the simplest machinery. It is forcibly drawn 5 through the circular holes of a steel plate ; and the hole being smaller and smaller each time it is drawn through, it is at length reduced to the size required.

The head of a pin is a more difficult thing to make even than the body. It is formed of a small piece of wire twisted round so as to fit upon the other wire. It is said that by a machine, fisty thousand, heads can be made in an hour. We should think that a man would be very skilful to make fifty in an hour, by hand, in the roughest manner; if so, the machine does the work of a thousand men. The machine however, does not do all the work. The head is

6 attached to the body of a pin by the fingers of a child, while another machine rivets it on. The operations of cutting and pointing the pins are also done by machinery : and they are polished by a chemical process.

It is by these processes,--by these combinations of human labor with mechanical power,--that it occurs, that fifty pins can be bought for one half-penny, and that, therefore, four or five thousand pins may be consumed in a year by the most economical housewife, at a much less price than fifty

pins of a rude make cost two or three centuries ago. A 7 woman's allowance was formerly called her pin-money,—a'

proof that pins were au sufficiently dear article to make a large item in her expenses. If pins now were to cost a half-penny apiece, instead of being fifty for a half-penny, the greater number of females would adopt other modes of fastening their dress, which would probably be less neat and convenient than pins. No such circumstance could happen while the machinery of pin-making is in use ; but if the machinery were suppressed, by any act of folly on the part of the pin-makers who work with the machinery, pins would go out of use, probably all together : the pin-makers would lose all their employment; and all the women of the land would be deprived of one of the simplest, and yet most useful inventions connected with the dress of modern times.

Gratiano speaks an infinite deal of nothing, more than any man in all Venice. His reasons are as two grains of wheat hid in two bushels of chaff; you shall seek all day ere you find them; and when you have them, they are not worth the search.—Shakspeare.

If to do, were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages, princes' palaces. It is a good divine that follows his own instructions : I can easier teach twenty what were good to be done, than be one of the twenty to follow mine own teaching. The brain may devise laws for the blood; but -a hot temper leaps over a cold decree ; such a hare is madness the youth, to skip over the meshes of good counsel the cripple.--Ib.

LESSON LIV.
Parting of Douglas and Marmion.-Scott.
1 Not far advanced was morning day,
When Marmion did his troops array,

To Surrey's camp to ride ;
He had safe-conduct for his band,
Beneath the royal seal and hand,

And Douglas gave a guide.
The ancient Earl, with stately grace,
Would Clara on her palfrey place,
And whispered, in an under tone,

“ Let the hawk stoop, his prey is flown.”
2 The train from out the castle drew;

But Marmion stopped to bid adieu : nos r.“ Though something I might plain,” he said,

“Of cold respect to stranger guest,
Sent hither by your king's behest,
While in Tantallon's towers I stayed,
Part we in friendship from your land,

And, noble Earl, receive my hand.”—
But Douglas round him drew his cloak,
3 Folded his arms, and thus he spoke :

“My manors, halls, and bowers, shall still
Be open, at my sovereign's will,
To each one whom he lists, howe'er
Unmeet to be the owner's peer.
My castles are my king's alone,
From turret to foundation stone,-
The hand of Douglas is his own,
And never shall, in friendly grasp
The hand of such as Marmion clasp.”

4 Burned Marmion's swarthy cheek like fire,

And shook his very frame with ire; . And “'This to me!” he said,

"An 't were not for thy hoary beard,
Such hand as Marmion's had not spared

To cleave the Douglas' head!
And, first, I tell thee, haughty Peer,
He, who does England's message here,
Although the meanest in her state,

May well, proud Angus, be thy mate;

And, Douglas, more I tell thee here, 5 Even in thy pitch of pride,

Here in thy hold, thy vassals near,
(Nay, never look upon your lord,
And lay your hand upon your sword,)

I tell thee, thou’rt defied !
And if thou said'st, I am not peer
To any Lord in Scotland here,
Lowland or Highland, far or near,

Lord Angus, thou hast lied !".
On the Earl's cheek the flush of rage
6 O’ercame the ashen hue of age ;

Fierce he broke forth : “And dar'st thou then
To, beard the lion in his den,

The Douglas in his hall ?
And hop'st thou hence unscathed to go ?-
No, by Saint Bryde of Bothwell, no !
Up drawbridge, grooms—whai, wardèr, ho!

Let the portcullis fall.”—
Lord Marmion turned, -well was his need,

And dashed the rowels in his steed,
7 Like arrow through the arch-way sprung,

The ponderous grate behind him rung:
To pass there was such scanty room,
The bars, descending, grazed his plume.

The steed along the drawbridge flies,
Just as it trembled on the rise ;
Not lighter does the swallow skim
Along the smooth lake's level brim.
And when Lord Marmion reached his band,

He halts, and turns with clenched hand, 8 And shout of loud defiance pours,

And shook his gauntlet at the towers.
“ Horse! horse !" the Douglas cried, “and chase!"
But soon he reined his fury's pace;
“A royal messenger he came,
Though most unworthy of the name.-
Saint Mary mend my fiery mood !
Old age ne'er cools the Douglas blood,
I thought to slay him where he stood.-

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