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Gold.--This precious metal is found in the sands of rivers, chiefly in the rivers of Hungary, Brazil, and Africa ; also in large masses called nuggets, which are found in the Uralian Mountains, California, and Australia. It is mixed with a hard rock called quartz. They first wash away the sand of that which is found in the rivers; and that which is found mixed with the rock is separated by the use of a machine. Gold can be beaten very thin; it is one of the heaviest metals known; and it possesses a fine brilliant colour. It is used for sovereigns and halfsovereigns in our money ; and it is also used for gilding picture-frames and for jewellery, watches, and other articles of importance. It never goes rusty, and is weighed by troy weight.

SILVER.—The other precious metal is called silver. It is found chiefly in the central countries of America. It is separated from the substance with which it is mixed by mercury. The mercury afterwards rises into vapour, and goes away:

Some silver is found in small quan. tities in lead, but the quantity is so small that it used to cost too much to obtain it; but now, by the help of better machinery, they extract it from the lead. It can be drawn out into wires thinner than a human hair, and it soon changes its colour. It is used for some of our coins, and for vessels of use and ornament; and it is largely employed in every part of the world. It is also used for coating other metals, generally a coating of copper being underneath ; and it is sometimes used by doctors in their medicine. WILLIAM B. WORTON, aged 13.

Old Church Schools, Handsworth, near Birmingham.1 certify the above to be the work of W. IVorton.

Chas. VAUGHAN, Master. The Prizes for the two best Maps of English counties are awarded to HARRY CARTER, aged 11, Kennington National Schools, Kent, and J. P. SHAWCROSS, aged 10, Paddock Street Academy, Hanley.

To our Renders.

The papers on the precious metals were done well, but they were hardly so numerous as we expected. The temptations to spend time out of doors during the summer months may perhaps account for this. We have decided that the subject for the next competition shall be good handwriting. More depends on this in the business of life than most of our young scholars are at all aware of. We should prefer regular readable writing, not too much slanted, such as is adopted in the head-lines of John HEYWOOD's COPY-BOOKS, which we believe are used in the great majority of the schools of England and Wales.

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Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world,

1 John ii., 15.
Flee also youthful lusts.—2 Timothy ii., 22.
Resist the devil and he will flee from you.--St. James iv, 7.

HESE different texts show us how the warfare against

the evil which is in the world is to be conducted. We are not to set our hearts on the outward show of the world ; we are to shun temptations to impurity and excess --we are to openly resist the sins of the devil.

Now concerning the world, our Lord, in His prayer for His disciples in St. John's Gospel, uses these words : “I pray

not that Thou shouldest take them out of the world, but that Thou shouldest keep them from the evil.” If we do not love the evil that is in the world, we shall not be in much danger of being hurt by it. The world's evil looks so much like good—the base coin looks so much like the genuine—that it is often only

No. 22.-OCTOBER, 1873.

by bitter experience that people find out that it is so utterly worthless and bad.

Now though the world is not to be avoided, yet the sins of the flesh are to be avoided. The sins of the flesh consist of impure thoughts and unclean actions, gluttony (or too much eating), and drunkenness (or intoxication arising from drink). We are not only to resist these, but to run away from them. If unclean thoughts come into our minds, we must at once think of something else; if we are tempted to commit an unclean action, we should at once flee the scene of temptation. The drunkard should avoid the public-house if he wishes to conquer his drunkenness; the glutton should sit down to plain and homely fare, and he will have no difficulty in avoiding gluttony. “Flee youthful lusts."

But the temptations of the devil must be resisted openlythere is no running away from them. They follow us wherever we go, and will utterly destroy us, unless, by the help of God, we 1 can overcome them. The sins of the devil are envy, hatred, il malice, and disobedience. When the devil tempts us by these, we must resist him at all times and in all places ; and St. James

s tells us in his Epistle, that if we resist him he will flee from us.

