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God has thought fit, in the moral cipline. The old man's slonching gait government of his rational creatures, and ungraceful attire afforded but too to promote the practice of good works, apt an illustration of the intellectual and to discourage and dissuade from nonchalance of his pupils. As to the evil. Nor did that which sounds thus modern languages, of which so much ominously in theory succeed in its has been said by those who knew so application better than it sounded. little of the matter, they were in parIn fact, nothing more unfortunate lance, to be sure-but how spoken? could have been devised for all par- Alas! besides an open violation of all ties, but especially for such as were the concords, and a general disregard by nature of a studious turn or of of syntax, they failed where one quicker parts than the rest; who, would have thought them least likely finding the ordinary stimulus to exer- to fail, in correctness of idiom and tion thus removed, and none other to accent. The French-this was the replace it, no longer cared to do well, language of the school-abounded in (why should they, when they knew conventional phrases, woven into its that their feeblest efforts would tran- texture from various foreign sources, scend their slow-paced comrades' best?) German, English, or Italian, and in but, gradually abandoning themselves scores of barbarous words-not to be to the vis inertie of sloth, incompe- foundin the Dictionnaire de l'Academie, tence, and bad example, did no more certainly, but quite current in the than they could help ; repressing the many-tongued vernacular of the spirit of rivalry and emulation, which chateau. Our pronunciation remained had no issue in the school, to show unequivocally John Bullish to the end it in some of those feats of agility or —not one of us ever caught or thought address, which the rigorous enact- of catching the right intonation ; and, ment of gymnastic exercises imposed whether the fault originated merely on all alike, and in the performance in want of ear, or that we could not of which we certainly did pride our- make the right use of our noses, it is selves, and eagerly sought to eclipso quite certain that all of us had either each other in exhibiting any natural no accent or a wrong one. The Geror acquired superiority we might pos- man was as bad as the French: it was
The absence of all elementary a Swiss, not a German German, books of instruction throughout the abounding in patois phrases and proschool, presented another barrier in vincialisms—in short, a most hybrid the way of improvement still more affair, to say nothing of its being as formidable than even the bétise of much over-guttural as the last was boy pedagogues, the want of sufficient sub-nasal. With regard to Spanish stimulus to exertion, or the absurd and Italian, as the English did not respect paid sometimes to natural in- consort with either of these nations, capacity, and sometimes even to idle- all they ever acquired of their lan
Those who had no rules to guages were such oaths and mauvais learn had of course none to apply mots as parrots pick up from sailors when they wanted them; no masters aboard ship, which they repeated could have adequately supplied this with all the innocence of parrots. deficiency, and those of the chateau Thus, then, the opportunities offered were certainly not the men to remedy for the acquisition of modern languages the evil. As might therefore have were plainly defective; and when it is been anticipated, the young Pesta- further considered that the dead lanlozzian's ideas, whether innate or ac- guages remained untaught-nay, were quired, and on every subject, became literally unknown, except to a small sadly vague and confused, and his section of the school, for whom a kind grammar of a piece with his know. Providence had sent a valued friend ledge. We would have been conspi- and preceptor in Dr M- (whose cuous, even amongst other boys, for neat Greek characters were stared at what seemed almost a studied impro- as cabalistical by the other masters of priety of language; but it was, in fact, the Pensionat,)—and finally, that our nothing more than the unavoidable very English became at last defiled result of natural indolence and in- and corrupted, by the introduction of attention, uncoerced by proper dis- a variety of foreign idioms, it will be
seen that for any advantage likely to more and more of the visible works accrue from the polyglot character of of the great Poet of Nature? “ Sæpius the institution, the Tower of Babel sane ad laudem atque virtutem nawould, in fact, have furnished every turam sine doctrinâ, quam sine naturâ whit as good a school for languages valuisse doctrinam ;” which words as did our turreted chateau. And being Cicero's, deny them, sir, if you now, if candour has compelled this please. notice of some, it must be admitted, The Pension, during the period of serious blemishes in the system of our sojourn at Yverdun, contained old Pestalozzi, where is the academy about a hundred and eighty élèves, without them?
natives of every European and of some “ Whoever hopes a faultless school to see,
Oriental states, whose primitive mode Hopes what ne'er was, nor is, nor is to
of distribution into classes, according be."
