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jungles.” In the beginning of 1809 he was difficult to obtain positive proof of his linguistic appointed one of the commissioners of the ability, and there is more certain evidence of Court of Requests in Calcutta, which office gave the extraordinary knowledge of tongues possessed him harder work than any post he had previously by Cardinal Mezzofanti, which comprised an occupied, and called forth all his knowledge of acquaintance with one hundred and fourteen the languages of Northern India. This was languages, and a perfect knowledge of seventyperhaps the happiest period of Leyden's life. eight! But it must be remembered that the At the Asiatic Society he became the intimate Cardinal died when seventy-four years old, and friend of Sir Henry Colebrook, its president that Leyden was cut off at the early age of thirtyand he kept up a regular correspondence with six. Alas, poor Leyden! Had he been spared Malcolm, Mackintosh and Erskine. Here he he would doubtless have become the supreme worked hard at Persian, Arabic, and Sanscrit, authority on the Malay languages, but he died and completed two grammars of the Malay and at the moment when his life's work seemed Prakrit languages. Leyden's last appointment about to bring him fame, which would have in Calcutta was that of Assay Master in the placed him on one of the highest pedestals Mint, which he held for about two years. In among Scottish worthies. Leyden published 1811 Leyden received the appointment of inter- little, only a few papers, embedded amongst preter and naturalist to Lord Minto's expedition the obscure volumes of "Asiatic Researches " against the Straits. He left Calcutta and joined “ The Malay Annals," and a part translation of the naval force at Madras, and thence to Penang the “Memoirs of Baber, Emperor of Hindostan," and Malacca. Here he had the happiness of conducted with, and completed by his friend, again meeting his friend Sir Thomas Raffles. William Erskine. These, with the two Malay On the 4th August the feet anchored in the grammars, are all that is left of his work. Leyden bay of Batavia, and preparations were made for was more linguist than philologist. Hence the landing at Chilingyi, ten miles to the east of the footprints he has left upon the sands of time, town of Batavia. Leyden, eager and excited, are the ballads and poems of his early days, was the first man to touch the ground, leaping before he started upon his Indian career in the into the surf. After Batavia was taken, Leyden pursuit of the Oriental treasures, which to him lost no time in searching for books and MSS. alone appeared worthy of his life's enthusiastic which could throw light on the literature of the study. Javanese. There was a library in the town
CARFAX. reported to be rich in MSS., and Leyden set
We are indebted to Mr. James Crighton of Edinout for it, but on his way visited a low room in burgh for his kindness in placing at our disposal one of the Dutch public offices, in which several the photos accompanying this paper.-ED., B.N. rare Javanese curiosities were said to be kept. This room had long been shut, and the air in it was absolutely pestilential. In this place
Gretna Green and its Marriages. Leyden caught an attack of ague and fever which prostrated him at once, and in three days carried HE old-world village of Gretna Green him off. He died on the 28th August, 1811, O stands on the boundary of the two kingin the thirty-sixth year of his age. His devoted - doms, and within easy touch of “ Merry friends, Lord Minto and Sir Thomas Raffles, Carlisle.” The village proper consists of a street carried him to the grave, and laid him in his or so of white-washed houses, beyond which last resting place on that “distant and deadly stretches Solway Moss, the scene of many a shore.”
Border foray. How many languages did Dr. Leyden know? About a mile west, on the edge of the Firth, This subject was discussed at length in an able where the tide almost laps the door steps, is the and interesting article on Dr. Leyden which quaint village of Browhouses, whereare to befound appeared in the Calcutta Review in 1858. The descendants of the hardy fishermen mentioned writer of that article, in comparing the linguistic in Redgauntlet, and who vied with the inhabitants attainments of Leyden and Sir William Jones, of Springfield and Gretna in the lawless occupais inclined to give the palm to the latter, who tion of smuggling, by which the Borderers mainknew profoundly twenty-eight languages. It is tained themselves for a century after the union conceded, however, that Leyden was acquainted put an end to the international feuds and foray. with thirty four languages and dialects, out of Gretna Green, once a burgh of barony, with which it may be said that he knew profoundly market cross and cattle markets, was originally twenty-one. With some of the tongues mastered chosen as a place of safety for flying debtors by Leyden, their obscurity rendered it extremely and runaway couples from England solely on
account of its favourable location. The famous till 1885 the latter displayed a sign with the coach roads of Old England joined at Carlisle. words—“The House for the Border Marriages." Gretna was the first relay station north of the It seems to be an almost universal notion city, and was reached by a broad highway which that the officiating priest at Gretna was a blackcrossed the Esk and Sark, between which lay smith, and that the privilege of marrying couples the historic “Debatable Land.” Once over the was hereditary in his samily. This impression middle of the Sark, debtors, or lovers, were safe is altogether wrong, for, as matter of fact, there from all pursuers, having come under the were more than one priest, and sometimes he welcoming shelter of Scottish law.
