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N. T. AUTHENTICATES NOT SINGLE TYPES ONLY, BUT CLASSES. 365
authority as the principle. It would seem that any one, ever so little capable of seeing the analogies of things, must (unless he be under a strong bias, such as the dread of giving scope to the imagination, fancifulness, and the like,) recognize the bearings of the several parts of God's dispensation upon each other, beyond what the New Testament has absolutely laid down for him. He would see that the New Testament was a guide to him to go onward, not a barrier to withhold him ; that so far from binding him down to the precise cases, with which it provided him, it rather furnished him with a principle and a rule, whereby to judge of the like. The types authenticated in the N. T. are not of one kind, nor drawn from one source. Samples, so to speak, of different kinds have been given us; and others closely akin to those given, have been passed over ; and so each type authorized is the representative of a kindred class; and the authority of inspiration may be regarded as affixed, not to the individual instance only, but to the class. The Church, upon whom the New Testament was bestowed, already recognized the typical character of the Old Testament; and so must continue to do, the rather because while so much was authorized, so much which she recognized as typical was virtually sanctioned. The typical character of these further types would seem matter of instinct and perception, for which some reasons may be given (as has been above attempted,) but which in itself requires none. Such reasons influenced, doubtless, the Ancient Church, yet (it is more probable) only imperceptibly; the types are mentioned (where they occur) naturally, as by persons who had a vivid perception of the relation of the
Angels, who ever stand by, and glorify Thee. Thou sentest also thy HOLY “ Apostles, commanding them to preach and baptize all nations in the Name of,” &c. (Ib. 198, and fuller and more like the Greek, ib. 206, 7.) The Antioch-Jerusalem Liturgy (ih. 218.), the Jerusalem (ib. 227.), the Apostolic by Severus (ib. 290.), are formed upon the same model, though verbally differing. The Maronite refers in the same way to the “ brooding upon the waters.” “ As' “ the Holy SPIRIT at the Creation of the world brooded upon the waters, and
they produced living and creeping things of every kind, so, O LORD God, let “ the Holy Spirit brood upon this Baptism, which is a spiritual womb, and
may He abide therein, and sanctify it, that for the earthly Adam it may pro“ duce the heavenly Adam.” (Ib. 340.)
Old to the New Testament, and of things visible to the invisible, and who see them, not reason upon them : the recurrence of any recognized symbol, much more the combination of two or more, at once suggests to them the reality. Nothing, they are persuaded, is accidental in Holy Scripture : so then, neither the frequent mention of water, nor that the fountain of “living water” was covered over by a stone,” which they knew to be a symbol of their LORD; nor, since “the Lamb slain from the foundation “ of the world,” was to offer Himself upon the tree, the Son of man to be lifted up upon the cross,—that wood was brought into connection with the element, wherein they were baptized ; nor that the Presence of the TRINITY, Whose invocation over themselves in Baptism was their stay and their hope, seemed any where to be intimated,
The details may safely be left to be accepted by every one as he is able to bear them: to judge from experience, they will, to any one who does not rudely reject them, gradually recommend themselves more and more ; but it is the principle rather than the details, probably, which for the most part has the sanction of Catholic consent. The certainty, however, of the principle is even the more established by any variations as to details ; for we have not simply a given number of types, the knowledge whereof may have been secured by a general tradition ; (although with regard to some types, there seems doubtless to have been such a tradition) but we have also the principle, universally felt, that certain symbols, whenever they occurred, contained a hidden intimation of Baptism. In consequence, each Father selected out of the rich abundance, such types as at the time recommended themselves, not doubting that the rest, which he omitted, bore the same reference, but rather implying that they did so, because the same principle which justified those which he selected, justified the others also. And this themselves also state: thus S. Gregory of Nyssa having given one of the fullest selections, breaks off', “ But as to the testimonies of the Holy Scriptures I must here “ close, for the discourse would be unbounded, were any to wish
1 l. c. iii. p. 178.
SACRAMENTAL EXPOSITION DISTINCT FROM ALLEGORICAL. 367
“ to collect all, and put them in one book.” And S. Ambrose ?, “Another (type), although not in order; for who, as the apostle “ said, can comprise all the acts of Christ ?" Yet even as to the details, it will have been already observed, that there is, in some cases, much coincidence ; that the Fathers, who in general adhered most to the literal interpretation, and its moral meanings, (as St. Chrysostom) yet, when occasion offers, insist upon the same types as do others; and so little has this perception of sacramental types to do with any abuse of allegorical interpretation, that it will, perhaps, be found, that those, ever reputed to be overfond of the allegorical interpretation (as Origen) have less of the sacramental, while those of a literal school (as Theodoret) have much more of it. Thus, throughout the history of Genesis, St. Chrysostom insists on the ethical meaning of the same histories, whose typical import was insisted on (as we have seen above) by other writers, speaking directly on Holy Baptism; yet when he has to explain our Lord's appeal to Nicodemus, “ Art thou a
master of Israel, and knowest not these thing3 ?” he understands Him not in our modern way, as referring Nicodemus to certain baptisms of proselytes, but,--as to the “birth," to such histories of births in the Old Testament, as were above the laws of nature,-as to the means of that birth" of water and the Spirit," to the prophetic intimations of Baptism, in the typical cleansing by water, therein contained. And for these last, he adduces types of the same sort, as do others, and some even of the more recondite ? ; “ The first formation of man, and the woman produced from his “ side, and the barren women ; and what was wrought through
water, (such as the fountain whence Elisha raised the iron ; the “Red Sea, which the Jews passed over; the pool which the angel “moved; the history of Naaman the Syrian, purified in the Jor" dan ;) all these things proclaimed before, as in type, the birth “and purification which was to be ; and the things spoken by the
prophets hint at the manner of the birth, as 'the generation to “come shall be declared to the Lord,' and they shall declare His “ righteousness to a people which shall be born, whom the Lord
