Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai
AldineTransaction - Всего страниц: 396
The earliest sites at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania are among the best documented and most important for studies of human evolution. This book investigates the behavior of hominids at Olduvai using data of stone tools and animal bones, as well as the results of work in taphonomy (how animals become fossils), the behavior of mammals, and a wide range of ecological theory and data. By illustrating the ways in which modern and prehistoric evidence is used in making interpretations, the author guides the reader through the geological, ecological, and archeological areas involved in the study of humans.
Based on his study of the Olduvai excavations, animal life, and stone tools, the author carefully examines conventional views and proposals about the early Olduvai sites. First, the evidence of site geology, tool cut marks, and other clues to the formation of the Olduvai sites are explored. On this basis, the large mammal communities in which early hominids lived are investigated, using methods which compare sites produced mainly by hominids with others made by carnivores. Questions about hominid hunting, scavenging, and the importance of eating meat are then scrutinized. The leading alternative positions on each issue are discussed, providing a basis for understanding some of the most contentious debates in paleo-anthropology today.
The dominant interpretive model for the artifact and bone accumulations at Olduvai and other Plio-Pleistocene sites has been that they represent "home bases," social foci similar to the campsites of hunter-gatherers. Based on paleo-ecological evidence and ecological models, the author critically analyzes the home base interpretation and proposes alternative views. A new view of the Olduvai sitesâ that they represent stone caches where hominids processed carcasses for foodâ is shown to have important implications for our understanding of hominid social behavior and evolution.
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... fragments, bone surface condition, and types of bone breakage and surface damage (Potts, 1982). These types of data have helped to test ideas about the factors that could have affected the formation of the Olduvai sites. The uses of ...
... bone fragments. "The number of unidentified mammal bone fragments from FLKN N-2 and 3 does not include approximately 33,000 fragments recovered from the combined sieving of both levels. Although each bone assemblage had a large number of ...
Richard Potts. Although each bone assemblage had a large number of broken fragments that could not be identified to body part or taxon, many of these were pieces of long bone shaft that could be classified to a specific size class of ...
... bone splinters. These number in the tens of thousands. Although unidentifiable bone fragments were recovered by sieving in each excavation trench of FLK "Zinj," they were concentrated especially in two of the ten trenches. A ...
... bone debris were encountered. Level 6 was reached in four of these trenches, but there were very few remains other ... fragments of elephant ribs and vertebrae that can be conjoined at clean surfaces where the fossilized bones were ...