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never dreamt of, or only dreamt they coth;" or, finally, have to cover & were doing. The class generally, large sheet of foolscap with a prothough ready when called upon to gressive survey of the spread of give the efficient support of their Christianity during the three first tongues-kept their eyes to gape else- centuries—and he will easily enter where, and, like Solomon's fool, had into our feelings. To return to the them where they had no business to class-room : The geographical lesson, be. The map, too often repeated to though of daily infliction, was accuattract from its novelty, had no claim rately circumscribed in its duration. to respect on other grounds. It was Old Time kept a sharp look-out over one of a class accurately designated by his blooming daughters, and never that careful geographer, old Homer, suffered one hour to tread upon the

μαψ ου Κατα Κοσμον.” Coarse heels or trench upon the province of and clumsy, however, as it necessarily a sister hour. Sixty minutes to all, would be, it might still have proved and not an extra minute to any, was of service had the boys been the the old gentleman's impartial rule ; draughtsmen. As it was, the follow- and he took care to see it was strictly ing mechanically Herr G-'s wand adhered to. As the clock struck ten, to join in the general chorus of the geography was shoved aside by the last census of a city, the perpendicular muse of mathematics. A sea of dirty altitude of a mountain, or the length water had washed out in a twinkling and breadth of a lake, could obviously all traces of the continent of Europe, convey no useful instruction to any and the palimpsest slate presented a

But, useful or otherwise, such clean face for whatever figures might was our regime,-to set one of from next be traced upon it. fifty to sixty lads, day after day, The hour for Euclidising was arweek after week, repeating facts and rived, and anon the black parallelofigures notorious to every little reader gram was intersected with numerous of penny guides to science, till all triangles of the Isosceles and Scalene had the last statistical returns at pattern ; but, notwithstanding this their tongue’s tip; and knew, when promising debut, we did not make all was done, as much of what geo- much quicker progress here than in graphy really meant as on the day the previous lesson. How should of their first matriculation. Small we, who had not only the difficulties wonder, then, if some should later have inseparable from the subject to cope foresworn this study, and been re- with, but a much more formidable volted at the bare sight of a map! difficulty-viz. the obstruction which All our recollections of map, unlike we opposed to each other's advance, those of personal travel, are suffi- by the plan, so unwisely adopted, of ciently distasteful. Often have we making all the class do the same yawned wearily over them at Yver- thing, that they might keep pace todun, when our eyes were demanded to gether. It is a polite piece of folly follow the titubations of Herr G- -'s enough for a whole party to be kept magic wand, which, in its uncer- waiting dinner by a lounging guest, tain route, would skip from Europe who chooses to ride in the park when to Africa and back again-qui modo he ought to be at his toilet; but we Thebas modo me ponit Athenis; and were the victims of a much greater our dislike to them since has increased absurdity, who lost what might have amazingly. Does the reader care to proved an hour of profitable work, be told the reason of this ? Let him out of tenderness to some incorrigibly

-in order to obtain the pragmatic idle or Bæotian boy, who could not sanction of some stiff-necked examiner get over the Pons Asinorum, (every -have to “get up” all the anasto- proposition was a pons to some asinus mosing routes of St Paul's several or other,) and so made those who journeyings; have to follow those were over stand still, or come back rebellious Israelites in all their wan- to help him across. Neither was derings through the desert; to draw this, though a very considerable the line round them when in Pales- drawback, our only hindrance—the tine; going from Dan to Beersheba, gnides were not always safe. Someand “ meting out the valley of Suc- times he who acted in that capacity would shout “Eureka" too soon ; prestoin came Mons. D—, to reand having undertaken to lead the lieve the meek man who had acted as van, lead it astray till just about, as coryphæus to the music class; and he supposed, to come down upon the after a little tugging, had soon proproof itself, and to come down with a duced from his pocket that without Q. E. D.: the master would stop him which you never catch a Frenchmen short, and bid him-as Coleridge told

-a theme.

