Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai
AldineTransaction - Всего страниц: 396
The earliest sites at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania are among the best documented and most important for studies of human evolution. This book investigates the behavior of hominids at Olduvai using data of stone tools and animal bones, as well as the results of work in taphonomy (how animals become fossils), the behavior of mammals, and a wide range of ecological theory and data. By illustrating the ways in which modern and prehistoric evidence is used in making interpretations, the author guides the reader through the geological, ecological, and archeological areas involved in the study of humans.
Based on his study of the Olduvai excavations, animal life, and stone tools, the author carefully examines conventional views and proposals about the early Olduvai sites. First, the evidence of site geology, tool cut marks, and other clues to the formation of the Olduvai sites are explored. On this basis, the large mammal communities in which early hominids lived are investigated, using methods which compare sites produced mainly by hominids with others made by carnivores. Questions about hominid hunting, scavenging, and the importance of eating meat are then scrutinized. The leading alternative positions on each issue are discussed, providing a basis for understanding some of the most contentious debates in paleo-anthropology today.
The dominant interpretive model for the artifact and bone accumulations at Olduvai and other Plio-Pleistocene sites has been that they represent "home bases," social foci similar to the campsites of hunter-gatherers. Based on paleo-ecological evidence and ecological models, the author critically analyzes the home base interpretation and proposes alternative views. A new view of the Olduvai sitesâ that they represent stone caches where hominids processed carcasses for foodâ is shown to have important implications for our understanding of hominid social behavior and evolution.
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... abundant at the earliest archeological sites, but these sites represent campsites where food sharing and cooperation were the crucial elements of behavior; thus, it is these traits that were particularly important to the course of human ...
... abundant in Middle Bed I at these two localities. Several murid genera that live in the Serengeti region today are ... abundance in the low to middle layers at FLK North, higher up in Bed I. A decline in rainfall is suggested by the ...
... abundant wherever crocodiles live. Such elements may have been deposited from the lake water during the burial of the sites at DK (Leakey, 1971: 249). Two species of turtles and the tortoise Geochelone have been identified at DK. The ...
... abundance at DK and FLKNN-3. Most of the major taxonomic groups of large mammals were represented at FLK "Zinj," with the exception of proboscideans, rhinos, and hippos. A notable characteristic of FLK "Zinj" is the enormous quantity of ...
... abundant kind of animal at FLK North-6. As observed in other Bed I assemblages, suids were second most abundant. Excluding the fossilized breaks and bone splinters from the fragile elephant bones, most of the bone fragments that could ...