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is placed before a fire it makes no perceptible difference in the heat. Nearly all other substances transmit heat very imperfectly. When a ray of heat passes through any body it is bent out of its course, and therefore said to be refracted. Polished brass reflects nearly all the heat that falls on it, and as a general rule, all highly polished metallic surfaces are good reflectors : hence the screen used in roasting meat is made of polished metal, in order that it may throw the heat back on the meat. Were it made of rock-salt, it would be useless for such a purpose. Rough and black surfaces absorb a great deal of radiant heat. If the firescreen just mentioned were covered with a coating of lainpblack, it would retain nearly all the radiant heat on its surface; or if one half of a thermometer bulb be covered with a similar coating, it will, when held near a fire, be much more sensitive on the blackened side than on the other. Hence the outside of vessels for heating water on a fire should be black, -in order that they may rapidly absorb the radiant heat; they should also be made of metal, so that they may quickly conduct the heat thus absorbed to the liquid. they contain.
LESSON. XLIII. WEDNESDAY.
Southward through Eden went a river large,
Her crystal mirror holds, unite their streams.
ENGLISH HISTORY-STUART LINE. After the flight of James II., the prince of Orange took up his residence in London, and became the head of a provisional government. The “Convention Parliament," summoned under his auspices, met on the 22nd of January, 1689, and agreed to offer the crown to William and Mary, prince and princess of Orange, with succession to their heirs, or failing these to the princess Anne, on condition of their assent to the “ Declaration of Right;" a document fixing the limits of royal prerogative, and of the liberty of the subject. These terms were accepted, and the revolution was achieved. The new monarch, notwithstanding the complete success of his enterprise, found himself at his accession surrounded by difficulties and perils which a man of ordinary capacity would have been unable to surmount. But William possessed qualities eminently fitted for the task he had to perform. Grave and silent, cautious and reserved, he concealed beneath a cold exterior, invincible energy and resolution, a clear and comprehensive intellect, courage, which no danger could appal, and magnanimity and patience which bitter provocations and injuries failed to disturb or impair. By his prudence and moderation, the change of · dynasty was effected without bloodshed or outrage. The great offices of the state were divided among the two great political parties, the Whigs and Tories, and new and upright judges were appointed in the courts of law. Many of the bishops and clergy declined taking the oaths to the new government; these were deprived of their sees and benefices. Tillotson was inade primate, and Burnet, bishop of Salisbury. Of the temporal peers, some refused allegiance, and others who professed it kept up a secret correspondence
with the exiled monarch, who, supported by France, carried on constant intrigues with his former subjects.
Soon after the coronation the “ Toleration Act” was passed, relieving the Nonconformists, who had rendered important aid in the late struggle, from the severities of the penal laws. The measure was less complete than the king desired, and the Papists were excluded from its benefits, but it was welcomed by multitudes as an inestimable boon. The revenue which Charles and James had enjoyed for life was granted to William only for a time. It was apportioned between the private expenses of the king and the public service; and estimates of the cost of the navy, army, and ordnance departments were ordered to be laid before the Commons, to prevent misappropriation. This control over the finances of the state has been exercised by parliament to the present time.
The estates of Scotland declared in favour of William, but a few adherents of the ex-king took up arms in his
The duke of Gordon refused to surrender Edinburgh Castle, of which he was governor; and Dundee, the merciless persecutor of the Covenanters, raised his standard in the Highlands, at first with some success, but he was slain at the pass of Killiecrankie, after defeating General Mackay with a force superior to his own; and after his death, the clans gradually laid down their arms, and submitted to the government. Presbyterianism was now restored, and the Episcopal church, established by the Stuarts at the cost of so much bloodshed and suffering, was abolished, liberty of worship being conceded to its members.
In Ireland, whose population was chiefly Catholic, the friends of James were numerous and powerful. Early in 1689, be landed in the island with a French force, assumed regal authority, suminoned a parliament, and was soon master of the whole country except the northern province of Ulster, which was occupied by Protestant settlers. Troops were sent against Londonderry, the stronghold of the Protestant party, but its inhabitants held out with memorable courage and constancy, and after suffering terrible privations were relieved by three Euglish ships, which
forced a passage to the port, and the besieging army were compelled to retire with the loss of nearly 9,000 men. Meanwhile the parliament at Dublin was engaged in passing Acts entailing general distress and aların. A base coinage was issued, and ordered to pass for 100 times its value; the Act of Settlement was repealed; all the property of the Protestants confiscated, and more than 2,000 persons were attainted. William sent Marshal Schomberg with 5,000 men to Ulster, and soon followed with reinforcements, putting an end to the war by the decisive victory of the Boyne, which crushed the hopes of James, who fled from the scene of his defeat, and once more escaped to France.
A lamentable event occurred about this time in Scotland. A Highland chiet, M.Donald of Glencoe, had been prevented taking the oath of allegiance to the new monarch within the prescribed tiine; advantage was taken of this delay by Dalrymple of Stair, and other enemies, who reported hiin a traitor, and demanded a warrant for his destruction and that of his clan. William culpably granted the warrant without inquiry, and a barbarous slaughter took place. “The massacre of Glencoe" covered its perpetrators with disgrace, and exposed the king to much censure.
In 1691, William revisited his native country. England, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Savoy, had entered into an alliance, for the purpose of reducing the dangerous and increasing power of France. Hostilities were now commenced, and continued for several years, in different parts of the Continent, with various success. No great battles were fought, but the military skill and statesmanship of the Stadtholder King were conspicuously displayed, and the treaty of Ryswick was concluded in 1697.
In 1694, Queen Mary died, deeply lamented by her husband, and by the nation, with whom her gentleness and benevolence had made her popular. The “ Triennial Bill,” limiting the duration of parliaments to three years, was enacted just before the queen's death, and remained in force till the reign of George I., when the present term of seven years was substituted.
In 1701, the Act of Settlement passed, declaring the Princess Sophia of Hanover heir to the throne, next to the