The theme being anthe ingenious author of Guesses at nounced, we proceeded (not quite Truth" to guess again.” But sup- tant bien que mal) to scribble it down pose the “guess” fortunate, or that a at his dictation, and to amend its boy had even succeeded, by his own orthography afterwards from a corindustry or reflection, in mastering a rected copy on the slate. Once more proposition, did it follow that he the indefatigable bell obtruded its would be a clear expositor of what he tinkle, to proclaim that Herr Roth was knew? It was far otherwise. Our coming with a Fable of Gellert, or a young Archimedes — unacquainted chapter from Vater Pestalozzi's seriwith the terms of the science, and ous novel, Gumal und Lina, to read, being also (as we have hinted) la- and expound, and catechise upon. mentably defective in his knowledge This last lesson before dinner was of the power of words—would mix up always accompanied by frequent such a “farrago" of irrelevancies and yawns and other unrepressed symprepetitions with the proof, as, in fact, toms of fatigue; and at its conclusion to render it to the majority no proof we all rose with a shout, and rushed at all. Euclid should be taught in into the corridors. his own words,-just enough and On resuming work in the afternoon, none to spare: the employment of there was even less attention and less must engender obscurity; and of method observed than before. The more, a want of neatness and perspi- classes were then broken up, and cacity. The best geometrician amongst private lessons were given in accomus would have cut but a bad figure plishments, or in some of the useful by the side of a lad of very average arts. Drawing dogs and cows, with ability brought up to know Euclid a master to look after the trees and by book.

the hedges; whistling and spitting Another twitch of the bell an- through a flute; playing on the panounced that the hour for playing at tience of a violin ; turning at a lathe ; triangles had expired. In five mi- or fencing with a powerful maître nutes the slate was covered with bars d'armes ; — such were the general of minims and crotchets, and the occupations. It was then, however, music lesson begun. This, in the that we English withdrew to our general tone of its delivery, bore a Greek and Latin; and, under a kind striking resemblance to the geographi- master, Dr M- acquired (with cal one of two hours before; the only the exception of a love for natural difference being that “ut, re, me history, and a very unambitious turn had succeeded to names of certain of mind) all that really could deserve cities, and “fa, so, la” to the pum- the name of education. ber of their inhabitants. It would be We have now described the sedenas vain an attempt to describe all the tary life at the chateau. In the next noise we made as to show its ra- paper the reader shall be carried to tionale or motive. It was loud the gymnasium; the drill ground enongh to have cowed a lion, stopped behind the lake; to our small menaa donkey in mid-bray—to have ex- geries of kids, guinea pigs, and rabcited the envy of the vocal Lablache, bits; be present at our annual ball or to have sent any prima donna into and skating bouts in winter, and at hysterics. When this third hour had our bathings, fishings, frog-spearings, been bellowed away, and the bell had and rambles over the Jura in rung unheard the advent of a fourth- summer.


It was said in the debate on the power of Hindostan had been subNavigation Laws, in the best speech dued by its force, the sceptre of the made on the Liberal side, by one of the ocean won by its prowess. It had ablest of the Liberal party, that the planted its colonies in every quarter repeal of the Navigation Laws was of the globe, and at once peopled with the crowning of the column of free its descendants new hemisphere, trade. There is no doubt it was so; and, for the first time since the creabut it was something more. It was tion, rolled back to the old the tide not only the carrying out of a prin- of civilisation. Perish when it may, ciple, but the overthrow of a system; the old English system has achieved it was not merely the crowning of mighty things; it has indelibly affixed the column; but the crushing of the its impress on the tablets of history. pedestal.

The children of its creation, the AngloAnd what was the system which Saxon race, will fill alike the solitudes was thus completely overthrown, for of the Far West, and the isles of the the time at least, by this great triumph East; they will be found equally on of Liberal doctrines ? It was the sys- the shores of the Missouri, and on the tem under which England had become savannahs of Australia; and the period free, and great, and powerful; under can already be anticipated, even by which, in her alone of all modern the least imaginative, when their states, liberty had been found to coexist descendants will people half the globe. with law, and progress with order ; It was not only the column of free under which wealth had increased trade which has been crowned in this without producing divisions, and power memorable year. Another column, grown up without inducing corruption; more firm in its structure, more lastthe system which had withstood the ing in its duration, more conspicuous shocks of two centuries, and created an amidst the wonders of creation, has, empireunsurpassed since the beginning in the same season, been crowned by of the world in extent and magnificence.