to age and acquirements, during school
hours, was completely changed in Meanwhile the Swiss Pension was playtime, when the boys, finding it not without solid advantages, and easier to speak their own tongue than might justly lay claim to some regard, to acquire a new one, divided themif not as a school for learning, at least selves into separate groups accordas a moral school; its inmates for the ing to their respective nations. The most part spoke truth, respected English would occasionally admit a property, eschewed mischief, were German or a Prussian to their neither puppies, nor bullies, nor tale- coterie; but that was a favour seldom bearers. There were, of course, excep- conferred upon any other foreigner: for tions to all this, but then they were the Spaniards, who were certainly the exceptions; nor was the number at any least well-conducted of the whole time sufficient to invalidate the gene- community, did not deserve it: among ral rule, or to corrupt the better prin- them were to be found the litigious, ciple. Perhaps a ten hours' daily at- the mischief-makers, the quarrellers, tendance in class, coarse spare diet, and-for, as has been hinted, we were hardy and somewhat severe training, not all honest—theexceptional thieves. may be considered by the reader as The Italians we could never make offering some explanation of our ge- out, nor they us: we had no sympathy neral propriety of behaviour. It may with Pole or Greek; the Swiss we be so; but we are by no means willing positively did not like, and the French to admit, that the really high moral just as positively did not like us ; so tone of the school depended either upon how could it be otherwise ? The gymnastic exercises or short commons, ushers, for the most part trained up nor yet arose from the want of faci- in the school, were an obliging set of lities for getting into scrapes, for here, men, with little refinement, less preas elsewhere, where there is the will, tension, and wholly without learning. there is ever a way. We believe it to A distich from Crabbe describes them have originated from another source- perfectly in a word, from the encouragement held out to the study of natural
Men who, 'mid noise and dirt, and play
and prate, history, and the eagerness with which
Could calmly mend the pen, and wash that study was taken up and pursued
the slate." by the school in consequence. Though Pestalozzi might not succeed in mak- Punishments were rare; indeed, floging his disciples scholars, he certainly ging was absolutely prohibited ; and succeeded in making many among the setting an imposition would have them naturalists ; and of the two been equally against the genius loci, - let us ask it without offence -- had lesson-books existed out of which whether is he the happier lad (to to hear it afterwards. A short imprisay nothing of the future man) who sonment in an unfurnished room-a not can fabricate faultless pentameters very formidable black-hole-with the and immaculate iambics to order ; or loss of a goutte, now and then, and at he who, already absorbed in scanning very long intervals, formed the mild the wonders of creation, seeks with summary of the penal" code Pestaunflagging diligence and zeal to know lozzi."
VOL. LXYI.-N0. CCCCY.
It was Saturday, and a half holiday, time between Yverdun and Westminwhen we arrived at Yverdun, and oh ster, and how enjoyable was the the confusion of tongues which there change to us! The reader will please prevailed! All Bedlam and Parnassus to imagine as well as he can, the senlet loose to rave together, could not sations of a lately pent up chrysalis, have come up to that diapason of dis- on first finding himself a butterfly, or cords with which the high corridors the not less agreeable surprise of some were ringing, as, passing through the newly metamorphosed tadpole, when, throng, we were conducted to the leaving his associates in the mud and venerable head of the establishment green slime, he floats at liberty on the in his private apartments beyond. surface of the pool, endowed with In this gallery of mixed portraits lungs and a voice,-if he would at all might be seen long-haired, high- enter into the exultation of our feelborn, and high - cheek - boned Ger- ings on changing the penitential air mans ; a scantling of French ga- of Millbank for the fresh mountain mins much better dressed ; some breezes of the Pays de Vaud. It dark-eyed Italians; Greeks in most seemed as if we had—nay, we had foreigneering attire; here and there actually entered upon a new existence, a fair ingenuous Russian face; several so thoroughly had all the elements swart sinister-looking Spaniards, mo- of the old been altered and improved. dels only for their own Carravagio; If we looked back, and compared past some dirty specimens of the universal and present experiences, there, at the Pole ; one two unmistakeable wrong end of the mental telescope, English, ready to shake hands with stood that small dingy house, in a compatriot ; and Swiss from that little mis-yclept Great Smith every canton of the Helvetic con- Street, with its tiny cocoon of a bedfederacy. To this promiscuous mul- room, whilom our close and airless titude we were shortly introduced, the prison ; here, at the other end, and kind old man