was found as a toll-keeper, ferryman, landlord, Though Gretna had been a favourite haven and shop-keeper. Paisley, already mentioned, for absconding debtors from early in the 17th sold tea, tobacco and snuff, and smuggled century, it would seem that the court of Hymenia whisky, and became known as “the blacksmith,” did not originate till 1738, though irregular probably from the speed with which he riveted marriages were known in Border parishes long the bonds of runaway couples. before this date. One Scott and his wife opened After the exploiting of the Edgar and Scott a place at the Rigg, in the neighbourhood of marriage he became the self-constituted “ Bishop Gretna, and celebrated marriages between run- of Gretna." He secured the Maxwell residence, away couples about the year 1753. Scott was which was found inadequate for the accommosucceeded by an old soldier, named Gordon, dation of Sir William, and converted it into a who when officiating wore a huge cocked hat, huge inn. Here for many years the majority, and a girdle about his waist with a ponderous and the most aristocratic, of the marriages took sword.
place. The first irregular marriage, however, of which From his first marriage to the time of his there is any authentic record, did not occur till death, in 1814, it is computed that the traffic about 1771, and is said to have originated in brought annually to Gretna and Springfield the difficulties placed in the way of ardent lovers £20,000 in fees and expenses of those who getting married right away by English law.
pursued runaway couples. The fees are said to This marriage was between John Edgar and have ranged from five to five hundred guineas. Jean Scott, from the adjoining county of Cun Another priest who married Paisley's daughter, berland. Tradition has it that this couple, in- and acted as parson for twenty-five years, is said stead of coming by the coach-and-four, came to have united more than three thousand couples by boat across the Solway. They were over- of all ranks and grades, the greatest number taken and upset by the fierce incoming tide, being one hundred and ninety in 1825; the whose violence drowned one of their pursuers, average between 1829 and 1835 being over one and caused the others to give up the chase. hundred and sixty per year. Whilst tradition They reached Browhouses bedraggled in brine says that one lord paid as much as eighty and sand, and finally made their way to Gretna, guineas, the average fee has been estimated at where they were married by Joseph Paisley, who fifteen guineas, such high fees naturally attracted became the most notorious man of his time in competition in the trade. Scotland, and the best execrated individual The hereditary line of “Bishops of Gretna,” known to the annals of English social anathema. established before Joseph Paisley's death, fell
The Edgar and Scott marriage was so interest. on David Laing, an Ulster Irish pedlar. He ing, and so widely heralded, that Gretna Green was married to a grand-daughter of Paisley's, soon became the Mecca for hunted lovers. and possessed so hard a character and fists that Peers and judges began their married life here, none dared to dispute the legitimacy of the and in after years many a broad acre and envied succession with him. He died in 1827, and title depended simply on the proof of Gretna his son, Sim Laing, became third “Bishop.” weddings.