British hands. While the sacrilegious It was a system which had been fol- efforts of those whom it had sheltered lowed out with persevering energy by were tearing down the temple of prothe greatest men, and the most com- tection in the West, the last stone was manding intellects, which modern put to the august structure which it Europe had ever produced; which had reared in the East. The victory of was begun by the republican patriot- Goojerat on the Indus was contempoism of Cromwell, and consummated rary with the repeal of the Navigation by the conservative wisdom of Pitt; Laws on the Thames. The complewhich had been embraced alike bý tion of the conquest of India occurred Somers and Bolingbroke, by Walpole exactly at the moment when the sysand Chatham, by Foxand Castlercagh; tem which had created that empire which, during two centuries, had pro- was repudiated. Protection placed the duced an unbroken growth of national sceptre of India in our hands, when free strength, a ceaseless extension of na- trade was surrendering the trident of tional power, and at length reared up the ocean in the heart of our power. a dominion which embraced the earth With truth did Lord Gough say, in in its grasp, and exceeded anything his noble proclamation to the army of ever achieved by the legions of Cæsar, the Punjaub on the termination of or the phalanx of Alexander. No hostilities, that “what Alexander had vicissitudes of time, no shock of ad- attempted they had done." Supported verse fortune, had been able perma- by the energy of England, guided by nently to arrest its progress. It had the principles of protection, restrained risen superior alike to the ambition of by the dictates of justice, backed by Louis XIV. and the genius of Napo- the navy which the Navigation leon; the rude severance of the North Laws had created, the British arms American colonies had thrown only a had achieved the most wonderful passing shade over its fortunes; the triumph recorded in the annals of mankind. They had subjugated a strange an anomaly, if we did not hundred and forty millions of men in recollect how wayward and irreconthe Continent of Hindostan, at the cilable are the changes of the human distance of ten thousand miles from mind: that action and reaction is the the parent state; they had made law not less of the moral than of the themselves felt alike, and at the same material world ; that nations become moment, at Nankin, the ancient capi- tired of hearing a policy called wise, tal of the Celestial Empire, and at not less than an individual called the Cabool, the cradle of Mahommedan just; and that if a magnanimous and power. Conquering all who resisted, truly national course of government blessing all who submitted,' securing has been pursued by one party long the allegiance of the subjects by the in possession of power, this is quite justice and experienced advantages of sufficient to make its opponents their government, they had realised embrace the opposite set of tenets, the boasted maxim of Roman admin- and exert all their influence to carry istration

them into effect when they succeed “ Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos,"

to the direction of affairs, without the

slightest regard to the ruin they may and steadily advanced through a bring on the national fortunes. hundred years of effort and glory, not The secret of the long duration and unmixed with disaster, from the banks unexampled success of the British of the Hoogley to the shores of the national policy is to be found in Indus—from the black hole of Cal- the protection which it afforded to all cutta to the throne of Aurengzebe. the national interests. But for this, it

“Nulla magna civitas," said Han- must long since have been overthrown, nibal, " diu quiescere potest—si foris and with it the empire which was hostem non habet, domi invenit : ut growing up under its shadow. No praevalida corpora ab externis causis institutions or frames of government tuta videntur, suis ipsis viribus confi- can long exist which are not held tociuntur.'*