1 De Sacr. ii. 4. 12.
» Chrys. Hom. 26. (al. 25.) in Joann.
“ hath made ?,' that thy youth shall be renewed as an eagle's?,' “ tható be enlightened', Jerusalem,''behold Thy King cometh *;' " and · blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven.' Isaac also
was a type of this birth. For say, O Nicodemus, how was he “ born? By the law of nature ? No.” Something moreover of a consent as to details also, may be seen in the types dwelt upon in the Ancient Liturgies. The earliest of our western Church recognize a considerable number, which is the more remarkable on account of their great brevity. Thus, in that of Gelasius, water is consecrated in the Name of the Father, Who had given these earnests of it in the Old Testament, and of the Son, Who by His miracles had consecrated it in the New. “ I bless thee, “O creature of water, through the Living God, through the Holy “God, through God, Who, in the beginning, by a word, sepa“ rated thee from the dry ground", and in four streams com“ manded thee to water the whole earth : Who, by an infused “ sweetness, made thee, when bitter in the desert, fit to drink ; " and for the parched people brought thee out of the rock. I "bless thee, also, through Jesus Christ, His Only Son, our “ LORD: Who in Cana of Galilee, by His wondrous power mira. “ culously changed thee into wine : Who with His feet walked on " thee ; and in thee was by John baptized in Jordan ; Who, out “ of His own side, together with Blood, brought thee forth ; and “ commanded His disciples, that they who believed should be “baptized in thee, saying, 'Go teach all nations, baptizing them “ in the Name of the FATHER, and of the Son, and of the Holy " Ghost?'"
These types, moreover, are evidently alleged in the Liturgies, as instances only; and it is remarkable how, of the history of the
1 Ps. xxii. 32.
2 Ps. ciii. 5.
3 Is. Ix. 1. 4 Zech. ix. 8.
5 Ps. xxxii. 1. 6 The Roman Missal inserts, “Whose SPIRIT was borne above thee; Who " caused thee to flow from the fount of Paradise, add," &c. Ass. ii. 4. n.
7 Ass. ii. 3, 4. and less fully, p. 6. Gregorian, p. 8. Roman, p. 33. (with the addition note 6,) and the verbal erence " thee, being bitter in the desert, made, by wood, sweet and fit to drink ; Who brought thee out of the rock, that He might refresh, when faint with thirst, the people, whom he had freed from Egypt."
VERBAL ALLUSIONS TO TYPES RELATE ALSO TO ANTI-TYPES. 369
Creation, different parts of the whole are alleged: in the Latin, “ the brooding of the Holy SPIRIT," and the separation from the dry land ; in the Greek, the former is omitted, but there are added “ the waters above the heavens," as the dwelling place of the heavenly Spirits; the “ founding of the earth upon the
waters,” as our clay derives its spiritual life from the waters of Baptism ; in the Maronite, the presence of the Holy Spirit is also dwelt upon; and so on, in slighter variations ; thereby showing, the more, the universal conviction of the typical character of the whole history of the waters in the Creation, so that the striking of one note sufficed to bring out the harmony of the whole. It is remarkable too how some of the less obvious types occur when one should least expect them, and where they yield most independent evidence; as the sacrifice of Elijah in the Coptic Liturgy, where it is altogether distinct from the Greek. Typical histories again are selected as lessons, and in this way formally adopted in the respective Churches'.
The same principle which requires us not to restrain the types of things, to such as have been laid down for us in the New Testament, will apply yet more forcibly to the verbal allusions to those types. Since the flood, and the passage of the Red Sea, and the Levitical washings, or sprinklings, were (as we know) types of Baptism, then the passages of the Prophets, which relate to these, must relate also to Baptism. The words wherein they are spoken of, must bear the same relation as the things of which they speak. The words are authentic interpretations given by the Prophets to the typical actions; the actions set before the eyes the teaching of the words. It were, then, obviously inconsistent
1 Thus St. Ambrose mentions that the history of Naaman was used as a Baptismal lesson in his Church (Milan). De Myster. $ 16. de Sacram. i. 5. and the cure at Bethesda ; “what was read yesterday.” De Sacram. ii. 2. The argument from the lessons generally was appreciated in the ancient Church. S. Optatus appeals to the “ unity of the life in the Church, the common lessons, the one “ Faith, the same sacrament of Faith, the same mysteries.” v. I. VOL. II. P. II.--NO, 67.