He carried on and fattened on the traffic till There were other places on the Border where 1856, when somewhat of a check was given to “Marriages o'er the March," were celebrated, the marriages by the passing of the Act which but Gretna has always been the most notorious, required one of the contracting parties to have and for more than a century occupied a world resided twenty one days in Scotland. In conwide fame. As Newcastle became famous for sequence of this check, one priest is said to coals, and Sheffield for cutlery, Gretna became have petitioned the House of Commons for an famous for runaway marriages. The only rivals allowance of £500 per annum, as compensation of any importance were Coldstream and Lan- for having ruined his trade. berton, Lord Chancellors Eldon and Brougham Up till very recently (he may be still), the having been married at the former, and down fourth “ Bishop of Gretna" was alive, in the person of William Laing, a postman. The away pair were overtaken by the enraged father following is a copy of a certificate which he on the road between Carlisle and Gretna, but granted to a couple after performing the marriage Lord Burghersh shot down one of his horses, ceremony in 1890. “Kingdom of Scotland, and the marriage was celebrated before he could County of Dumfries, Parish of Gretna. These overtake them again. are to certify, to all whom it may concern ; that Curiously enough, a grand-daughter of the -- from the city and county of
heroine of the above adventure was married at and
from the parish of - in the Gretna in 1845. This was Lady Adela Villiers, county of — , being now both here present, whose elopement with Captain Ibbeston caused and having declared to me that they are both such a sensation in the fashionable worid. single persons, have now been married after the Here Lord Erskine, Lord High Commissioner manner of the laws of Scotland. As witness our in 1818, wedded late in life, his second spouse, hand at Gretna this " then follow date, names Sarah Buck; and here, too, in 1826 were of witnesses and officiating priest.
married Edward Gibbon Worsefield, and Ellen Although different priests had different Turner-a marriage that next year brought the methods, as a rule, the marriage ceremony con- bridegroom and his brother three years' im. sisted of a declaration by the contracting parties prisonment for abducting the rich heiress, after before witnesses. It is said that a revised and a celebrated trial at Lancaster. The priest of abbreviated form of the Church of England Gretna Hall died from a cold caught at this trial. service, with canonical dress, was sometime Many more notable marriages took place at used.
one or other of the “ marrying shops." Lord When Gretna Green marriages were at their Cochrane, the celebrated naval officer, was height the priests were numerous, and their married by Laing to Katherine Barnes; Viscount number brought down the fees even as low as Deerhurst, who is said to have paid a hundred half-a-crown. One of the functionaries who pounds to the priest, was wedded to Lady Mary broke stones on the verge of England had the Beauclerk. One of the last noteworthy wedbest of the trade for a time. He accosted dings was that of the Marquis of Hastings with every party as they passed, and strove to bar- Lady Florence Paget, daughter of the Marquis gain with them. At one time there is said to have of Anglesey, who were married by Murray at the been twelve tippling houses, with as many rival toll-bar. priests, some of whom merely gave marriage As may be easily imagined, the “Bishops of lines, whilst others jabbered a sort of service. Gretna” witnessed some tragic scenes, and could Sometimes the ceremony, however rude, was tell some curious stories. Here is one related scarcely concluded when the pursuing family of Joe Paisley, one of the earliest and most coach galloped upon the scene. Explanations famous of the priests. On one occasion his were asked, angry words, even blows, passed, services were required by two couples who were the marriage was acknowledged, the certificate in a desperate hurry, and after the ceremony it was produced, and the father had to return to his discovered that by some mistake the bridegrooms desolate spouse with the sad news that he was had got mixed-in fact that the wrong couples too late.
had been united. “ A-weel," said Paisley, A very large number of marriages took place "jest sort yersels." at the Carlisle Fairs, especially at Whitsunday Here is another related by Elliot, a prominent and Martinmas, when Cumberland swains, ex- parson. A middle-aged gentleman came from cited with drink, would take a hurried trip across Yorkshire, and was married to a lady much the Border, and get married at the toll-bar, the younger than himself. The bridegroom turned first house in Scotland. John Murray, who was out to be a widower, and was in a great hurry to parson here for many years,' was a stone-mason, leave the scene of the nuptials. An hour or so and is said to have married more couples than after they had gone, another pair arrived, and it all the other priests put together, and to have came out that the lady was the only daughter of left a large fortune. In the course of fourteen the bridegroom who had just left. On reaching years he is credited with having united eight Carlisle the father found a note informing of his thousand couples. His marriage registers still child's escapade. Ordering fresh horses he exist, and these show that his last years' trans- hastened back to Gretna, but was too late. actions were something like eight hundred. The father was in a terrible rage, and insisted
Among the notable persons married at Gretna on his daughter returning home with him. She, may be mentioned that of Lord Burghersh, after- however, elected to stay with her farmer husband. wards Earlof Westmorland, with the only daughter Elliot, in the course of the quarrel, learned that of a wealthy London banker in 1782. The run- the old man had married his deceased wife's
sister. Taking the side of the young couple, he declared that if he had known he would not have performed the ceremony. “Give me back the marriage lines, I'll hand you back your money, and wash my hands clean of the whole business," said Elliot. But the angry father refused, and left Gretna “growling like a bear with a sore head."