When the Carthaginian gether by that firmest of bonds, exhero made this mournful reflection on perienced benefits. What made the the infatuated spirit which had seized Roman power steadily advance during his own countrymen, and threatened to seven centuries, and endure in all a destroy their once powerful dominion, thousand years ? The protection he little thought what a marvellous which the arms of the legions afforded confirmation of it a future empire of to the industry of mankind, the interfar greater extent and celebrity was to national wars which they prevented, afford. That the system of free trade the general peace they secured, the —that is, the universal preference of magnanimous policy which admitted foreigners, for the sake of the small- the conquered states to the privileges est reduction of price, to your own of Roman citizens, and caused the subjects-must, if persisted in, lead to Imperial government to be felt through the dismemberment and overthrow of the wide circuit of its power, only by the British empire, cannot admit of a the vast market it opened to the inmoment's doubt, and will be amply dustry of its multifarious subjects, proved to every unbiassed reader in and the munificence with which local the sequel of this paper. Yet the undertakings were everywhere aided moment chosen for carrying this prin- by the Imperial treasury. Free trade ciple into effect was precisely that, when in grain at length ruined it: the harthe good effects of the opposite system vests of Lybia and Egypt came to had been most decisively demon- supersede those of Greece and Italy, strated, and an empire unprecedented and thence its fall. To the same in magnitude and magnificence had cause which occasioned the rise of reached its acme under its shadow. Rome, is to be ascribed the similar It would be impossible to explain so unbroken progress of the Russian ter

*"No great state can long remain quiet; if it has not an enemy abroad, it finds one at home, as powerful bodies resist all external attacks, but are destroyed by their internal strength.”—Livy,

ritorial dominion, and that of the world, were the principles invariably British colonial empire in modern acted upon. Long and bloody wars times. What, on the other hand, were undertaken to secure their precaused the conquests of Timour and dominance, when threatened by foreign Charlemagne, Alexander the Great powers. This protective system of and Napoleon, to be so speedily necessity implied some restrictions obliterated, and their vast empires upon the industry, or restraints upon to fall to pieces the moment the the liberty of action in the colonial powerful hand which had created dependencies, as well as the mother them was laid in the dust ? The country—but what then? They were want of protection to general interests, not complained of on either side, bethe absence of the strong bond of cause they were accompanied with experienced benefits; the oppressive corresponding and greater benefits, nature of the conquering government; as the consideration paid by the the sacrifice of the general interests mother country, and received by her to the selfish ambition or rapacious distant offspring. Reciprocity in those passions of a section of the community, days was not entirely one-sided; whether civil or military, which had there was a quid pro quo on both got possession of power. It is the sides. The American colonies were selfishness of the ruling power which subjected to the Navigation Laws, invariably terminates its existence: and, in consequence, paid somewhat men will bear anything but an in- higher for their freights than if they terference with their patrimonial had been permitted to export and interests. The burning of 50,000 import their produce in the cheaper Protestants by the Duke of Alva was vessels of foreign powers; but this quietly borne by the Flemish pro- burden was never complained of, bevinces : but the imposition of a small cause it was felt to be the price paid direct tax at once caused a flame to for the immense advantages of the burst forth, which carried the inde- monopoly of the English market, and pendence of the United Provinces. At- the protection of the English navy. tend sedulously to the interests of The colonies of France and Spain demen, give ear to their complaints, sired nothing so much, during the late anticipate their wishes, and you may war, as to be conquered by the armies calculate with tolerable certainty on of England, because it at once opened acquiring in the long run the mastery the closed markets for their produce, of their passions. Thwart their in- and restored the lost protection of a terests, disregard their complaints, powerful navy. The English felt that make game of their sufferings, and their colonial empire was in some reyou may already read the handwrit- spects a burden, and entailed heavy ing on the wall which announces your expenses both in peace and war ; but doom.

they were not complained of, because That the old policy of England, the manufacturing industry of England foreign, colonial, and domestic, was found a vast and increasing market for thoroughly protective, and attended, its produce in the growth of its offon the whole, with a due care of the spring in every part of the world, and interests of its subjects in every part its commercial navy grew with unexof the world, may be inferred with ampled rapidity from the exclusive absolute certainty from the constant enjoyment of their trade. growth, unexampled success, and long Such was the amount of protection existence of her empire. But the afforded in our statute-book to conmatter is not left to inference: deci- mercial industry, that we might sive proof of it is to be found in imagine, if there was nothing else in the enactments of our statute-book, it, that the empire had been governed the treaties we concluded, or the exclusively by a manufacturing ariswars we waged with foreign powers. tocracy. Such was the care with Protection to native industry, at which the interests of the colonies home or in the colonies, security to were attended to, that it seemed as if vested interests, a sacred regard to they must have had representatives the rights and interests of who possessed a majority in the legis. subjects, in whatever part of the lature. To one who looked to the


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