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level at which they stand, provided they are ultimately transferred to a lower level. Suppose it be desired to draw off a liquid, without disturbing a powder which has settled down to the bottom of a vessel; a bent tube or syphon, one limb of which is longer than the other, is filled with water, and closed by placing the finger at the end of the longer limb; the instrument is then inverted, and the short limb is rapidly plunged into the fluid to be decanted. On removing the finger from the longer limb, the liquid flows, and will continue to do so as long as the shorter limb remains below the surface of the liquid in the vessel. It, the vessel, however, be raised until the longer limb of the syphon is immersed in the liquid that has run over, and the fluid stands at the same level in both vessels, no further flow will take place; if the vessel containing the liquid that has run over be again depressed, the flow through the syphon will again be renewed. When, as was effected by the expedient of raising the lower vessel till the fluid stood at the same level in both, the acting limbs of the syphon are of equal length, the column of fluid in each has the same perpendicular height, and the downward pressure of each column will be the same : neither column will preponderate over the other : but if the vertical column of fluid be longer on one side than on the other, this longer column will necessarily press downwards with more force on that side than the coluinn in the shorter limb presses in the opposite direction; the atmospheric pressure, however, is equal on both sides ; the heavier column therefore runs out of the tube, drawing with it the liquid in the shorter limb, and the place of this liquid is supplied from the fluid in the vessel, by the pressure of the atmosphere, which drives it up into the space that would otherwise become empty.-W. A. Miller.
WATCHING AT THE SEPULCHRE.
Of dying day was spread upon the sky.
go Under the dark trees, moving sad and slow.
LET US PRAY.
Lord, what a change within us one short hour
and the green,
TO A VIRTUOUS YOUNG LADY. Lady, that in the prime of earliest youth Wisely hast shunned the broad
way And with those few art eminently seen,
That labour up the hill with heavenly truth,
Chosen thou hast; and they that overween,
No anger find in thee, but pity and ruth.
To fill thy odorous lamp with deeds of light,
And hope that reaps not shame. Therefore be sure Thou, when the bridegroom with his feastful friends
Passes to bliss at the mid hour of night,
ENGLISH HISTORY-STUART LINE. Charles I. united, with the despotic pretensions of his father, all the personal graces and accomplishments in which the latter had been deficient; together with a strength of understanding and force of will which made his claims to absolute
power far more dangerous than those of the weak and fickle James. Endowed with many good and amiable qualities, one great vice sullied his character and involved his life in misfortune,-that of duplicity. He never kept a promise longer than necessity or interest compelled him, and appeared to consider that royalty exempted him from those obligations to truth and rectitude which bind ordinary
The disputes between Charles and his peopie,—that great struggle of freedom against despotism, the history of which is the history of his reign,-began soon after its commencement. His first parliament asserted its ancient privilege, and claimed redress of grievances before granting à supply. The king dissolved it suddenly and in anger, enforced the collection of the revenue by his own authority, and engaged in war with Spain. The ill-success of his fleet obliged him to summon another Parliament, which proved more refractory than the first; and, after refusing to make an unconditional grant of money, and persisting in the investigation of abuses, proceeded to impeach the duke of Buckingham. Before a decision could be arrived at, however, Charles interposed on behalf of his favourite, and hastily dissolved the Houses. The duke afterwards fell by the hand of an assassin. In the third parliament was passed the Petition of Rights, which has been called the second great charter of English liberty. The assent of the king having been gained, the Commons voted an ample subsidy,and joy and gratulation spread throughout the nation. But the compact was soon broken, and it became evident that Charles never intended to observe it; the Houses were dismissed ; and several members imprisoned. At this time the colony of New England was founded by the “ Pilgrim Fathers,” Puritans, and zealous Protestants, who were driven by oppression from their native land, and sought in the wilds of America an asylum in which they might enjoy religious and civil freedom.
The king now resolved to reign independently, and for eleven years no parliament was summoned. With the help of Archbishop Laud and the earl of Strafford, changes were effected in Church and State which produced universal discontent and dismay. The Puritans were persecuted with severity, and Romish ceremonies and ornaments introduced into the service of the church. It was attempted to establish Episcopacy in Scotland, but riots took place in consequence, the “Solemn League and Covenant" was everywhere subscribed, and the people appealed to arms.
Various illegal methods were employed to raise the revenue, and defray the expenses of government. Among these was ship-money. In former times, the maritime counties had occasionally been required to furnish ships or money for the king's service in war. This obsolete exaction was now revived in time of peace, and extended to inland counties, which had never been subject to its operation. Hampden, a gentleman of Buckinghamshire, determined, by refusing payment, to contest the legality of the tax, and the extent of the king's prerogative. The cause was tried in the Court of Exchequer, and judgment given by a small majority against Hampden; but the decision, instead of serving the king, hastened his downfall.
In 1640, the Long Parliament met, and the final struggle commenced. Strafford and Laud were impeached by the Commons for high treason, and committed to the Tower. Strafford was found guilty and beheaded; Charles, to his indelible disgrace, consenting to his execution after having promised him safety. Laud afterwards suffered the same fate. Whilst England was becoming a prey to internal dissensions, terrible news was received from Ireland. The Roman Catholic natives had risen against the Protestant settlers,
and massacred, in cold blood, men, women, and children to the number of 40,000. The king was unjustly accused of participation in this outrage, and anger and distrust spread more widely than ever. It was necessary to temporise. Charles changed his policy, selected new ministers, and confidence in him was returning, when, by a fresh breach of law, he forfeited it for ever. He demanded the surrender of five members of parliament obnoxious to him, and entered the House of Commons with an armed band to seize them. They were absent. The privilege of parliament had been violated, and the object had failed. To escape the storm thus raised the king left London, to return to it only as a captive; and the civil war began. The advantage was at first on the side of the Royalists. In the battles of Edgehill and Worcester, the fiery courage of Prince Rupert told severely on the parliamentary forces under the command of Essex and Fairfax. But a change was at hand. of the parliament was remodelled by Oliver Cromwell, a man of extraordinary military genius, and force of character, who succeeded in impressing his own enthusiastic and resolute spirit upon the troops under his command, and beneath whose stern discipline they became almost invincible. The victories of Marston Moor and Naseby retrieved previous losses, and proved his superiority and the valour of his “ Ironsides.”
After the battle of Naseby, Charles formed the desperate resolution of surrendering himself to the Scottish army, by whom he was sold to the parliament for arrears of pay amounting to £400,000. From this time the unfortunate prince was a prisoner in the hands of his enemies. The army overawed every other power in the State, and excluded from the House of Commons those members who opposed its will. Proposals for accommodation with the king were rejected, a tribunal of justice was constituted, by which he was pronounced a tyrant, traitor, and public enemy; and, after enduring with patience and fortitude multiplied trials and indignities, he suffered death with calmness and dignity, in front of his own palace of Whitehall, January 30, 1619.