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Average annual number of births, still-born excluded, of the same period, 3 80 per cent, or.....
........... 1 in 26 Average andual number of deaths, still-born included, of the same period, 2.81 per cent, or.........
. 1 in 36 Average annual number of deaths, still born excluded, 2.64 per cent, or ................................ ......
1 in 38 A Average andual pumber of deaths among those over 5 years of
age, of the same period, 1.73 per cent of the population over 5 years of age, or ..........
.................... 1 in 58 There died under one year of age, of legitimate births, still born .
excluded, for the three years 1839-40-41, 17 per cent, or...... 1 in 6 There died under one year of age, of illegitimate births, during the
same period, 58.7 per cent, or............................. There died under one year of age, of total births, 18.5 per cent, or 1 in 5 15.4) There were still-born, of male births, 4.2 per cent, or........... i in
female births, 3.3 per cent, or.......... 1 in
female illegitimate births, 47 per cent, or. 1 in 2 There were illegitimate of births, still-born included .
........ 7 per cent still-born excluded.. ... .... 3.3 per cent still-born included, for the twenty-six years, 1816-41
7 per cent The ratio of male to female births, still-born included, for the twenty-six years, 1816-41, was as ......
106 to 100 Male to female births, still born included, for the three years, 1839-41. 106 to 100 Male to female births, still born excluded, for same period............ 105 to 100 Still-born males to females for same period........................
136 to 100 Legitimate still born males to females .............................
138 to 100 Illegitimate still born males to females.........
117 to 100 Of total deaths during the three years, still-born excluded, there attained
the natural term of life, and died of the debility of old age.... 12 per cent There died by suicide ......
....... .4 per cent There died by accidents of all kinds ...
1.5 per cent Of female deaths, there were in child-bed...
2.4 per cent The number of deaths of women in child-bed to the total number of births, still-born included, was .....
.........79 per cent Hence, about 8 of every 1,000 births resulted in the death of the
mother. Of total deaths, still-born excluded, there occurred duringJanuary, February, and March ..
29 per cent April, May, and June ....... July, August, and September ....
22 October, November, and December ...
25 The six warmer months ............. The six colder months ......... From January 1st to July 1st..... From July 1st to January 1st ....... AVERAGE DURATION (OR EXPECTATION) OF LIFE IN PRUSSIA, COMPUTED FROM THE AGES
OF THOSE DYING DURING THE THREE YEARS 1839-40-41: AND FROM THE AGES OF
THE LIVING, COMPUTED WITH REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE OF THE YEAR 1840:- B Ages.....
1 10 20 30 40 50 Duration of life....... years 86.75 45.43 37.74 30.86 24.07 17.35
PRESENT VALUE, AFTER ARRIVING AT CERTAIN AGES, OF ONE DOLLAR PAYABLE AT THE END OF EACH YEAR DORING LIFE, ACCORDING TO THE PRUSSIAN LIFE TABLE:
10 20 30 40 50 Life 14 per cent 14.17 19.15 17.62 16.00 13.89 11.09 Appnities . 76 per cent 10.42 14.27 13.45 12.56 11.28 9.36
NUMBERS LIVING AT CERTAIN AGES OUT OF 100,000 BORN ALIVE, ACCORDING TO THE
NEW PRUSSIAN LIFE TABLE:
667 In the official abstracts from Prussian returns, the population above 45 was divided, with reference to age, into only two classes—from 45 to 60, and from 60 upwards. In constructing the life table, a distribution of the numbers in each of these classes into quinquennial groups was made, according to the mean of the corresponding distributions of equal numbers of the populations of England in 1841, and of Belgium in 1846.
RATIO OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL NUMBER OF MARRIAGES, BIRTHS, AND DEATHS IN PRUSSIA,
DUBING SEVERAL BIENNIAL PERIODS, TO THE POPULATION AT THE MIDDLE OF THE RE-
tion is referred..... Date tn which popula
One to ..........
One in....... :::
A COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE AVERAGE DURATION (OR EXPECTATION) OF LIFE, AFTER ARRIVING AT CERTAIN AGES, ACCORDING TO THE PRUSSIAN AND SOME OTHER LIFE TABLES. Ages.
