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TO CORRESPONDENTS.
All communications relating to Literary and Business
matters should be addressed to the Editor, Mr. NICHOLAS
Dickson, 19 IVaverley Gardens, Crossmyloof, Glasgow.

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. THE BORDER MAGAZINE will be sent post free to any part of the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and all Countries included in the Postal Union 191 one vear, 4s.

THE BORDER MAGAZINE.

OCTOBER, 1896.

PAGE

161

164

LIST OF CONTENTS.
THE Right Hox. THE EARL OF MINTO. By R. DOMINGO. (Portraits and Illustrations), ..
THE WAVING LANTERN, - . . . . . . . . . . . .
THE EILDON Hills. By R. B. (Illustration), . . . .
Carlyle's BROTHER JAMIE. By G.M.R., . . . .
EDITORIAL NOTICES AND LIST OF CONTENTS,
CAERLANRIG: A Novel By Sir GEORGE DOUGLAS, BART., .
THE ABBEYS OF THE BORDER. By JAMES THOmsox. (Illustrated),
THE TWEED AND SOME OF ITS ASSOCIATIONS. By Rev. W. S. CROCKETT. (Hlustrated),
BORDER BATTLES AND BATTLEFIELDS: FLOddes. By JAMES Robson. (Illustrated),
BORDER NOTES AND QUERIES, . . .

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Editorial.

England, we have much pleasure in intimating

that arrangements have been made by which the TN our last month's issue an accidental trans

Magazine may be procured from month to month

Magasinen position of titles occurred in two of the as under. photos illustrating the paper on Mr.

LONDON : Mr. John Heywood, 29 Shoe Lane, E.C. William Robertson. “On the Tweed” should

LIVERPOOL : Do. 22 Paradise Street, have been “On the Clyde ;” while “On the MANCHESTER : Do.

Deansgate. Clyde” ought to have been “On the Tweed.” NEWCASTLE: Mr. Chas. C. Ross, 35 Side. The transposition was only discovered when too Owing to the illness of the author, the serial late to be remedied.

story, “The Quarry Master,” is for the present Then an esteemed correspondent points out discontinued. that the artist has fallen into a very common Notices of BORDER BOOKS AND Music unerror in his photo of Cavers Old Church. The avoidably held over till next month. Tombstone indicated is one “In memory of We take the present opportunity of cordially John Leyden and his parents.” It is not the thanking our numerous readers for their kind poet, however, but another Denholm family of and helpful letters now and again. In reply to Leydens. The poet's family-father, mother, many inquiries as to what they can do to assist sister, and two brothers, if not more-lie about us, we have only to say : send a Border Magazine twenty-five yards to the south. Their tomb) to all your friends, and get them so much instone, a flat slab, is not shown in the photo. terested in it that they will become regular

In reply to numerous correspondents stating subscribers, and thereby double the circulation. the difficulties they experience in getting The Better advice than that we do not know how to Border Magasine in London and the North of give.

Caerlanrig, A Hovel.
BY SIR GEORGE DOUGLAS, BART.,
Author of "The New Border Tales," " The Fireside Tragedy"

CHAP. VI. .

or the more intellectual gifts of the evangelist.

A conscience of his defects in this respect led HAVE now told enough to account to him to set an undue value upon my poor you for my isolation in the world, and it scholastic attainments; and this, together with

