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TO THE FIFTH EDITION.
In this work, the Author has given some of the results of his study and practice, in the department of Mental and Vocal Philosophy, for the last fifteen years. Persons, who are familiar with the subjects discussed, can see how much he is indebted to books, and how much to investigation and experience. Whatever is good and TRUE in it, belongs to ALL; for it is from ABOVE.
If there be anything false and evil, the Author holds himself responsible for it. His endeavor has been, to furnish a book, which may be useful to every one. He believes that a greater variety will be found in this, than in any other work on the subject;-a variety, too, which will induce deep and careful thinking, and right feeling; and which tends directly, to the end in view, to wit: the development and application, of those principles of Mind and Voice, which the Author has been engaged in practicing and teaching, in our principal towns and cities, and Institutions of Learning : notices of which may be seen among the accompanying tes. timonials.
This work is an abridgment of what the Author has written, in three connected, yet separate volumes, as yet unpublished, embracing the subjects of Body and Mind, their natures, relations, and destinies: the work, next in order, is PHYSIOLOGY and PsychoLOGY, which, it is expected, will be published the coming year.
One reason why no more quotations are made from the Bible is, that the SACRED VOLUME is nearly ready for the press,-prepared with such a notation as will aid the reader, to pronounce and emphasize it, at sight-it being both a Pronouncing and Rhetorical Bible: it was commenced several years ago, at the request of clergymen and others, who have attended the Author's Biblical Readings and Recitations; and would probably have been laid before the public before this, but for the destruction of a portion of it by fire.
The following work is now "cast upon the waters," in a stereotyped form, not likely soon to be changed. An affectionate Teacher's kindest regards to his Pupils, and respects to a candid and generous public,
NEW YORK, 1845.
1. Every Art, and SCIENCE, has its Externals, | up the Body, with the materials, furnished by the and its Internals, its Generals and Particulars; external world. The Soul is the architect, and which must be understood Analytically, and Syn
body its thetically, if we would practice either successful
workmanship. ly. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts
Here is a good and Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that
representation of is addressed to our five senses : its Generals are
nervous Mind and Body, with their various Languages,
mass, which is a or modes of manifestation. Comparatively, Lan
kind of brain, guage-is the Tune, Body-the Instrument, and
(or series Mind-the Performer : hence, the necessity of
brain,) that prebecoming acquainted, theoretically and practi
sides over those cally, with their NATURES, RELATIONS and USES.
glands, or work. 2. As the subjects of MIND and LANGUAGE,
shops, that take are partially unfolded in the following work, in
charge of the this part, something must be said of the BODY,
food, digestit, the harp of ten thousand strings : particularly in
and watch over regard to structure, position, and the organs to be
its changes, till used for the production and modification of
it is made into sounds, in Speech and Song: also of Gestures,
blood, and then or Actions; illustrated by appropriate Engravings,
appropriated to which may be imitated by the Pupil, for the pur
the body. The pose of bringing the Body into subjection to the
nervous centre, Mind; without, however, any reference to spe
called Semilunar cific Recitations,-lest he should become artifi
Ganglion and So cial, instead of natural.
lar Plexus, may 3. The more we contemplate MAN, the more
be seen at a, a, a, we see and feel the truth, that he is a MICROCOSM
a; it is situated indeed; a minature-world,—an abstract of crea
under the diation,-an epitome of the universe,-a finite repre
phragm and partsentation of the INFINITE DEITY! Well saith the
ly behind the heathen motto, “ KNOW THYSELF !" and the poet
stomach: other “THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND-I8 Max."
subordinate cenAnd it may truly be said, that there is nothing
tres may be seen in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms,
at e, e, e, e; also that cannot be found, essentially, in the human
in other places, body; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is
that need not be not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature: hence,
designated, the grandeur, the magnificence of our subjects,
they are very and our objects.