It is important to know these things, because God does not give His help to people who needlessly run into or remain in temptation. He has not told us to forsake the world; so, remaining in it, we may expect and seek His grace to preserve us from its evil. He has warned us in His Word to shun temptations to intemperance and uncleanness; so, if we remain where such temptations are when we might avoid them, we cannot expect Him to help us. But we are not encouraged to expect freedom from such sins as envy, hatred, and malice, by merely avoiding occasions which call them forth ; they are to be resisted openly and vigorously, and God has promised us by His holy apostle that if we so resist the devil, he will flee from us.

The following verses from an old Latin hymn will show the spirit in which we should fight this battle against evil.

Now that the daylight fills the sky,
We lift our hearts to God on high :
That He, in all we do, or say,
Would keep us free from harm to-day ;
Would guard our hearts and tongues from strife;
From anger's din would shield our life;
From all ill sights would turn our eyes;
Would close our ears from vanities :

Would keep our inmost conscience pure;
Our souls from folly would secure ;
Would bid us check the pride of sense,
With due and holy abstinence.
So we, when this new day is gone,
And night in turn is coming on,
With conscience by the world unstained,
Shall praise His Name for victory gained.

The Life and Death of Henry Stafford, Duke of

Buckingham. When Richard, Duke of Gloucester, planned the murder of his brother's two sons (Edward V. and his brother), the nobleman who aided him most was the Duke of Buckingham. In common with the rest of the nobility, he disliked Elizabeth Woodville, queen of Edward IV., and so readily entered into Richard's design to disinherit her sons, and acquire the supreme power for himself, in name as well as in reality. Richard promised him a certain reward for his services ; but when he found himself firmly seated on the throne he refused to fulfil it. Upon that, the duke rebelled against him, but his army Aed at the approach of King Richard, and he was betrayed by one of his servants. This old ballad well points out, that though Buckingham only got his deserts in his defeat and death, yet that the ingratitude of his old servant in betraying him was a crime to be punished. Jehu was the instrument of God's vengeance on the wicked house of Ahab, yet we nevertheless read in the prophet Hosea, the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu."

;

" I will avenge

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TALE of grief I must unfold,
A tale that never yet was told,

A tale that might to pity move
The spirits below, the saints above.
When wars did plague this maiden land,
Great Buckingham in grace did stand ;
With king and queens he ruléd so,
When he said Ay, none durst say No.
Great Gloucester's duke, that washed the throne
With blood of kings to make't his own,
By Henry Stafford's help obtained
What reason willed to be refrained.
If any noble of this land
Against great Gloucester's aim did stand,
old Buckingham, with might and power,
In grievous woes did him devour.
He hoped when Richard was made king
He would much greater honours bring
To Buckingham and to his name,
And well reward him for the same.

In Clarence's death he had a hand, And 'gainst King Edward's queen did stand, And to her sons bore little love, When he as bastards would them prove. King Edward swore him by his oath In true allegiance to them both ; “Which if I fail, I wish,” quoth he, “All Christians' curse may light on me.” It so fell out, on All Souls' Day, By law his life was ta’en away: He had his wish, though not his will, For treason's end is always ill. In London having pleaded claim, And Richard thereby won the game, He asked for honour as his gain, But was rewarded with disdain. On which disgrace within few hours, Great Buckingham had raised his powers ; But all in vain, the king was strong, And Stafford needs must suffer wrong. His army failed, and durst not stand Upon a traitor's false command. Being thus deceived, old Stafford fled, And knew not where to hide his head. The king with speed to have him found, Did offer full ten thousand pound : Thus Richard sought to cast him dowi) Whose wit did win him England's crown. The plain old duke, his life to save, Of his own man did succour crave; In hope that he would him relieve That late much land to him did give. Base Banister this man was named, By this vile deed for ever shamed : “ It is," quoth he, “a worthy thing To injure him who wronged his king. “King Edward's children he betrayed, The like 'gainst him I well have played ; Had he been true, my love would last, But, proving false, that love is past.” Thus Banister his master sold Unto his foe for hire of gold ; But mark his end, and rightly see The just reward of treachery.

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