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the same works and joins the North Staffordshire Railway near Church Lawton. A small branch of this railway has recently been cut from the railway to the iron works for the accommodation of sending the iron off by rail. The iron is smelted in very hot furnaces, and, when sufficiently hot, is taken and beaten with a large steamhammer to a size which the rolls will admit. It is then sent through the rolls and rolled into long bars, which are called puddled bars. Hoop iron is made from iron billets, which are heated in the furnace and thrown to the rolls (which run a great deal swifter than the former-mentioned), and rolled into thin and narrow lengths. The iron is then bundled up.

Wheelock has also a little manufacture of silk. Wheelock is in Mid-Cheshire, and is about four miles from Crewe. The streams which join the River Wheelock make a junction at this village, and flow on to Middlewich, where it joins the River Dane. The Wheelock is about 12 miles long.

GEORGE BOREHAM, aged 12. National School, Sandbach, Cheshire.— I hereby certify that the above is entirely the composition of George Boreham.

P. ALLEN, Master.


WHEN I was nine years old I determined to visit a watering-place. I therefore saved up my money for that purpose. Summer arrived. I heard that some of my friends were going on an excursion to Scarborough. I asked and received permission to accompany them.

One Saturday morning (I forget the date and month), I arose by a quarter to 2 o'clock, to be ready for the train due at 3-30 a.m.

We reached the station in time, though I was afraid the train had gone. After waiting almost two hours, we saw the train approaching. Immediately it entered the station there occurred a scene of great excitement: young men pushed and jostled past all others, in order to get in a nice carriage, regardless of the toes they trod on; provisions were lost; and, in fact, confusion reigned everywhere.

At length we moved, the iron-horse snorted and shrieked, and away we went at the speed of about twenty-two miles per hour. We saw very beautiful scenery on the journey. We also passed through Normanton and York, arriving at our destination after having had a ride of four hours.

On leaving the station we were assailed by persons wishing to conduct us to a dining-room. We entered one of the rooms abovementioned, and had a good breakfast.

After breakfast we went to Castle Hill. Here stands an ancient castle, or rather what remains of it. It is said monks used to live there; and that the castle was destroyed by Cromwell by means of cannon, which he discharged from a hill about three miles distant, called after him, Oliver Mount. A soldier admitted us to the castle, which he described to us.

We then went on the sands and pier. About the pier there was a stench of crabfish, &c. We were asked several times by sailors if we would hire their boat for a sail. We then went for a bathe in the sea. A carriage next attracted our attention, and we had a drive round Oliver Mount, where we had a beautiful view of the surrounding scenery. After this we had dinner. We then had a donkey ride; after which we went to the station. To our amazement, the train had gone, although there was yet ten minutes to the time announced for its departure. There were about fifty others in a like predicament as ourselves. We appealed to the Lancashire and Yorkshire stationmaster (we had come by the railway above-mentioned) to forward us home by another train, but he refused. We then asked the station. master of the London and North Western, and he kindly told us he would forward us to York, where we should catch the mail train for Huddersfield. When we arrived at York, & porter and policeman stood at the carriage door. The porter asked for our ticket. Of course we had none except the excursion ticket. The policeman was about to arrest us for travelling without ticket, but matters were soon explained, and we were told the mail train was due in twenty minutes.

In the meantime we had a stroll on the city walls. There were embrasures for cannon over the river, probably made by the Royalist troops when Charles I. was encamped at York. We then returned to the station, and soon were on our way home, where we arrived at about 11 p.m., after enjoying a good day's fun and amusement.

JOE HINCHLIFFE, aged 13. St. Thomas's N. S., Huddersfield.I certify that the above is the work of the boy whose name it bears. D. SHARMAN, Master.

Editor's Examinations.

Answers should reach the Editor by the 10th instant. They should

be written on only one side of the paper, and should not contain a larger number of words than would fill one-half or three-quarters of a page of this Magazine. Each answer should be signed by the writer, and should state his age from his last birthday. Boys and girls who have completed their twelfth year are eligible to answer the first question ; boys and girls under twelve must confine themselves to the second question. The papers written by scholars of the same age will be examined together, and the writers of the treo best in each division will receive a prize. All papers should contain a certificate from the teacher of the school that they have been honestly worked. Transcription is not composition.


For Seniors.--(Boys and girls of the ages (f 12, 13, 14, and 15.) Draw a Map of Spain and Portugal, not containing more than forty names.

For Juniors.—(Boys and girls of the ages of 9, 10, and 11.) A short account of William the Conqueror. This essay must not contain more than a hundred words.


The Publisher has much pleasure in giving PRIZES to the writers of the two best answers to each question in every number. The first prize will be a book of the value of FIVE SHILLINGS; the second, a book of the value of THREE SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. Two books of each kind will be given-four in all; hut a Scholar, after taking one prize, cannot obtain another until an interval of six months has elapsed. Should his paper during that time obtain the distinction which would otherwise entitle him to a prize, it will be printed in its proper position, but the prize will be awarded to the Scholar who has written the answer next in merit.

PRIZES FOR LAST MONTH'S SUBJECTS. A five shillings prize to E. R. Parks, aged 13, Sutton House Academy, Notting Hill, London, certified by J. Tester, M.C.P., principal ; and ERNEST R. DOLBY, aged 11, Leeds Mechanics' Institute (Boys' School), certified by T. Horsman, B.A., head master.