0 10 20 30 40 50 Manchester (Eng.) 7 y'rs, 1838-44, Males. Farr. 24.2 40.6 33.3 26.6 20.6 15.2 Irish Experience.-Jenkin Jones................. ..... 34.95 29.71 23.36 17.76 Austria, 3 y’rs,1834, 7, 9.-Farr. (Approximate.) 29.1 ..... 36.4 .... 24.0 .... Prussia, 1839-40-41.-Elliott
36.75 45.43 37.74 30.86 24.07 17.85 Sweden, 12 years, 1755-76.—Price........... 34.42 45.07 38.02 31.21 24.66 18.46 Sweden and Finland, 5 years, 1801-05.- Milne. 39.39 47.63 39.98 32.68 20.50 18.65 True Northampton, 7 years, 1838-44.-Farr... 37.57 47.57 39.93 32.59 25.49 18.76 New England Mutual Life Insurance Co.......... 47.43 40.17 33.29 26.39' 19.58 England and Wales, 1841.-Farr.............. 41.16 47.44 40.34 33.68 27.14 20.56 Carlisle, 9 years, 1779-87.-Milne........... 38.72 48.82 41.46 34.34 27.61 21.11
• Middle of.
+ Triennial period. The Life and Mortality Table adopted by the New England Mutual Life Insurance Company of Boston, from which the above average duration of life is deduced, was formed in 1844, by a Com. mittee of the Directors, from a comparison of the Equitable Experience, the Amicable Experience, the Carlisle, Sweden apd Finland 1801-05, De Parcieux's French Tontines, Kersseboom's Dutch Annuitants, and Finlaison's Government Annuitants, and verified by such imperfect American statistics as were then procurable.
Art. V.--THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE.
It is now about sixteen years since, by the effort of a few individuals, the National Institute for the Promotion of Science was organized. That it met a great want of the American people is proved by the enthusiastic manner in which the learned and scientific throughout our country at once enrolled themselves as its members, whilst in every civilized land its organization was hailed as an era in our history, and we then formally took our place in the intellectual brotherhood of nations, as we had done before in the political. Young as we were, and compelled by the very fact of the undeveloped resources of our vast new country, to attend to the useful, rather than to the abstractly scientific, we could not enter that world of science and art as a compeer, yet we were welcomed, for wherever true science is, there strife, envy, and jealously cease to exist : it is only “men of science falsely so called," to whom the evil-eye is given, who seek to destroy every structure save that which serves for their own elevation. Nor were material proofs of that feeling of brotherhood wanting. The old world-every civilized part of it commenced to pour rich gifts into the lap of the Institute. Books, minerals, shells, various specimens of natural history-the rare, the priceless, were freely, lavishly given. Our wonderful physical progress had long been known-a progress in which we glory, and with reason, but that we should so soon be able to develop, not alone our material wealth and greatness, but by associated effort take at once our place in the great republic of mind—this, however devoutly wished, was not anticipated, and hence an increased joy was felt by the earnest lovers of truth- the hard-working students of science everywhere.
In 1844, at the call of the Institute, the first general meeting of its members was held. This was the first great national gathering of the men of science in America. Already the infant association had accomplished much—far more than even its sanguine founders had anticipated, and the materials it had gathered were of great value-enough for a nucleus to that great National Museum which America needed; but a cloud was gathering in its horizon-having a two-fold origin. The immense correspondence and contributions to the cabinet necessarily involved considerable expense, though for postage and freightage mainly, and the infant association had no fund to meet it. Even its success, so brilliant and unexpected, was thus the cause of serious embarrassment. Its constantly increasing treasures were all the property of the nation-legally invested in the general government by the noble disinterestedness of the founders of the association. The members had no title thereto, no pecuniary interest therein, other than as American citizens. They were, very many of them at least, enthusiastically devoted to the cause for which the Institute was organized the promotion of science—and instances might be mentioned where members expended many thousand dollars in that cause, especially in securing and preserving those very collections which are still allowed to be stowed away in dusty nooks and corners, doing the world no more good than if they never had been reached by the eager toiling hand of genius.
The Institute was and is composed of America's students, and such are, with few exceptions, poor. They could not be expected to contribute so
largely as was requisite, for a cause strictly national; they gave their time and labor-the fruit of long years of toil-unpaid. They asked from our government'a meager pittance to meet the necessary charges upon its own property--they were refused, and the little cloud upon the horizon overspread the sky. Surely the field is not all occupied. There is still intellect that needs culture-truth to be revealed, even in our mighty land. A hundred institutions already form shining points in the darkness, and yet there is room for moreyet need of a central sun; each may aid every other. But amongst them all there is not one so truly national in its organization, having such strong claims upon the patriotic heart, as this. It is not sectional-has no pecuniary reward for its members—is composed
of and belongs to the people——is open to every student of nature in our • land.