is no part of my purpose to weary you his desire to improve himself, constituted a by narrating the rest of my story in detail. fresh bond between us, until in time we became A very brief sketch may suffice to gratify your almost inseparable. Of course as an older man, curiosity. Let me premise then that my prog. for whom my admiration was boundless, he nostications proved correct, and that my life inoculated me with his religious ideas. And I from the day I went to sea was as distinct from remember that on one occasion-being windwhat had gone before as though by that act I bound in a passage to Bristol-we two went had been born into a new world. The vessel ashore together, near the Land's End, and made in which I had sailed was a brig engaged in a pilgrimage on foot to the little isthmus where the coasting trade. Life on board of her was Charles Wesley is said to have composed his of the roughest, and work as heavy as anyone hymn, “Here on this narrow neck of land,” could wish, especially when cargo was being which likens that little sea-encompassed spot of unloaded-at which times we would often toil earth to the fleeting life of man, set midway unremittingly from daybreak until far into the between two eternities. When we reached the night. For the first few days the enforced place, Tom reverently uncovered his head, and change in my habits was almost more than I standing in the sunlight high above the breaking could stand. But the adaptability of youth is waves, raised his voice and sweetly and solemnly boundless. My love of the sea, the charm of sang the verses. Perhaps the place brought novelty in my surroundings, and, above all, my their meaning home to me, perhaps the virtue resolution to be a charge no longer on the lay less in the thing preached than in the bounty of that unknown guardian whose treat preacher. At all events I know that words ment I so bitterly resented-all these things which I had heard a hundred times from the combined to support me, and, in brief, where lips of Miss Erne, with no emotion save one ninety-nine others, less tough in physic or less of weariness, now touched and swayed me, dogged in temperament, might have given in almost to weeping, with their simple expression I stuck stoutly to my point. To do this, as I of a sublime truth. have always found, is of itself enough to make But I'm digressing. To resume,-- after several circumstances more tolerable. And so, by voyages in the brig-where latterly, all things degrees, I began to find myself more at ease, considered, I was fairly contented---my friend However, I think it is very doubtful whether and I resolved to try and better our lot; and this desirable result would have been attained so, in Great Grimsby, we took a friendly leave but for the protection yood naturedly extended of our captain-a man in whose composition good to me by the mate of the vessel. Thomas and evil were strangely mixed, but on the whole, Tregarthen, for that was his name, was a young I believe, with a preponderance of the former. Cornishman of the most intrepid courage, which We then entered into an engagement with the already at this period of his career he had amply master of a fishing-smack sailing from that port, proved by repeatedly plucking lives from the for the winter fishing -of the profits of which deep at the imminent risk of his own : and we were to receive a share, which gave us as we being, besides, a fervent Methodist and a staunch thought a chance of making something for ourabstainer, he had by sheer force of character selves. And after a few days spent on shore, and skill and conduct in his profession con- we set sail, shaping our course for the neighbourquered for his opinions the respect, though not hood of the Dogger Bank, where we proposed the sympathy, of his messmates. From the first to remain until our complement of salted fish he took me under his charge, and to his friend should be made up. But this expedition, as it ship both then and since I owe more than I turned out, was to prove the most disastrous of can now tell you. In the intervals which he all my many ventures by land or sea. We left spent on shore, Tregarthen would often officiate Grimsby in the month of December of the as a “local preacher,” a task for which he was severe winter of 18, when (though perhaps qualified rather by fervour of faith and an you don't feel the cold so much at sea as on enthusiastic temperament than by education land), the bitterness of the weather would of itself have sufficed to make life on board the had been puzzled to hear the sound of hammer. smack disagreeable. However this was by far ing proceed. The question, “ Vhat can he be the least of the ills we were called on to up to now?” had been asked, and received the endure.