A three shillings and sixpenny prize to ARTHUR JOHN MILLS, aged 12, Odiham Free Schools, certified by J. W. Batchelor, master; and J. H. RILEY, aged 10, Ewood Hall, Mytholmroyd, certified by M. Pope, teacher.

The above-named Prize Essayists are desired to send to the Publisher, Mr. John HEYWOOD, 141 and 143, Deansgate, Manchester, the name of any book or books, of the value referred to, which they would like to receive, and such will be forwarded, post free, within one week afterwards. The Publisher, of course, reserves to himself the right of refusing to forward any work the character of which he may think injurious; but with that single exception Prize Essayists may select any work they please. They will, doubtless, avail themselves of the advice of their parents or teachers in their selection.

A catalogue of three thousand works will be sent by the Publisher on receipt of a penny postage stamp for postage.

RICHARD III. (Born 1452.) RICHARD Duke of Gloucester was chosen Protector of England in 1483, during his nephew's majority; and though he pretended that he was actuated by a spirit of the purest loyalty to Edward, yet he was all the time secretly clearing his own way to the throne. His first act upon coming into power was to seize his royal nephew at Stony

Stratford, near Nottingham, and after conducting him, with mock honours, through London, threw him into the Tower, together with his brother, the Duke of York, and there they lived in happy unconsciousness of the dark plot that was slowly enfolding them. He then arrested the Lords Hastings and Rivers, who were true to the cause of Edward, and beheaded the former in the chapel-yard of the Tower, and the latter in Pontefract Castle. The Duke of Buckingham then offered the Protector the crown before an assembled multitude at Guildhall. With feigned reluctance he consented, and Edward's reign was at an end. His next step was to destroy Edward and his brother, whose throne he had usurped; and, two ruffians named Forest and Dighton agreed to do the deed, and, entering their apartment in the dead of night, they smothered the princes with the pillows, and buried their bodies at the foot of the stairs. But Buckingham soon deserted Richard, and was only deterred from joining the Earl of Richmond by the rising of the Severn, and his army of Welshmen soon melted away. He was betrayed into Richard's hands by an old servant, to whom he had fled, and, by order of the king, beheaded in the market-place of Salisbury. Richard heard that Richmond was marching to meet him. A terrible battle ensued, and Richard was slain while aiming a blow at Richmond. In his character he was ambitious and cruel, and in his person much deformed, from which he took his name of Crookback. He died in 1485, at the age of thirty-three, after a reign of two years.

E. R. PARKS, aged 13. Sutton House Academy, 147, Lancaster-road, Notting Hill.I cer. tify that the enclosed is the work of E.R. Parks.

J. TESTER, M.C.P., Principal.

RICHARD the Third, previously Duke of Gloucester, ascended the throne of England in the year 1483. His nephew, Edward, was heir to the throne; but Richard employed some men to go about the country and persuade the people that Edward had no right to the throne. He shut poor little Edward up in the Tower of London, and, soon after, sent his younger brother to be his companion. A few months after this it was reported that the young princes had died in the Tower; but it is believed that Richard had employed some men to murder them. And afterwards, two men confessed that they were the murderers; and, two hundred years after this, the skeletons of two children were found buried in a chest under one of the staircases of the Tower. Richard reigned a little more than two years, during which time several good laws were made. And, if Richard had not gained the crown by his wicked actions, he would have been thought a good king. Death : He was slain in a battle, 22nd August, 1485, and was buried at Leicester. He was hated by his subjects and all who knew him. He was succeeded by Henry the Seventh, 1485.

ARTHUR JOHN MILLS, aged 13. Odiham Free School. This is the sole work of John Mills.


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To our Readers.

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We regret to say that the paper on Alfred the Great, stated in our last number to be the work of Edwin Waller, is taken verbatim froin “ Edwards's Summary of English History.” Through the kindness of a correspondent, we have been able to compare the text of this work with Waller's paper, and we find that not only are they word for word alike, but the stops are similar. Four lines appear in Edwards's summary that do not appear in Waller's paper, for the sufficient reason that we crossed them out before sending them to press. They are as follow : “And to state that he was the most accomplished man of his day, that he was the hero of 56 battles, that he established the system of trial by jury, and founded the University of Oxford, is but to relate a portion of his glory.” As we are not at all certain that King Alfred either established the system of trial by jury or founded the University of Oxford, we thought it best not to allow our readers to be led astray by these statements. With the exception of these four lines which we crossed out, Waller's paper corresponds with Edwards's summary, word for word, comma for comma. His father says he has an excellent memory, and did not copy from the book. Such a statement is extremely unsatisfactory ; for, even if the memory of this boy is so wonderful, it is not our aim to call forth exhibitions of extraordinary feats of memory, but to improve the composition of our readers, and make them good writers of English. We did not want Edwin Waller to give us Edwards's life of Alfred the Great-we wanted his own life of Alfred the Great. It might be easier to get a prize with Edwards's life of Alfred the Great than with his own; but here the question of honesty comes in.

And here we must say that this kind of work recoils with terrible effect on the heads of those who do it. It is not sound, honest work—it is unsound, rotten work, destroying the character, and forming a precedent for work more deeply dishonest in the

We are satisfied, from a communication made by his master, that the paper was not actually transcribed from the

time to come.

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