We have spoken of the National Institute in its early life, when a tide of unexampled prosperity bore it onward, until it met with a cold rebuff from those who should have nourished and shielded it, and found a jealous rivalry at work to destroy it. Many of its members felt the weight of discouragement too great, and made no farther effort in its behalt. A few have hoped and toiled on, and at length there is a listing of the cloud. The Institute now sends out a call to every true votary of science, that all may again work together, and find renewed strength in union.
In all bighly civilized countries, the advancement of science is felt to be the highest national glory, and so strong has been the popular devotion to it, that the hand of tyranny even has not dared to retard it. Hence, though material interests, personal liberty even have suffered, the nurseries of mind have been protected, fostered, and to the truths therein developed and radiating thence, we owe much of that very prosperity of which we boast.
One great requisite to the advancement of science has ever been considered a National Museum. It is to the scientific what a library is to the literary. And more than this, it is a great public teacher, cultivating the general intellect, refining the general taste, and awaking in every mind a desire to drink deeper of that fountain whose source is the Great I Am.
That every State in the Union will ultimately have a scientific museum, the State geological surveys and resulting collections, give sure promise; but we need more than these; we need a great National Gullery, which shall receive from and impart to every other, being itself the great center where not only the geology, botany, natural history, etc., of our vast country shall be fully represented, but in which the entire globe, in all its physical aspects, shall be mirrored. That the seat of the national government is the best location for such a great monument to Truth and Progress is evident from various considerations. It is here alone that our nation has entire jurisdiction. Here all sections of the country have an equal interest, and are equally represented. Hither “in every widening circles" will our people tend. And our national pride claims such an ornament for our capital. The poor inventor, as he tarries for the reward of his genius, would here have an opportunity afforded him of acquiring a degree of knowledge which, not thus aided, he might toil for and long for in vain. And would not many a one be drawn from the haunts of dissipation where 'unoccupied hours allure, by the newly awakened pleasure of intellectual enjoyment? Such is now the experience of Paris. Her Garden of Plants
and School of Mines are great moral as well as intellectual teachers; and as young as we are we feel a necessity for better influences, as well as our older sisters in the other hemisphere.
And is it asked how we are to attain to this great end? How are we to obtain this great National Gallery of Science and Art? The answer is : we have already much material- some of it visible in the hall of the Patent Office, much of it boxed as when it crossed the ocean-sent by earnest hearts and hands, and left for years unnoticed. The National Institute is constantly receiving these noble gifts from the various scientific and literary societies of Europe and America. It has a library of choice volumes, numbering about four thousand, more than five hundred boxes, barrels, and trunks of specimens yet unpacked, besides those partially arrranged with the collection made by the Exploring Expeditions. All these form no small nucleus around which may, with but a nominal expence to government, be gathered the finest collection in the world! Our army and navy and private effort will supply us with the material from the seas and from our own continent; by exchanges all that we need desire from the rest of the world can be secured, and our national treasury need be taxed only so far as to pay freightage, postage, etc. And may we not hope that the heart of our government will so expand as to care for these neglected treasures of the people? That whilst material interests are so all-absorbing, it may not forget that in the future of the republic these very interests must depend largely upon a knowledge of those very sciences which are now thought of so little account. Have not the people a right to ask that here, under the immediate eye of the government, these talents be no longer wrapped in a napkin, but be made to gather other treasures for them and their posterity?
Art. VI.—DIGNITY OF THE MERCANTILE PROFESSION.
The merchants of the United States compose the true aristocracy of the country. Elsewhere there is always a class, which, being recognized by society as a superior, can close its doors in the face of a man engaged in mercantile pursuits. Here, however, the position of the merchant is admitted to be paramount. If his business be a respectable one, and if it is pursued fairly and honorably, he is not only entitled to claim ailmission to any class to which he aspires, but he is at once placed by social courtesy among the first.
This is very proper, for upon him devolves the conduct of every measure intended to promote the public good; his judgment is consulted, and his liberality confidently relied on, whenever there is any movement of progress to be affected. As a general rule he is looked upon as a patron of science, literature, and the arts. Not only the Useful, but the Graceful and the Beautiful are the recipients of his bounty. He builds a railroad of a thousand miles - through mountains and over rivers-making the desert smile with plenty, and carrying comfort and luxury to the wilderness. He builds and endows a college for the sons and daughters of toil; or a chapel for the pious poor. His means are a bank, whereon the