himself taking us by the in immediate contact with the eye, a hand, and acting as master of the noble chateau, full of roomy rooms, ceremonies. When the whole school enough and to spare. Another retrohad crowded round to stare at the spective peep, and there was Tothill new importation, Here,” said he, Fields, and its seedy cricket ground; " are four English boys come from and here, again, a level equally perfect, their distant home, to be natu- but carpeted with fine turf, and exralised in this establishment, and tending to the margin of a broad liv. made members of our family. Boys, 'ing lake, instead of terminating in a receive them kindly, and remember nauseous duck-pond ; while the cold they are henceforth your brothers." clammy cloisters adjoining Dean's A shout from the crowd proclaiming Yard were not less favourably replaced its ready assent and cordial partici- by a large open airy play-ground, pation in the adoption, nothing re- intersected by two clear trout-streams mained but to shake hands à l'Anglaise, and a sky as unlike that above Birdand to fraternise without loss of time. Cage Walk as the interposed atmoThe next day being Sunday, our sphere was different; whilst, in place skulls were craniologically studied by of the startling, discordant Keleusmata Herr Schmidt, the head usher; and of bargees, joined to the creaking, whatever various bumps or depres- stunning noise of commerce in a great sions phrenology might have disco- city, few out-of-door sounds to meet vered thereon were all duly registered our ear, and these few, with the exin a large book. After this examina- ception of our own, all quiet, pastoral, tion was concluded, a week's furlough and soothing, such as, later in life, was allowed, in order that Herr make Schmidt might have an opportunity " Silence in the heart afforded him of seeing how far our
For thought to do her part," real character squared with phre- and which are not without their charm nological observation and measure- even to him “who whistles as he goes ment, entering this also into the same for want of thought.” No wonder, ledger as a note. What a contrast then, if Yverdun seemed Paradisaical were we unavoidably drawing all this in its landscapes. Nor was this all. If the views outside were charm- table, one of twenty boys who were ing, our domestic and social relations to draw lots for a “hander.” How within doors were not less pleasing. soothingly, then, came the pleasing conAt first, the unwelcome vision of the sciousness, breaking our reverie, that a late head-master would sometimes very different person was now our haunt us, clad in his flowing black headmaster—a most indulgent old D.D. robes — " tristis severitas in man whom we should meet ere long, vultu, atque in verbis fides,” looking with hands uplifted, indeed, but only as if he intended to flog, and his words for the purpose of clutching us tight never belying his looks. That terrible while he inflicted a salute on both Olympian arm, raised and ready to cheeks, and pronounced his affectionstrike, was again shadowed forth to ate guten morgen, liebes kind, as he hasview; while we could almost fancy tened on to bestow the like fatherly ourselves once more at that judicial greeting upon every pupil in turn.
The sleeping apartments at the cha- issued. On such occasions we would teau occupied three of the four sides lie awake, and, as the time approached, of its inner quadrangle, and consisted begin to draw in our own breath, furof as many long rooms, each with a tively listening, not without trepidadouble row of windows ; whereof one tion, to the loud nose of a distant looked into the aforesaid quadrangle, comrade, lest its fitful stertor should while the opposite rows commanded, startle another pair of nostrils, on severally, views of the garden, the whose repose that of the whole doropen country, and the Grande Place mitory depended. Let Æolus and his of the town. They were accommo- crew make what tumult they liked dated with sixty uncurtained stump inside or outside the castle--they disbedsteads, fifty-nine of which afforded turbed nobody's dreams--they never gîte to a like number of boys; and murdered sleep. Let them pipe and one, in no respect superior to the rest, whistle through every keyhole and crewas destined to receive the athletic vice of the vast enceinte of the building form of Herr Gottlieb, son-in-law to -sigh and moan as they would in their Vater Pestalozzi, to whose particular various imprisonments of attic or corcharge we were consigned during the ridor ; howl wildly round the great hours of the night. These bedrooms, tower, or even threaten a forcible entry being as lofty as they were long, at the windows, nobody's ears were broad, and over-furnished with win- scared into unwelcome consciousness dows, were always ventilated; but by sounds so familiar to them all. It the in-draught of air, which was suf- was the expectation of a blast louder ficient to keep them cool during the even than theirs that would keep our hottest day in summer, rendered them eyes open-a blast about to issue from cold, and sometimes very cold, in the the bed of Herr Gottlieb, and thunwinter. In that season, accordingly, dering enough, when it issued, to especially when the bise blew, and startle the