It may surprise many of our readers to know that even now marriages are performed at the notorious little village of Gretna Green. As recently as the month of June a couple were wed from a Border town—the bride being a descendent ofthe most famousauthor of the century. But the scenes and excitement of olden times are past and gone, and the place is now only remembered on their account. No longer is a carriage and four seen dashing up to the toll or the Ha', as in the days when the furnace for forging the matrimonial chains was in full blast, closely followed by distressed or angry parents. The marriages of to-day are prosy enough. At times there may be a dash of romance about them, but there is nothing to furnish the novelist with a fitting conclusion to an exciting chapter, wherein the fugitives are pursued at an untold rate of speed and expense, and where the priest, who having heard the rattle of wheels, the clatter of hoofs, and the blowing of horns, stands ready to perform the marriage ceremony with the utmost dispatch.
Ho, Nance, my lass, the time'll soon pass
When I'm ready to take ye hame To Chesters Ha', the brawest o'a'
That's ca'd by the Rhymer's name.
But the pyets hae gane, an' the horses hae come,
The grey and the white, alack ! Oh, wae's the day for ever an'aye,
Gin he jump upon their back.
There was awesome fear, baith far and near,
When the horses gaed through the gate, Lest Captain John should jump upon
Their back and meet his fate.
That ever they Chesters saw,
Wi' his face as white's the snaw.
Oh, wae's the day, for ever an'aye,
That heard the eerie cries When Captain John stepped on the stoneA fearsome noise, a low, low moan,
As he fell never mair to rise.
Border Books. A MIST FROM YARROW: A STORY OF THE Hills. By A. J. B. Paterson. (Edinburgh : Oliphant, Anderson, & Ferrier). This simple and beautiful story takes us at once away to Yarrow. The charm of that romantic region comes over us whenever we open the little volume with its mention of the sights and sounds of nature—the croak of the raven, the birr of the night-hawk, the bleat of the moorland sheep, the far away bark of the shepherd's dog across the water, and the croon of the cushiedoo among the wind-stirred firs and larches. These, however, are but the setting of the storya story of the sunshine of affection, of rivalry and jealousy, of a gruesome deed, a criminal trial, an unlooked for revelation, of the final lifting of the mist that brings peace and happiness to the young lovers who, after all their trials, now “stood in the silver light of the morning, clad in the freshness of renewed life." We congratulate the author on the pleasure that the perusal of this story must have given to its readers, and we venture to express the hope that the cordiality of its reception, by press and public, may induce Mr. Paterson to try his hand, ere long, at another Border Story:
HANDY CYCLISTS' GUIDE. By James Robson. (Hawick : Vair & M‘Nairn). The extraordinary development of cycling within the last year or two has led to the growth of a literature of its own, in the form of maps and guides specially designed and written for "travellers by the wheel." We have before us one of these guides containing, as stated on the title-page, “descriptive notes of the various cycling routes within a thirty miles' radius of Hawick.” The author is Mr. James Robson, known to the readers of The Border Magazine as the historian of the Border Battles and Battlefields. Though the guide-book is of very tiny dimensions, it is yet full of everything that the cyclist wants to know-distances, hotels, places of interest along the various routes sketched out, etc. It is illustrated, too, by wood-cuts. Mr. Robson's handy guide should be put into the vest-pocket of every cyclist ere he mounts his “steed" for a spin across the Border Country.