numerous: these 4. The three grand essentials of the Body pro
centres are like per, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes
miner posts in a its form, and gives it stability : the Muscular, or
state, or kingfleshy system, which is designed to act on the
dom. At i, is Osseus; and Nervous system, acting on the Mus
been a pair of cular: while the Mind, acts on and through the chords, called trisplanchnic nerves: and at o, o, Nervous; receiving its life and power from Him, are seen other nerves, with their little brains, oi who is emphatically “THE LIFE:" thus, we can centres, where they come together, forming a line look through Nature, ap to Nature's God. Ob along the spine, from the bottom of the chest, to serve, the Analytieal course is from outermosts to the top of the neck. From this large collection innermosts, from effects to causes; and the Syn- of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every par thetical progress from innermosts to outermosts ; of the system, uniting in smaller centres, and or from causes to effects.
forming ganglions in the palms of the hands, 5. NERVES OF ORGANIC LIFE. Every thing halls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical sysmust have a beginning: and nothing is made per- tem is called the Solar System, because the Sun fect at once. Now in the body, there is a cer- is its centre, watching over our planets; so, of tain portion, called Nerves of Organic Life; be- these nervous centres of the grand and smaller cause they are the first formed, and constitute departments of our miniature-universe. Owing the grand medium, through which the soul builds to the intimate connection of these nerves with
their numerous centres, and with the nerves of of organic life, or solar plexus. The roots of these the whole body, they are sometimes called the nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity table Life. There are three orders of these of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration, Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the parts of the vascular system; one to the contrac- proper co-operation with the nerves of organic tile tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption; and one to the nerves of organic sensation, con- hence, the painful mode of teaching children to veying the impressions made on the organs. read by a book: away with this false system, ún
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or right feeling predominate : please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those who
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (6,) or seat of Voluntary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c.) that goes to the Diaphragm (in) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Accessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the tongue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swallowing, speaking, &c. [Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.] Next in order is the 17. Here is an excellent representation of the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f, Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, g, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- with the nerves of Organic Life
, and the Respirarynx and wind-pipe, (e) also to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of other branches go to the face, to exhibit the feelings. which, are Will and Understanding. The letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs intoc, indicates the cerebrum, or large hrain, where mportant relations with the heart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lofeelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or Little brain, o the stomach, and unites with the great centre I under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the
norizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony parts which may be aptly in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, of lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the voluntary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscular, or fleshy portions, that form the me dium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones
like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection to the Sou.,
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through the
temple we live in; which is three stories high; Mind; so that
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above whatever 18
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now let usput
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy these three
between the body and language? systems, the Nerves, Mus
10. ZOOLOGY—(the doctrine or science of life,) cles
is a necessary element of education. Whose cu. and
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable Bones, togeth
living beings, and things, with which we are surer, and con
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their ternplate the
interiors, and see how they are made, and underwhole as
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, unit, bound up in the skin,
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their
differences, in many respects, and their similariand acting in
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use. obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind. of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the human mind from the dark- | constituting the nutritive function of which living ness and slavery of ignorance, into the light and bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by eviliberty of rational humanity. The things of the dences too plain to be misunderstood : may we have Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power to appreciate them, being assured that all power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; truths are in perfect harmony with each other. and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or
12. Here is a representation of the Human grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engra- of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses ving: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the continent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : second, to call attention to the fact that it is full of pores, or little holes, through which passes out of our systems more than half of what we eat
and drink, in the form of what is called insensible perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being into the particulars of our subject; which is done the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out in the succeeding parts of this introduction : how particles of the system; the great importance ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the outof keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy lines of subjects are given in the book, designed condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, for such as are determined to dig for truth and must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- eternal principles, as
for hidden treasures; ing the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to
whose motto is "Press On.” indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of Animals and Plants endure for a time, and a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- under specific forms, by making the external cordance with its state ; which is often perceived world a part of their own being; i. e. they have when certain persons are present; also when the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly and when this outward supply ceases they die, wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as having completed their term of duration : hence, to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive death, to material existences, is a necessary colu with their tones and audible words, ruling im- sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exmense audiences with absolute sway, and de- ist so long as external forces do not destroy them: monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo
Animals and Plants increase by nutrition : sition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh by the action of a force, or power, from withbut a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one out. Has not every thing its circle? How in hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- teresting must be the history of all things, anistances, are the materials of which our organs mate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their around us, within us, and above us! bulk, and give back to the world what was once 13. If we would have the Mind act on the its own. Thus, composition and decomposition, Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or