very god of winds himself! hail and sleet were pattering against Often, as the dreaded six A.M. drew the casements, the compulsory rising nigh, when the third quarter past five to class by candlelight was an unge had, ten minutes since, come with a nial and unwelcome process; for sough and a rattle against the casewhich, however, there being no re- ments, and still Gottlieb slept on, we medy, the next best thing was to take would take courage, and begin to it as coolly, we were going to say dream with our eyes open, that his that of course—but, as patiently as slumbers might be prolonged a little ; might be. The disagreeable anticipa- his face, turned upwards, looked so tion of the réveil was frequently calm, the eyes so resolutely closedenough to scare away sleep from our every feature so perfectly at rest. It eyes a full hour before the command could not be more than five minutes to jump out of bed was actually to six-might not he who had slept
so long, for once oversleep himself? in a business tone, proceed to inquire NEVER! However placid those slum- from him, Why not up?—and on bers might be, they invariably for receiving for reply, in a melancholy sook our“ unwearied one" just as the voice, that the would-be invalid clock was on the point of striking six. was sehr krank, would instantly pass. To judge by the rapid twitchings— the word for the doctor to be sumthey almost seemed galvanic—first of moned. That doctor--we knew him the muscles round the mouth, then of well, and every truant knew-was a the nose and eyes, it appeared as quondam French army surgeon though some ill-omened dream, at sworn disciple of the Broussais school, that very nick of time, was sent whose heroic remedies at the chateau periodically, on purpose to awaken resolved themselves into one of twohim; and, if so, it certainly never re- i.e., a starve or a vomit, alternately turned απρακτος. .
Gottlieb would in- administered, according as the idiostantly set to rubbing his eyes, and syncracy of the patient, or as this or as the hour struck, spring up wide that symptom turned the scale, now awake in his shirt sleeves—thus de- in favour of storming the stomach, stroying every lingering, and, as it now of starving it into capitulation. always turned out, ill-founded hope Just as the welcome hot mess of of a longer snooze. Presently we be- bread and milk was about to be served held him jump into his small-clothes, to the rest, this dapper little Sangrado and, when sufficiently attired to be would make his appearance, feel the seen, unlimber his tongue, and pour pulse, inspect the tongue, ask a few forth a rattling broadside-Auf, kin- questions, and finding, generally, inder! schwind !-with such precision dications of what he would term une of delivery, too, that few sleepers légère gastrite, recommend diète abcould turn a deaf ear to it. But, lest solue; then prescribing a mawkish any one should still lurk under his tisune, composed of any garden warm coverlet out of earshot, at the herbs at hand, and pocketing lancets further end of the room, another and and stethoscope, would leave the paa shriller summons to the same effect tient to recover sans calomel-a mode once more shakes the walls and win- of treatment to which, he would tell dows of the dormitory. Then every us, we should certainly have been subboy knew right well that the last jected in our own country. Meanmoment for repose was past, and that while, the superiority of his plan of he must at once turn out shivering treatment was unquestionable. On from his bed, and dress as fast as pos- the very next morning, when he called sible; and it was really surprising to to visit his cher petit malade, an witness how rapidly all could huddle empty bed said quite plainly, “ Very on their clothes under certain condi- well, I thank you, sir, and in class." tions of the atmosphere!
But these feignings were comparaIn less than five minutes the whole tively of rare occurrence ; in general, school was dressed, and Gottlieb, in all rose, dressed, and descended tohis sounding shoes, having urged gether, just as the alarum-bell had the dilatory with another admonitory ceased to sound; and in less than two schwind, schwind! has departed, key minutes more all were assembled in and candle in hand, to arouse the their respective class-rooms. The rats remaining sleepers, by ringing the and mice, which had had the run of “Great Tom" of the chateau. So cold these during the night, would be still and cheerless was this matutinal sum- in occupation when we entered; and mons, that occasional attempts were such was the audacity of these vermade to evade it by simulated head- min that none cared alone to be the ach, or, without being quite so specific, first to plant a candle on his desk. on the plea of general indisposition, But, by entering en masse, we easily though it was well known beforehand routed the Rodentia, whose forces what the result would be. Herr were driven to seek shelter behind the Gottlieb, in such a case, would pre- wainscot, where they would scuffle, sently appear at the bedside of the and gnaw, and scratch, before they delinquent patient, with very little finally withdrew, and left us with blue compassion in his countenance, and, fingers and chattering teeth to study