degree, to the volume now under notice. The sister or twin parishes of Innerleithen and Traquair may consider themselves fortunate in having so genial and worthy a chronicler as Mr. Dobson. After describing their natural features, and touching upon their classical, historical, and ecclesiastical associations, Mr. Dobson proceeds to relate his personal recollections, and here he is in his element. Village worthies and parish characters come before us on every page. The anecdotes we had marked for quotation must all be sacrificed to the exigencies of space, and left out in the cold. For that very reason, however, we have the greater pleasure in directing our readers to the book itself. They will find it full of stories and reminiscences of old Scottish life and character, the types of which are all passing rapidly away. As a specimen of local printing, with its portrait of the author, and the reproduction of Mr. Colledge's photo of the “Auld Brig," the volume is one which reflects much credit on the publishers, Messrs. R. Smail & Sons.
Border Hotes and Queries.
THE LIFE AND TRAVELS OF MUNGO PARK IN AFRICA. (Edinburgh: W. & R. Chambers, Ltd.). It was a happy thought which induced the publishers to issue this new edition of Mungo Park at a time when African affairs are engaging so large a share of public attention. The famous Borderer's experiences of travel and exploration in Africa are read to-day with as much interest as they were when first published. This new edition is brought up to date by a well-written Introduction giving a biographical account of Park, his descendants, and the explorations that have been undertaken since the traveller's untimely death. The last chapter of the book contains a summary of the present position and trade of the Niger territories. The volume is enriched by a number of illustrations, and is, we think, admirably suitable for school prizes and birthday presents to boys.
THE STORY OF SIR WALTER Scott's FIRST LOVE. By Adam Scott. (Edinburgh : Macniven & Wallace). There are at least two classes of readers to whom this attractive volume will be welcome. Those who are not very well up in their Scott, will find much pleasure in the narrative of Sir Walter's first affair of the heart : while those who imagine that they know all about Scott already, will be much delighted to have the story re-told by this new student of Waverley literature. Mr. Adam Scott has done his work carefully and conscientiously—“compilation” he modestly calls it-and though we may not be able to arrive at the same conclusions as he does, we yet cannot refrain from expressing the pleasure which the perusal of this volume has given us. We can cordially recommend it to our readers as a valuable contribution to the literature which has for its subject and centre the author of the Waverley novels.
NOTES. EDINBURGH BORDERERS' UNION.- The annual picnic was held at Old Saughton near Corstorphine on 4th July. There was an attendance of over 350, and the usual games, running, leaping, wrestling, etc. took place. The weather was not very genial, a strong wind blowing ; but the outing seemed to be enjoyed by all.
QUERIES. SAMUEL RUTHERFORD.-Can any reader give me the name of the book which mentions that this well-known divine, of Cromwell's time, was born at the Knowe in Nisbet, Roxburghshire ?
J.R.B. GUTTERBLUID.--Can any reader explain the real meaning and origin of this word, and state which town first applied it to designate old inhabitants or natives?
CLEIK. REPLIES. THE GIPSY REGALIA.-An esteemed correspondent writes with regard to Esther Faa Blyth, the Gipsy Queen: “We took tea with Her Majesty many years ago, on which occasion she wore the tin crown, and was arrayed in a figured red cloth dress presented to her by the late Marchioness of Waterford. The tin crown was trimmed up with white lace. If we can hear more about it, we shall let you know.
KELSO. TAE.—“Ettrick” in last month's Border Afagasine says, “in a number of songs written by Robert Tannahill, and published in 1876, edited by David Semple of Paisley, the author used tae instead of to." Now, there is an edition of Tannahill, edited by Philip A. Ramsay, and published in 1838, but not one instance of “tae” for “to” occurs in it. This proves, I think, that the author did not use this objectionable word, and that it is due very much to careless editing and careless printing.
REMINISCENCES OF INNERLEITHEN AND TRA QUAIR. By Thomas Dobson. (Innerleithen : R. Smail & Sons). When we arrive at the close of a book, and find that we have marked a score or so of passages for reference or quotation, it may safely be affirmed that the work is one of no common interest. This remark applies, in a very marked
Glasgow: Carter & Pratt, Printers.