answer, “No good, I'll warrant !" yet no one I suppose we might have been at sea a week had liked to disturb him, for his moods were when the captain-who so long as he remained exceedingly variable, and I had observed that on shore was the most plausible of men-re- quiet fits usually preceded his worst outbursts. vealed himself in his true colours. He was a I was somewhat surprised, therefore, when about hard drinker, and one whom brandy had the noon he came on deck, looking more composed power of transforming into a very fiend of than he had done of late, and in his manner violence and cruelty. Nor were his crew much apparently inclined to be jocular. Up the combetter than himself. Two of the hands were panion ladder followed him his tool, the second men of debased character, who tippled when mate, who bore in his arms a cooper's cask. ever they got the chance; a third, the second The captain-who, as I have said, spoke as mate, though intelligent enough to have known well as any man when he chose -wished us a better, was a mere creature of the captain's merry Christmas all round, and had a glass of pleasure, and would at any time sacrifice con- grog served out to every man in honour of the science in order to continue in his favour; day. Then, whilst we were drinking it, he made whilst the fourth, whose name was Ambrose, some remarks upon the season, and upon the though of amiable and inoffensive disposition, sports and festivities appropriate to it; and was as a seaman practically useless. His in then, remarking that we all looked cold, procapacity soon excited the spleen of the captain, posed that, to warm ourselves, we should place who from oaths and insulting jeers passed rapidly Ambrose in the cask, and roll him up and down to cuffs and blows, which, as he became steeped the deck. Tregarthen was not present at the in liquor, grew daily more frequent and more time ; and we, being all of us mean enough to violent. To all this, poor Ambrose submitted wish to humour our tyrant at the expense of without a murmur of resentment. His was, what seemed a harmless frolic, pursued the poor indeed, the martyr's temper; but his very meek- pariah round the deck, and having captured ness, which would have made any other man him, forced him into the cask, and began to do despise to ill-use him, only seemed to infuriate as the Captain had suggested. But the fearful the captain still more. His life became more cries which greeted our ears from the interior and more of a burden to him, and at last not soon made us desist in a panic; whereupon a day elapsed without seeing some brutal scene the captain, finding that we were not to be of cruelty enacted aboard the smack. And persuaded to go on, took the cask himself, and against all this it was useless to protest, for the kicked it before him till he was tired. The captain was a man of superhuman strength and cries still continued, and this was so unlike the stature; whilst, excepting ourselves, the crew, conduct of the usually patient Ambrose that when they did not actually abet him, beheld of course we guessed that something must be his misdeeds with indifference. At this time very wrong. But the horrible truth surpassed Tregarthen--to whose known friendship I pro the utmost flight of our imagination. For when bably owed the comparative immunity from ill- at last the cask rested, and the wretched sailor treatment which I enjoyed-was partially con- crawled feebly from within, to our horror he fined to his bunk, and suffering great pain from appeared a mass of wounds; and then we saw a frost-bitten toe. He exerted his influence to what hitherto had escaped us, namely, that nails the utmost ; but he had a different class of men had been driven through the cask, so that their to deal with now, and it was to little purpose. points protruded within, and that thus with So my days were passed, with a heavy heart, in every motion fresh lacerations had been inflicted hauling upon frozen ropes, beneath a leaden on the flesh of the unhappy occupant. The sky and in the teeth of a biting wind. Whilst sight of the result was more than the most day by day the captain's conduct became more hardened or servile human nature could endure outrageous, and his example gaining upon the without protest ; and, as it met their eyes, a crew, the vessel soon bid fair to become a deep groan burst from the lips of the crew. perfect hell afloat. It was impossible for things But the diabolical tyrant to whom we owed to continue long as they were, and at last the obedience merely gave vent to a short ugly crisis came.

laugh, and turning on his heel descended to This happened upon Christmas Day. Through the cabin to resume his potations. out the forenoon the Captain had remained Throughout that afternoon poor Ambrose secluded in his cabin, whence at intervals we lingered in great agony. Night set in, it was

my watch on deck, and I had been dozing, when on looking up I was surprised to see his pale face and streaming hair flit by me. I spoke, but he did not answer ; neither were my suspicions aroused. But the next day he was not found in his place. We searched for him in vain, and at last we were forced to the conclusion that the miserable man had put an end to his sufferings by jumping overboard.

To be continuu.

The Abbeys of the Border.

BY JAMES THOMSOX.

NO. 11:- KELSO. THE name Kelso is said to be derived from J Chalkheugh, the name of a remarkable

cliff overhanging the Tweed, on the summit of which part of the town is built, signifying the chalk or white bill. The first mention of it is in the charter of the foundation by King David of the monastery of Kelso, where we find that there was a church of the blessed Virgin Mary on the bank of the river Tweed, in the place which is called Calkou. The monks were of a reformed class of the Benedictine order called Tironenses, from their first establishment at Tiron in France. The brethren, were required to practise within the convent whatever mechanical art they knew, and accordingly we find among the monks of this order painters, carvers, carpenters, smiths, masons, vinedressers and husbandmen, the profits of their work being applied to the common use.

Their dress was at first of greu cloth, but afterwards they wore a black habit. These monks were originally placed by David at Sel kirk, but were removed by him to Kelso, on its foundation, and their abbots were ordained to be his chaplains, and likewise of his successors.

A priory, which became a dependency of Kelso, was founded in 1144 at Lesmahagow in Clydesdale, and had the right of sanctuary or refuge attached to it to all fleeing from their enemies or avengers whenever they came inside the four crosses erected within its limits. The monasteries of Aberbrothoc, Lindores, and Kilwinning were likewise at first dependencies of Kelso.

