Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai
AldineTransaction - Всего страниц: 396
The earliest sites at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania are among the best documented and most important for studies of human evolution. This book investigates the behavior of hominids at Olduvai using data of stone tools and animal bones, as well as the results of work in taphonomy (how animals become fossils), the behavior of mammals, and a wide range of ecological theory and data. By illustrating the ways in which modern and prehistoric evidence is used in making interpretations, the author guides the reader through the geological, ecological, and archeological areas involved in the study of humans.
Based on his study of the Olduvai excavations, animal life, and stone tools, the author carefully examines conventional views and proposals about the early Olduvai sites. First, the evidence of site geology, tool cut marks, and other clues to the formation of the Olduvai sites are explored. On this basis, the large mammal communities in which early hominids lived are investigated, using methods which compare sites produced mainly by hominids with others made by carnivores. Questions about hominid hunting, scavenging, and the importance of eating meat are then scrutinized. The leading alternative positions on each issue are discussed, providing a basis for understanding some of the most contentious debates in paleo-anthropology today.
The dominant interpretive model for the artifact and bone accumulations at Olduvai and other Plio-Pleistocene sites has been that they represent "home bases," social foci similar to the campsites of hunter-gatherers. Based on paleo-ecological evidence and ecological models, the author critically analyzes the home base interpretation and proposes alternative views. A new view of the Olduvai sitesâ that they represent stone caches where hominids processed carcasses for foodâ is shown to have important implications for our understanding of hominid social behavior and evolution.
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... Faunal Assemblages 154 Frequencies of Animals in Modern Savannas 168 Paleoecology of Bed I Olduvai 178 Further Comparisons to Modern Savannas 184 Ecological Overlap among Carcass Users 196 Use of Different Resources 199 Destruction or ...
... assemblages of bones and artifacts transported to a site or distributed over a landscape may have looked like and, if possible, to make inferences about the original faunal communities from which bones were sampled. By identifying the ...
... faunal evidence. Fossilized urocyclid slugs, indicating a relatively moist habitat, were found below Tuff ID and ... assemblages from Bed I will enable a reconstruction of the savanna communities of large mammals in which early hominids ...
... faunal bone tortoise mammal bone individuals Level (cm) area (m2) artifacts (kg) specimens specimens specimens ... assemblage had a large number of broken.
... faunal assemblages than at any other Bed I site— 23 taxa of mammals from Level 3 and 25 from Level 2. This diversity is clearly related to the large number of specimens that could be classified taxonomically. Although each level at DK ...