Prior Walter of Kelso took a leading part in opposing the claims made by Roger, Archbishop of York, to the primacy of the Scottish Church. This haughty prelate demanded that the Scottish clergy should meet him at Norham in his capacity as Papal legate, having by intrigue obtained appointment as legate for Scotland in order to further his usurping designs. Prior Walter was sent, along with others, to deny the

legitimacy of his appointment, as they had been used to the appointment of legate from among themselves. They did not prevail against the Archbishop, but the matter having been referred to the Pope, the independence of the Scottish Church from all other sees, except that of Rome, was decided. At the same period the Abbot John obtained the great distinction, for himself and his successors, of wearing a mitre upon fit occasions, during mass, in processions in the cloisters, and when assisting at the Pope's councils. This same Abbot John, because of the position of wealth and splendour that his monastery had obtained by benefactions and careful management of the monks, claimed precedence of the superiors of all other religious houses in Scotland, but the point was ultimately decided in favour of the prior of St. Andrews.

About 1203 Innocení III. wrote two pontificial epistles on behalf of the monastery, the one directing that the emoluments of the benefice should be directed towards the maintenance of the brethren, hospitality to the stranger, and charity to the poor, instead of being conferred on individuals after the example of some abbots. The other letter was addressed to the bishops and other high ecclesiastics in Scotland, prohibiting them from injuring the monastery. Hence it is probable the privileges of the monks had been invaded.

Henry de Lambeden, chamberlain of the monastery, returned to Kelso from Rome in 1260 with an order for the Abbot Patrick to resign his charge immediately into the hands of the bearer. The abbot at once obeyed, though the order was undoubtedly obtained by corruption, and Henry at once assumed the nitre and robes of his office. Some years afterwards, when he died suddenly at table in a fit of apoplexy, the monks said it was an interposition of heaven to punish him for his wicked ambition, and refused to pay him the honour of watching his corpse, burying him on the same night on which he died.

It is thus seen that all the formalities of indictment before a general assembly were not gone through in these days in order to depose a clergy man. Another instance of this summary procedure happened on the night after the Battle of Flodden in 1513, when Ker of Fernihurst broke into the Abbey of Kelso, and having turned the superior out of doors, took forcible possession on behalf of his brother Thomas, who was instituted abbot.

Kelso suffered like the other sacred houses during the English wars of this period. The abbot, fearing impending ruin on the invasion of the Borders by the Earl of Surrey in 1523,

wrote seeking the intercession of Margaret, the After the Reformation the ruins of the Abbey queen dowager, sister of Henry VIII., with the seem to have been still used for religious commander on his behalf. But his efforts were services. A low vault was built over the transept, unavailing, for the town and conventual build the ruins being still further defaced to supply ings were destroyed by Lord Dacre, and all material. In this gloomy den the parish conreligious services were interrupted. The monks, gregation met and continued to use it till 1771, during this stormy time, retired to one of the when one Sunday a portion of cement from the neighbouring villages, and performed their roof fell in, causing a panic in the crowded religious duties in the direst poverty. The assembly. They rushed in terror from the history of the next succeeding years is a constant building, believing that the whole roof had given record of pillage and plunder, in which Kelso way. From that time the old church remained had its share of suffering.

deserted ; the people would not be persuaded

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Notwithstanding all this devastation, some to assemble there again, for an ancient prophecy portion of the buildings seems to have been in of Thomas the Rhymer foretold that "the kirk use for religious purposes, for in the tumults should fall when at the fullest.” which took place in 1560, when reforming zeal N oble even in their ruins, what must have seized the people, we find that the church formed been these grand old fabrics in their entirety, an object of their attention after the monks when a dim religious light stole through the were expelled. They defaced all the images, shadowy aisles now exposed to the noonday's destroyed all the reliques on the high altar, and glare? It is matter of eternal regret that the not content with that, destroyed whatever hand of foeman and zealot so defaced what remained of the fittings, and completed the ruin might have been to this day, glorious temples which had been so well advanced by the of our religion. English foe.

To be continued.

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